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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260090, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374700

RESUMO

Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.


Ophiactis savignyi pode ser descoberta em todo o mundo em ambientes marinhos tropicais. A população pode ter contribuído para a propagação de O. savignyi, particularmente as populações ocidentais e orientais do istmo do Panamá. A estrela-quebradiça O. savignyi, muitas vezes conhecida como estrela-quebradiça de Savignyi, coexiste com a esponja Geodia corticostylifera. O foco desta pesquisa foi avaliar a relevância funcional dos metabólitos secundários de G. corticostylifera como anti-incrustante contra mexilhões, proteção contra peixes generalistas e sinais químicos para estrelas-quebradiças afiliadas. Em estudos de laboratório com fluxo contínuo e estático de água do mar, O. savignyi, que anteriormente havia se ligado a esponjas, recebeu mimetizadores tratados e controle ao mesmo tempo. O extrato de esponja também foi testado por sua capacidade de proteger os peixes contra predadores e incrustações. Testes de dissuasão usando produtos químicos indicaram que o nível normal de extrato de esponja também pode suprimir a predação de peixes generalistas no campo, bem como a fixação normal do mexilhão Perna perna em ambientes clínicos. De acordo com os achados, o extrato bruto de G. corticostylifera tem diversas funções em ambientes aquáticos, aparentemente responsáveis ​​pela relação mais próxima dessa esponja com O. savignyi, protegendo o ofiuroide e inibindo os epibiontes.


Assuntos
Animais , Poríferos/parasitologia , Simbiose , Bactérias , Geodia/parasitologia
2.
Vopr Pitan ; 91(5): 116-123, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36394935

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are substances that play an important role in human metabolism. They are essential nutritional factors and can improve the functioning of individual systems and the body as a whole. The main source of ω-3 PUFA has long been fish fat, which contains PUFA in the triglyceride form. A fairly new and promising alternative to fish fat is the liver fat of the Commander squid (Berryteuthis magister), which additionally contains alkylglycerols, contains PUFA in the phospholipid form and can be obtained from squid fishery waste. The objective of the research was to carry out an analysis of scientific data, including the results of studies of the biological activity of squid fat, as well as its components that are part of other similar raw materials, and evaluate the prospects for its use in medical practice. Material and methods. During the study, various sources were analyzed, including scientific literature from electronic databases eLibrary, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and electronic search engines Google Academy from 2000 to 2022. Results. It is noted that squid fat has a pronounced biological activity. Its components increase innate immunity, have antitumor potential, improve the state of the body under stress, have hypolipidemiс and hypotensive effect, improve memory and attention, and also positively affect the composition and rheological parameters of blood. In addition to these effects, a positive effect of ω-3 PUFA and alkylglycerols on spermatogenesis, sperm quality and the female reproductive system has been noted. In a number of studies, alkylglycerol esters increased the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and, due to their structure, are able to form vesicles, therefore, they can be considered as raw materials for the production of new dosage forms for targeted therapy of brain tumors. In the available literature, in the case of the use of squid fat and its components, undesirable side effects have not been identified. Conclusion. Squid fat is a complete source of ω-3 PUFA and alkylglycerols, therefore it can be recommended as a dietary supplement, especially in a diet low in ω-3 PUFA.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Alimentos Marinhos , Sêmen/metabolismo
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4611-4627, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689351

RESUMO

The field of immunometabolism investigates and describes the effects of metabolic rewiring in immune cells throughout activation and the fates of these cells. Recently, it has been appreciated that immunometabolism plays an essential role in the progression of viral infections, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Regarding COVID-19, the aberrant immune response underlying the progression of diseases establishes two major respiratory pathologies, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or pneumonia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Both innate and adaptive immunity (T cell-based) were impaired in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Current findings have deciphered that macrophages (innate immune cells) are involved in the inflammatory response seen in COVID-19. It has been demonstrated that immune system cells can change metabolic reprogramming in some conditions, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infectious disease, including COVID-19. The growing findings on metabolic reprogramming in COVID-19 allow an exploration of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties as future therapies to combat this hyperinflammatory response. The elucidation of the exact role and mechanism underlying this metabolic reprograming in immune cells could help apply more precise approaches to initial diagnosis, prognosis, and in-hospital therapy. This report discusses the latest findings from COVID-19 on host metabolic reprogramming and immunometabolic responses.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260090, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613214

RESUMO

Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.


Assuntos
Geodia , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
5.
Vopr Pitan ; 89(4): 211-219, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986334

RESUMO

By studying the chemical composition of foods, expanding the list of data on the content of nutrients, including minor biologically active substances, in the era of digital nutrition science, it became possible to create relevant systematic databases of the chemical composition of foods and rations in general. They allow us to solve various problems of modern society from the point of view of nutrition science. This review aim to analyze and generalize modern approaches to the formation and updating of databases of the chemical composition of food products from the standpoint of digital nutrition science. Results. This review considers the main provisions regarding creation of databases, directions for the development of food chemistry, discusses existing international programs for collecting and compiling data. The methods of systematizing data on the qualitative composition and content of biologically active and minor substances in products, as well as the problems associated with the development and metrological certification of highly selective highly sensitive analytical methods necessary to obtain reliable and reproducible data are considered. Conclusion. The development of digital nutrition science significantly increases the availability and quality of information on the chemical composition of foods, and allows it to be updated quickly. Further improvement of the quality of the data presented in the tables of chemical composition is associated with the establishment of stability and relationships between micro- and macro-components, their influence on the safety, stability of the chemical structure, the influence of the physic-chemical characteristics of the matrix on nutritive value of foods, determination of the content of specific minor components, development of relevant regulatory documents.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Análise de Alimentos , Alimentos , Ciências da Nutrição , Valor Nutritivo , Humanos
6.
Vopr Pitan ; 89(6): 113-122, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476504

RESUMO

Monochlorpropanediol fatty acid esters (MCPDE) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (GE) are mainly considered to be processing contaminants and their concentration can rise during high temperature refining and deodorization of edible oils. Free forms formed during digestive hydrolysis of esters such as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), 2-MCPD and glycidol can provoke a negative effect on human health. Therefore the quantitative determination of MCPDE and GE in edible oils, fats and fat blends is needed. The aim - this manuscript deals with MCPDE and GE concentration measured as free 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in different edible oils, fats and fat blends of Russian market. Material and methods. 55 edible oil and fat samples sold on Russian market including refined and non-refined oils and fat blends such as spreads, dairy fat replacers, and margarines have been analyzed. Slow alkaline transesterification method with GC-MS/MS was used. Results. According to the data obtained, the highest concentrations of the contaminants were detected in fat blends: <0.10-5.03 mg/kg for 3-MCPD, <0.10-2.50 mg/kg for 2-MCPD and 0.1 5-11.17 mg/kg for glycidol. In palm oils and its fractions concentration of 3-MCPD was <0.10-6.61 mg/kg, 2-MCPD - <0.10-2.69 mg/kg and glycidol - <0.10-6.29 mg/kg. The content of glycidol in sunflower oils fluctuated in the range <0.10-1.19 mg/kg, 3-MCPD was <0.10-2.47 mg/kg, and 2-MCPD <0.10-0.67 mg/kg. Non-refined edible oils and olive oils had no or little MCPDE or GE. Conclusion. In this work we indicate high importance of monitoring MCPDE and GE in edible oils and fats both as ready-to-eat products and as ingredients prior to the Russian market release. There is strong need in mitigation of these process contaminants during fat blends manufacturing.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Compostos de Epóxi/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Propanóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Cloridrina/análise , Esterificação , Glicerol/análise , Humanos , Federação Russa
7.
Vopr Pitan ; 86(5): 50-55, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695628

RESUMO

A highly specific technique for estimating inulin content in natural instant chicory based on the determination of fructose after enzymatic hydrolysis with amyloglucosidase and inulinase by high-performance liquid chromatography with refractometric detection has been developed. Determination of inulin content was carried out by a system for high performance liquid chromatography Agilent 1260 Series with a refractometer, Waters Sugar-Pak column of 10 µm × 6.5 mm × 300 mm: isocratic elution mode (mobile phase - water) with a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min, column temperature - 80 °C, injected sample volume - 10 µl. Inulin content in samples of soluble natural chicory ranges from 4 to 25%. It has been shown that the developed technique can be applied in the quality control of products used for the preparation of soluble natural chicory beverages.

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