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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(2): e020981, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023344

RESUMO

Background The ability of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiac magnetic resonance for risk stratification in suspected heart failure is limited. We aimed to evaluate the incremental prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance-assessed extracellular volume fraction (ECV) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with signs and symptoms suspecting heart failure and no clinical evidence of coronary artery disease. Methods and Results A total of 474 consecutive patients (57±21 years of age, 56% men) with heart failure-related symptoms and absence of coronary artery disease underwent cardiac magnetic resonance. After median follow-up of 18 months, 59 (12%) experienced the outcome of all-cause death or heart failure hospitalization (DeathCHF). In univariate analysis, cardiac magnetic resonance-assessed LVEF, LGE, GLS, and ECV were all significantly associated with DeathCHF. Adjusted for a multivariable baseline model including age, sex, LVEF and LGE, ECV, and GLS separately maintained a significant association with DeathCHF (ECV, hazard ratio [HR], 1.44 per 1 SD increase; 95% CI 1.13-1.84; P=0.003, and GLS, HR, 1.78 per 1 SD increase; 95% CI, 1.06-2.96; P=0.028 respectively). Adding both GLS and ECV to the baseline model significantly improved model discrimination (C statistic from 0.749 to 0.782, P=0.017) and risk reclassification (integrated discrimination improvement 0.046 [0.015-0.076], P=0.003; continuous net reclassification improvement 0.378 [0.065-0.752], P<0.001) for DeathCHF, beyond LVEF and LGE. Conclusions In patients with signs and symptoms suspecting heart failure and no clinical evidence of coronary artery disease, joint assessment of GLS and ECV provides incremental prognostic value for DeathCHF, independent of LVEF and LGE.

3.
Am Heart J ; 243: 54-65, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587511

RESUMO

The Food and Drug Administration recommends prognostic enrichment of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), aimed at restricting the study population to participants most likely to have events and therefore derive benefit from a given intervention. The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is powerful discriminator of cardiovascular risk, and in this review we discuss how CAC may be used to augment widely used prognostic enrichment paradigms of RCTs of add-on therapies in primary prevention. We describe recent studies in this space, with special attention to the ability of CAC to further stratify risk among guideline-recommended candidates for add-on risk-reduction therapies. Given the potential benefits in terms of sample size, cost reduction, and overall RCT feasibility of a CAC-based enrichment strategy, we discuss approaches that may help maximize its advantages while minimizing logistical barriers and other challenges. Specifically, use of already existing CAC data to avoid the need to re-scan participants with previously documented high CAC scores, use of increasingly available, large clinical CAC databases to facilitate the identification of potential RCT participants, and implementation of machine learning approaches to measure CAC in existing computed tomography images performed for other purposes, will most likely boost the implementation of a CAC-based enrichment paradigm in future RCTs.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(1): e022010, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970914

RESUMO

Background Myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 is associated with increased mortality during index hospitalization; however, the relationship to long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. This study assessed the relationship between myocardial injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T level) during index hospitalization for COVID-19 and longer-term outcomes. Methods and Results This is a prospective cohort of patients who were hospitalized at a single center between March and May 2020 with SARS-CoV-2. Cardiac biomarkers were systematically collected. Outcomes were adjudicated and stratified on the basis of myocardial injury. The study cohort includes 483 patients who had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T data during their index hospitalization. During index hospitalization, 91 (18.8%) died, 70 (14.4%) had thrombotic complications, and 126 (25.6%) had cardiovascular complications. By 12 months, 107 (22.2%) died. During index hospitalization, 301 (62.3%) had cardiac injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T≧14 ng/L); these patients had 28.6%, 32.2%, and 33.2% mortality during index hospitalization, at 6 months, and at 12 months, respectively, compared with 4.1%, 4.9%, and 4.9% mortality for those with low-level positive troponin and 0%, 0%, and 0% for those with undetectable troponin. Of 392 (81.2%) patients who survived the index hospitalization, 94 (24%) had at least 1 readmission within 12 months, of whom 61 (65%) had myocardial injury during the index hospitalization. Of 377 (96%) patients who were alive and had follow-up after the index hospitalization, 211 (56%) patients had a documented, detailed clinical assessment at 6 months. A total of 78 of 211 (37.0%) had ongoing COVID-19-related symptoms; 34 of 211 (16.1%) had neurocognitive decline, 8 of 211 (3.8%) had increased supplemental oxygen requirements, and 42 of 211 (19.9%) had worsening functional status. Conclusions Myocardial injury during index hospitalization for COVID-19 was associated with increased mortality and may predict who are more likely to have postacute sequelae of COVID-19. Among patients who survived their index hospitalization, the incremental mortality through 12 months was low, even among troponin-positive patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Traumatismos Cardíacos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina T/sangue
5.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 16(1): 54-122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955448

RESUMO

AIM: This clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain provides recommendations and algorithms for clinicians to assess and diagnose chest pain in adult patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from November 11, 2017, to May 1, 2020, encompassing randomized and nonrandomized trials, observational studies, registries, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reports, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant studies, published through April 2021, were also considered. STRUCTURE: Chest pain is a frequent cause for emergency department visits in the United States. The "2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR Guideline for the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Chest Pain" provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence on the assessment and evaluation of chest pain. This guideline presents an evidence-based approach to risk stratification and the diagnostic workup for the evaluation of chest pain. Cost-value considerations in diagnostic testing have been incorporated, and shared decision-making with patients is recommended.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Cardiologia , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estados Unidos
6.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 8: 100281, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877558

RESUMO

Importance: Shared decision-making (SDM), one of the pillars of patient centered care is strongly encouraged and has been incorporated into the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) but the expansion of its use has been limited. Objective: To determine the association of SDM on patient-reported health status, measures of quality of care, healthcare resource utilization, and healthcare spending among US adults with ASCVD. Method: This is a retrospective cohort study in an ambulatory setting, utilizing the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2006-2015. Analysis completed in December 2020. Participants included were adults 18 years and over with a diagnosis of ASCVD. We used the average weighted response to self-administered questionnaire evaluating shared-decision-making process as the exposure variable in the regression model. Outcome measures included inpatient hospitalizations, Emergency Department (ED) visits, statin and aspirin use, self-perception of health, and healthcare expenditure. Results: When compared with individuals reporting poor SDM, those with optimal SDM were more likely to report statin and aspirin use [statin use, Odds Ratio (OR) 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09-1.46)], [aspirin use, 1.25 (1.07-1.45)], more likely to have a positive perception of their health and healthcare related quality of life, and were less likely to visit the ED [OR for ≥ 2 ED visits: 0.81 (0.67-0.99)]. There was no difference between groups in annual total or out of pocket healthcare expenditure. Conclusion: This study suggests that effective SDM is associated with better utilization of healthcare resources and patient reported health outcomes. We hope these results could provide useful evidence for expanding the use of SDM in patient-centered care among individuals with ASCVD.

8.
Card Fail Rev ; 7: e17, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950507

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis is a complex, multisystem inflammatory disease with a heterogeneous clinical spectrum. Approximately 25% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis will have cardiac involvement that portends a poorer outcome. The diagnosis, particularly of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis, can be challenging. A paucity of randomised data exist on who, when and how to treat myocardial inflammation in cardiac sarcoidosis. Despite this, corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of therapy for the inflammatory phase, with an evolving role for steroid-sparing and biological agents. This review explores the immunopathogenesis of inflammation in sarcoidosis, current evidence-based treatment indications and commonly used immunosuppression agents. It explores a multidisciplinary treatment and monitoring approach to myocardial inflammation and outlines current gaps in our understanding of this condition, emerging research and future directions in this field.

11.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired MFR in the absence of flow-limiting CAD is associated with adverse events. Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with breast cancer. We sought to test the utility of MFR to predict outcomes in a cohort of patients with breast cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively studied consecutive patients with breast cancer or breast cancer survivors who underwent cardiac stress PET imaging from 2006 to 2017 at Brigham and Women's Hospital. Patients with a history of clinically overt CAD, LVEF < 45%, or abnormal myocardial perfusion were excluded. Subjects were followed from time of PET to the occurrence of a first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and all-cause death. RESULTS: The final cohort included 87 patients (median age 69.0 years, 98.9% female, mean MFR 2.05). Over a median follow-up of 7.6 years after PET, the lowest MFR tertile was associated with higher cumulative incidence of MACE (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio 4.91; 95% CI 1.68-14.38; p = 0.004) when compared with the highest MFR tertile. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with breast cancer, coronary vasomotor dysfunction was associated with incident cardiovascular events. MFR may have potential as a risk stratification biomarker among patients with/survivors of breast cancer.

12.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 17(4): 60-67, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824682

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease, particularly myocardial infarction, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals. Although myocardial infarctions have declined significantly in the general population, this decline has not been uniformly observed in younger cohorts. Young adults often have different risk factors, including a higher burden of tobacco use and substance abuse, and they are less likely to be treated with preventive therapies since they are often categorized as having low risk. This review examines the existing literature on myocardial infarction in young patients, with a focus on risk factors, therapeutic challenges, and opportunities for prevention.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101070, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and economic burden of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in young adults (<45 years) is understudied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the National Inpatient Sample database between 2004 and 2018 to study trends in PCI volume, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and health care expenditure among adults aged 18- 44 years who underwent PCI. The data were weighted to explore national estimates of the entire US hospitalized population. We identified 558,611 PCI cases, equivalent to 31.4 per 1,000,000 person-years; 25.4% were women, and 69.5% were White adults. Overall, annual PCI volume significantly decreased from 41.6 per 100,000 in 2004 to 21.9 per 100,000 in 2018, mainly due to 83% volume reduction in non-myocardial infarction (MI) cases. The prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities, smoking, and drug abuse increased. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 0.87%; women had higher mortality than men (1.12% vs. 0.78%; P=0.01). The crude and risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality significantly increased between 2004 and 2018. Women, STEMI, NSTEMI, drug abuse, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and renal failure were associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality. Inflation-adjusted cost significantly increased over time ($21,567 to $24,173). CONCLUSION: We noted reduction in PCI volumes but increasing mortality and clinical comorbidities among young patients undergoing PCI. Demographic disparities existed with women having higher in-hospital mortality than men.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(22): 2218-2261, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756652

RESUMO

AIM: This executive summary of the clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain provides recommendations and algorithms for clinicians to assess and diagnose chest pain in adult patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from November 11, 2017, to May 1, 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reports, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant studies, published through April 2021, were also considered. STRUCTURE: Chest pain is a frequent cause for emergency department visits in the United States. The "2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR Guideline for the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Chest Pain" provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence on the assessment and evaluation of chest pain. These guidelines present an evidence-based approach to risk stratification and the diagnostic workup for the evaluation of chest pain. Cost-value considerations in diagnostic testing have been incorporated and shared decision-making with patients is recommended.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(22): e187-e285, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756653

RESUMO

AIM: This clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain provides recommendations and algorithms for clinicians to assess and diagnose chest pain in adult patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from November 11, 2017, to May 1, 2020, encompassing randomized and nonrandomized trials, observational studies, registries, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reports, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant studies, published through April 2021, were also considered. STRUCTURE: Chest pain is a frequent cause for emergency department visits in the United States. The "2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR Guideline for the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Chest Pain" provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence on the assessment and evaluation of chest pain. This guideline presents an evidence-based approach to risk stratification and the diagnostic workup for the evaluation of chest pain. Cost-value considerations in diagnostic testing have been incorporated, and shared decision-making with patients is recommended.

16.
Am J Cardiol ; 161: 26-35, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794615

RESUMO

The long-term prognostic significance of a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of 0 is poorly defined in younger adults. We evaluated this among participants aged 45 to 55 years from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and assessed whether additional biomarkers can identify subgroups at increased absolute risk. We included 1,407 participants (61% women) without diabetes or severe hypercholesterolemia, with estimated 10-year risk <20% and CAC = 0. We evaluated all and hard cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, overall and among subjects with each of the following: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels ≥2 mg/L, homocysteine ≥10 µmol/L, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T ≥95th percentile, lipoprotein (a) >50 mg/dl, triglycerides ≥175 mg/dl, apolipoprotein B ≥130 mg/dl, albuminuria, thoracic aortic calcium, aortic valve calcium (AVC), mitral annular calcium, ankle-brachial index <0.9, any carotid plaque, and maximum internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (ICA-IMT) ≥1.5 mm. Median follow-up was 16 years, and overall CVD event rates were low (4% at 15 years). For most exposures evaluated, rates of all CVD events were <6 per 1,000 person-years, except for ICA-IMT ≥1.5 mm (6.43) and AVC (13.8). The number needed to screen to detect ICA-IMT ≥1.5 mm was 8, and 84 for AVC. Among participants with borderline/intermediate risk or premature family history, hard CVD event rates were <7 per 1,000 for most exposures, except for ICA-IMT ≥1.5 mm (8.25), albuminuria (8.30), and AVC (13.47). Nonsmokers and those with ICA-IMT <1.5 mm had very low rates. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a favorable long-term prognosis of CAC = 0 among adults aged ≤55 years, particularly among nonsmokers. ICA-IMT testing could be considered for further risk assessment in adults ≤55 years with CAC = 0 and uncertain management.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Circulation ; 144(22): e368-e454, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709879

RESUMO

AIM: This clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain provides recommendations and algorithms for clinicians to assess and diagnose chest pain in adult patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from November 11, 2017, to May 1, 2020, encompassing randomized and nonrandomized trials, observational studies, registries, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reports, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant studies, published through April 2021, were also considered. Structure: Chest pain is a frequent cause for emergency department visits in the United States. The "2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR Guideline for the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Chest Pain" provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence on the assessment and evaluation of chest pain. This guideline presents an evidence-based approach to risk stratification and the diagnostic workup for the evaluation of chest pain. Cost-value considerations in diagnostic testing have been incorporated, and shared decision-making with patients is recommended.

18.
Circulation ; 144(22): e368-e454, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709928

RESUMO

AIM: This executive summary of the clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and diagnosis of chest pain provides recommendations and algorithms for clinicians to assess and diagnose chest pain in adult patients. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from November 11, 2017, to May 1, 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reports, and other relevant databases. Additional relevant studies, published through April 2021, were also considered. Structure: Chest pain is a frequent cause for emergency department visits in the United States. The "2021 AHA/ACC/ASE/CHEST/SAEM/SCCT/SCMR Guideline for the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Chest Pain" provides recommendations based on contemporary evidence on the assessment and evaluation of chest pain. These guidelines present an evidence-based approach to risk stratification and the diagnostic workup for the evaluation of chest pain. Cost-value considerations in diagnostic testing have been incorporated and shared decision-making with patients is recommended.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) as an initial diagnostic tool to rule out obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in a very large registry of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain (CP) who were at low to intermediate risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). BACKGROUND: It is not yet well established whether CAC can be used to rule out obstructive CAD in the ED setting. METHODS: We included patients from the Baptist Health South Florida Chest Pain Registry presenting to the ED with CP at low to intermediate risk for ACS (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score ≤2, normal/nondiagnostic electrocardiography, and troponin levels) who underwent CAC and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) procedures for evaluation of ACS. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of CAC testing to diagnose obstructive CAD and identify the need for coronary revascularization during hospitalization, we estimated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV). RESULTS: Our study included 5,192 patients (mean age: 53.5 ± 10.8 years; 46% male; 62% Hispanic). Overall, 2,902 patients (56%) had CAC = 0, of which 135 (4.6%) had CAD (114 [3.9%] nonobstructive and 21 [0.7%] obstructive). Among those with CAC >0, 23% had obstructive CAD. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of CAC testing to diagnose obstructive CAD were 96.2%, 62.4%, 22.4%, and 99.3%, respectively. The NPV for identifying those who needed revascularization was 99.6%. Among patients with CAC = 0, 11 patients (0.4%) underwent revascularization, and the number needed to test with CCTA to detect 1 patient who required revascularization was 264. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population presenting to ED with CP at low to intermediate risk, CAC = 0 was common. CAC = 0 ruled out obstructive CAD and revascularization in more than 99% of the patients, and <5% with CAC = 0 had any CAD. Integrating CAC testing very early in CP evaluation may be effective in appropriate triage of patients by identifying individuals who can safely defer additional testing and more invasive procedures.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of simultaneous hybrid cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for detection and differentiation of active (aCS) from chronic (cCS) cardiac sarcoidosis. BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR and FDG-PET are both established imaging techniques for the detection of CS. However, there are limited data regarding the value of a comprehensive simultaneous hybrid CMR/FDG-PET imaging approach that includes CMR mapping techniques. METHODS: Forty-three patients with biopsy-proven extracardiac sarcoidosis (median age: 48 years, interquartile range: 37-57 years, 65% male) were prospectively enrolled for evaluation of suspected CS. After dietary preparation for suppression of myocardial glucose metabolism, patients were evaluated on a 3-T hybrid PET/MR scanner. The CMR protocol included T1 and T2 mapping, myocardial function, and LGE imaging. We assumed aCS if PET and CMR (ie, LGE or T1/T2 mapping) were both positive (PET+/CMR+), cCS if PET was negative but CMR was positive (PET-/CMR+), and no CS if patients were CMR negative regardless of PET findings. RESULTS: Among the 43 patients, myocardial glucose uptake was suppressed successfully in 36 (84%). Hybrid CMR/FDG-PET revealed aCS in 13 patients (36%), cCS in 5 (14%), and no CS in 18 (50%). LGE was present in 14 patients (39%); T1 mapping was abnormal in 10 (27%) and T2 mapping abnormal in 2 (6%). CS was diagnosed based on abnormal T1 mapping in 4 out of 18 CS patients (22%) who were LGE negative. PET FDG uptake was present in 17 (47%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive simultaneous hybrid CMR/FDG-PET imaging is useful for the detection of CS and provides additional value for identifying active disease. Our results may have implications for enhanced diagnosis as well as improved identification of patients with aCS in whom anti-inflammatory therapy may be most beneficial.

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