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Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab572, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917695


Cases of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid fever have been reported in the United States among patients who did not travel internationally. Clinicians should consider if and where the patient traveled when selecting empiric treatment for typhoid fever. XDR typhoid fever should be treated with a carbapenem, azithromycin, or both.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002


Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.

COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Environ Res ; 188: 109773, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559686


Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Campylobacter infections have most often been associated with food-related risk factors, such as the consumption of poultry and raw milk. Socioeconomic, agricultural and environmental factors, including drinking water source, can also influence the risk of campylobacteriosis. Approximately 19% of Maryland residents rely on private wells as their sole source of water. Given that the federal Safe Drinking Water Act does not regulate the water quality of private wells, these could be important non-foodborne transmission pathways for Campylobacter. To address this issue, data on the number of culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection in Maryland between 2007 and 2016 were obtained from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network. Cases were linked by zip code with data from the Maryland well permits registry, the 2010 U.S. Census, the 2016 American Community Survey, and the USDA Agricultural Census. Campylobacteriosis incidence rates and well prevalence were calculated by zip code. Negative binomial regression models were then constructed to evaluate the association between the prevalence of private wells, presence/absence of animal feeding operations and the incidence of campylobacteriosis across the physiographic provinces in Maryland. From 2007 to 2016, a total of 5746 cases of campylobacteriosis were reported in Maryland, and annual incidence rates ranged from 6.65 to 11.59 per 100,000 people. In our statewide analysis, a significant positive association was observed between well prevalence and increased campylobacteriosis incidence at the zip code level (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.11, 1.63). A significant positive association was also observed between well prevalence and increased campylobacteriosis incidence in the Appalachian and Coastal provinces of Maryland (IRR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.11, 7.76 and IRR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.25, 2.31, respectively). The presence of broiler chicken operations, increasing median age and percentage of residents living in poverty were also significantly associated with campylobacteriosis incidence at the zip code level in some physiographic provinces in Maryland. To our knowledge, these are the first US data to demonstrate an association between prevalence of private wells and campylobacteriosis incidence at the zip code level.

Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Água Potável , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Maryland/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante
J Virol ; 88(5): 2461-80, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24335314


UNLABELLED: Genomic analysis of a large set of phages infecting the common host Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 shows that they span considerable genetic diversity. There are more than 20 distinct types that lack nucleotide similarity with each other, and there is considerable diversity within most of the groups. Three newly isolated temperate mycobacteriophages, Bongo, PegLeg, and Rey, constitute a new group (cluster M), with the closely related phages Bongo and PegLeg forming subcluster M1 and the more distantly related Rey forming subcluster M2. The cluster M mycobacteriophages have siphoviral morphologies with unusually long tails, are homoimmune, and have larger than average genomes (80.2 to 83.7 kbp). They exhibit a variety of features not previously described in other mycobacteriophages, including noncanonical genome architectures and several unusual sets of conserved repeated sequences suggesting novel regulatory systems for both transcription and translation. In addition to containing transfer-messenger RNA and RtcB-like RNA ligase genes, their genomes encode 21 to 24 tRNA genes encompassing complete or nearly complete sets of isotypes. We predict that these tRNAs are used in late lytic growth, likely compensating for the degradation or inadequacy of host tRNAs. They may represent a complete set of tRNAs necessary for late lytic growth, especially when taken together with the apparent lack of codons in the same late genes that correspond to tRNAs that the genomes of the phages do not obviously encode. IMPORTANCE: The bacteriophage population is vast, dynamic, and old and plays a central role in bacterial pathogenicity. We know surprisingly little about the genetic diversity of the phage population, although metagenomic and phage genome sequencing indicates that it is great. Probing the depth of genetic diversity of phages of a common host, Mycobacterium smegmatis, provides a higher resolution of the phage population and how it has evolved. Three new phages constituting a new cluster M further expand the diversity of the mycobacteriophages and introduce novel features. As such, they provide insights into phage genome architecture, virion structure, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels.

Família Multigênica , Micobacteriófagos/classificação , Micobacteriófagos/genética , Mycobacterium smegmatis/virologia , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA Viral , Composição de Bases , Sequência de Bases , Códon , Sequência Conservada , Ordem dos Genes , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Viral , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Lisogenia/genética , Micobacteriófagos/ultraestrutura , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/química , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vírion/genética , Vírion/ultraestrutura , Montagem de Vírus/genética
Virology ; 434(2): 187-201, 2012 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23084079


The complete genome sequences of over 220 mycobacteriophages reveal them to be highly diverse, with numerous types sharing little or no nucleotide sequence identity with each other. We have determined the preferences of these phages for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for other strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis, and find there is a correlation between genome type (cluster, subcluster, singleton) and host range. For many of the phages, expansion of host range occurs at relatively high frequencies, and we describe several examples in which host constraints occur at early stages of infection (adsorption or DNA injection), and phages have the ability to expand their host range through mutations in tail genes. We present a model in which phage diversity is a function of both the ability of phages to rapidly adapt to new hosts and the richness of the diversity of the bacterial population from which those phages are isolated.

Variação Genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Micobacteriófagos/classificação , Micobacteriófagos/fisiologia , Mycobacterium smegmatis/virologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/virologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Micobacteriófagos/genética