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1.
J Food Prot ; 85(5): 755-772, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259246

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This multiagency report developed by the Interagency Collaboration for Genomics for Food and Feed Safety provides an overview of the use of and transition to whole genome sequencing (WGS) technology for detection and characterization of pathogens transmitted commonly by food and for identification of their sources. We describe foodborne pathogen analysis, investigation, and harmonization efforts among the following federal agencies: National Institutes of Health; Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Agricultural Research Service, and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. We describe single nucleotide polymorphism, core-genome, and whole genome multilocus sequence typing data analysis methods as used in the PulseNet (CDC) and GenomeTrakr (FDA) networks, underscoring the complementary nature of the results for linking genetically related foodborne pathogens during outbreak investigations while allowing flexibility to meet the specific needs of Interagency Collaboration partners. We highlight how we apply WGS to pathogen characterization (virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles) and source attribution efforts and increase transparency by making the sequences and other data publicly available through the National Center for Biotechnology Information. We also highlight the impact of current trends in the use of culture-independent diagnostic tests for human diagnostic testing on analytical approaches related to food safety and what is next for the use of WGS in the area of food safety.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Genômica , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Neurological Pupil index (NPi) provides a quantitative assessment of pupil reactivity and may have prognostic value in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We aimed to explore associations between the NPi and clinical outcomes in patients with SAH. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 79 consecutive patients with acute SAH. Age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score, and respiratory failure and NPi in each eye were recorded at admission. The primary outcomes included death and poor clinical outcome (defined as inpatient death, care withdrawal, or discharge Glasgow Outcome Score <4). Groups were compared using the Fisher exact test, and predictive models developed with fast-and-frugal trees (FFTs). RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were included: 21 (40%) had poor clinical outcomes and 2 (4%) died. Univariate analysis found that only APACHE-II score (P < 0.001) and respiratory failure (P = 0.04) were significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes. NPi was lower among patients with poor clinical outcomes (mean 4.3 in the right eye and 4.2 in the left eye) vs those without (mean 4.5 in the right eye and 4.5 in the left eye), but neither was significant. However, the most accurate FFTs for death and poor clinical outcome included NPi after accounting for age in the death FFT and APACHE-II score in the poor outcome FFT (sensitivity [sn] = 100%, specificity [sp] = 94%, and accuracy (ac) = 94% in a model for death; sn = 100%, sp = 50%, and ac = 70%) in a model for poor clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the NPi as a useful prognostic marker for poor outcomes in acute SAH after accounting for age and APACHE-II score.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 210-213, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932459

RESUMO

We sought to determine which Salmonella serotypes cause illness related to the Thanksgiving holiday in the United States and to foods disproportionately eaten then (e.g., turkey). Using routine surveillance for 1998-2018 and a case-crossover design, we found serotype Reading to be most strongly associated with Thanksgiving.


Assuntos
Férias e Feriados , Salmonella , Animais , Salmonella/genética , Sorogrupo , Perus , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(4): 480-487, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a medical emergency, and patients who present acutely should be immediately referred to the nearest stroke center. We evaluated practice patterns for CRAO management at one academic center over the last decade. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on all adult patients diagnosed with a CRAO seen at one tertiary hospital and outpatient clinic affiliated with a comprehensive stroke center ("our institution") from 2010 to 2020. Our electronic medical records were searched for CRAO diagnoses, and patient medical records were reviewed. The exclusion criteria were incorrect diagnosis, unclear diagnosis, historical CRAO, or satellite clinic location. Demographics, distance and time to presentation to our institution, number and type of prior providers seen, diagnostic tests performed, and treatments provided were collected. Summary statistics of median, mean, and frequency were calculated and reported with measures of variance (interquartile range [IQR], ranges). F, Tukey, and Fisher exact tests were used for comparisons. RESULTS: We included 181 patients with a diagnosis of CRAO (80 [44.2%] women; median age 69 years [range 20-101]). The median distance from patient's home to our institution was 27.8 miles (IQR 15.5-57.4; range 2.4-930). The median time from visual loss to presentation at our institution was 144 hours (IQR 23-442 hours, range 0.5-2,920) from 2010 to 2013, 72 hours (IQR 10.5-372 hours, range 0-13,140) from 2014 to 2016, and 48 hours (IQR 7-180 hours, range 0-8,030) from 2017 to 2020 (P = 0.07). 91/181 (50%) patients presented to an outpatient provider. 73/181 (40%) presented to an emergency department. Eighty-six percent presented within 1 week of visual loss onset, and rates of comprehensive inpatient evaluation for acute CRAO improved from 44% in 2010-2013 to 82% in 2017-2020 (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CRAO often present late and only after evaluation by multiple outpatient providers. Improvement has occurred over the past decade, but delays underscore the barriers to performing clinical trials evaluating very acute treatments for CRAO. Educational interventions for healthcare providers and patients are necessary.


Assuntos
Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(4): e464-e469, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tortuosity of the optic nerve can be quantified radiologically by measuring the angle of optic nerve deformation (the "optic nerve angle" [ONA]). In patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), lowering the intracranial pressure (ICP) to a normal range by lumbar puncture leads to straightening of the optic nerve and an increase in the measured sagittal ONA on MRI. It is uncertain whether there is any correlation between ONA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure or visual function. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with and without IIH who had MRI of the brain followed by lumbar puncture with CSF opening pressure within 24 hours of MRI. Before LP and within 24 hours of MRI of the brain, all patients with IIH had neuro-ophthalmologic assessment including visual acuity, Humphrey Visual Field (HVF), and fundus photography. Sagittal ONA was measured on multiplanar T2-SPACE images on a DICOM viewer. Papilledema on the fundus photographs was graded using the Frisén scale. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients with IIH and 30 unmatched controls were included. The IIH group was 6.3 years younger (95% CI 2.4-10.3, P = 0.002), had 8.7 kg/m2 higher body mass index (4.9-12.5, P < 0.001), and 26.3% more women (P = 0.011) compared with controls. In both eyes, the ONA was significantly smaller in patients with IIH by 12° compared with controls (7°-17°, P < 0.00001). In the IIH group, no correlation between ONA and the CSF opening pressure was present in either eye (right eye r = 0.19, P = 0.15; left eye r = 0.18, P = 0.19) The ONA did not correlate with logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (right eye r = 0.26, P = 0.063; left eye r = 0.15, P = 0.27), HVF mean deviation (right eye r = 0.0059, P = 0.97; left eye r = -0.069, P = 0.63), or Frisén grade (Spearman's rho right eye 0.058, P = 0.67; left eye 0.14, P = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: The ONA is significantly smaller in patients with IIH compared to controls, but does not correlate with CSF opening pressure, severity of papilledema, or visual function. The ONA may be useful in identifying patients with raised ICP, but not necessarily those with a poor visual prognosis.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Intracraniana , Papiledema , Pseudotumor Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Papiledema/diagnóstico , Papiledema/etiologia , Pseudotumor Cerebral/complicações , Pseudotumor Cerebral/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(12): 841-858, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529512

RESUMO

Estimates of the overall human health impact of agents transmitted commonly through food complement surveillance and help guide food safety interventions and regulatory initiatives. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize the methods and reporting practices used in studies that estimate the total number of illnesses caused by these agents. We identified and included 43 studies published from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2019, by searching PubMed and screening selected articles for other relevant publications. Selected articles presented original estimates of the number of illnesses caused by ≥1 agent transmitted commonly through food. The number of agents (species or subspecies for pathogens) included in each study ranged from 1 to 31 (median: 4.5; mean: 9.2). Of the 40 agents assessed across the 43 studies, the most common agent was Salmonella (36; 84% of studies), followed by Campylobacter (33; 77%), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (25; 58%), and norovirus (20; 47%). Investigators used a variety of data sources and methods that could be grouped into four distinct estimation approaches-direct, surveillance data scaled-up, syndrome or population scaled-down, and inferred. Based on our review, we propose four recommendations to improve the interpretability, comparability, and reproducibility of studies that estimate the number of illnesses caused by agents transmitted commonly through food. These include providing an assessment of statistical and nonstatistical uncertainty, providing a ranking of estimates by agent, including uncertainties; describing the rationale used to select agents and data sources; and publishing raw data and models, along with clear, detailed methods. These recommendations could lead to better decision-making about food safety policies. Although these recommendations have been made in the context of illness estimation for agents transmitted commonly through food, they also apply to estimates of other health outcomes and conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmonella
7.
J Neurooncol ; 154(3): 365-373, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain tumors are the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Although overall survival has improved due to earlier detection, better therapies, and improved surveillance, visual dysfunction and impaired vision-related quality-of-life (VR-QOL) are often unrecognized in children. This project investigated VR-QOL in pediatric brain tumor patients. METHODS: We evaluated visual impairment and quality-of-life (QOL) in a quality improvement project at one tertiary care center. Patients ≤ 18, greater than 6 months from diagnosis of brain tumor, excluding intrinsic anterior visual pathway tumors, underwent standardized neuro-ophthalmologic examination. Health-related QOL (HR-QOL) (PedsQL Brain Tumor Module) and VR-QOL questionnaires [CVFQ (Children's Visual Function Questionnaire) in children < 8, and EYE-Q in children 8-18] were obtained from patients and parents. RESULTS: Among 77 patients, craniopharyngiomas (n = 16, 21%) and astrocytomas (n = 15, 20%) were the most common tumors. Among 44/77 (57%) visually impaired children, 7 (16%) were legally blind. Eye-Q median score was 3.40 (interquartile range 3.00-3.75), worse than average scores for normal children. Eye-Q score decreased 0.12 with every 0.1 increase in logMAR visual acuity (p < 0.001). Patients who were legally blind had a significantly lower Eye-Q score than those who were not [0.70 vs. 3.44 (p < 0.001)]. Cognitive HR-QOL scores decreased 1.3 for every 0.1 increase in logMAR visual acuity (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric brain tumor patients' vision, HR-QOL, and VR-QOL were often severely affected even when tumors were considered cured. Visual acuity and legal blindness correlated with VR-QOL. Systematic neuro-ophthalmologic examinations in pediatric primary brain tumor patients are necessary to facilitate early preventative and corrective ophthalmologic interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Criança , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Acuidade Visual
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105988, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an emergency with poor visual outcome. Intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 h of vision loss is safe and may improve vision, but is rarely administered because of frequent delays in presentation. We describe a subgroup of CRAO patients presenting within 24 h of vision loss to a tertiary care center affiliated with a comprehensive stroke center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 181 consecutive CRAO patients seen at our institution from 2010 to 2020. RESULTS: Out of 181 CRAO patients, 62 (34%) presented within 24 h of vision loss and tended to live closer to the hospital. These patients were more likely to be admitted to the hospital and receive comprehensive stroke work-up compared to patients who presented after 24 h of vision loss. Patients presenting after 24 h did not necessarily receive prior appropriate work-up at outside institutions. Conservative treatments for CRAO were administered to 20/181 patients, and only 3 patients received intravenous thrombolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CRAO do not present to the emergency department fast enough and diagnosis of CRAO is often delayed. Despite having a protocol in place, only 3/181 patients received IV thrombolysis, emphasizing the difficulty in administering very acute treatments for CRAO. Public education regarding CRAO is necessary to improve presentation times, management, and visual outcomes. Hospitals need to develop accelerated diagnostic pathway protocols for patients with acute vision loss so that CRAO patients may be diagnosed and be considered for potential acute treatments as quickly as possible.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Visão Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Programática de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S5-S16, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late sequelae of COVID-19 have been reported; however, few studies have investigated the time course or incidence of late new COVID-19-related health conditions (post-COVID conditions) after COVID-19 diagnosis. Studies distinguishing post-COVID conditions from late conditions caused by other etiologies are lacking. Using data from a large administrative all-payer database, we assessed type, association, and timing of post-COVID conditions following COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (release date, 20 October 2020) data, during March-June 2020, 27 589 inpatients and 46 857 outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 (case-patients) were 1:1 matched with patients without COVID-19 through the 4-month follow-up period (control-patients) by using propensity score matching. In this matched-cohort study, adjusted ORs were calculated to assess for late conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients. Incidence proportion was calculated for conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients during 31-120 days following a COVID-19 encounter. RESULTS: During 31-120 days after an initial COVID-19 inpatient hospitalization, 7.0% of adults experienced ≥1 of 5 post-COVID conditions. Among adult outpatients with COVID-19, 7.7% experienced ≥1 of 10 post-COVID conditions. During 31-60 days after an initial outpatient encounter, adults with COVID-19 were 2.8 times as likely to experience acute pulmonary embolism as outpatient control-patients and also more likely to experience a range of conditions affecting multiple body systems (eg, nonspecific chest pain, fatigue, headache, and respiratory, nervous, circulatory, and gastrointestinal symptoms) than outpatient control-patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence of late health conditions possibly related to COVID-19 in adults following COVID-19 diagnosis and can inform healthcare practice and resource planning for follow-up COVID-19 care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 560-565, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857068

RESUMO

Persons from racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, including experiencing increased risk for infection (1), hospitalization (2,3), and death (4,5). Using administrative discharge data, CDC assessed monthly trends in the proportion of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among racial and ethnic groups in the United States during March-December 2020 by U.S. Census region. Cumulative and monthly age-adjusted COVID-19 proportionate hospitalization ratios (aPHRs) were calculated for racial and ethnic minority patients relative to non-Hispanic White patients. Within each of the four U.S. Census regions, the cumulative aPHR was highest for Hispanic or Latino patients (range = 2.7-3.9). Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization were largest during May-July 2020; the peak monthly aPHR among Hispanic or Latino patients was >9.0 in the West and Midwest, >6.0 in the South, and >3.0 in the Northeast. The aPHRs declined for most racial and ethnic groups during July-November 2020 but increased for some racial and ethnic groups in some regions during December. Disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization by race/ethnicity varied by region and became less pronounced over the course of the pandemic, as COVID-19 hospitalizations increased among non-Hispanic White persons. Identification of specific social determinants of health that contribute to geographic and temporal differences in racial and ethnic disparities at the local level can help guide tailored public health prevention strategies and equitable allocation of resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to address COVID-19-related health disparities and can inform approaches to achieve greater health equity during future public health threats.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/terapia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hospitalização/tendências , /estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Geografia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(6): 718-725, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871552

RESUMO

Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of intracranial hypertension (IH) are traditionally associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), but these signs are also detected among individuals with primary headaches and among asymptomatic individuals without papilledema. Objective: To examine the prevalence of MRI signs of IH among consecutive outpatients undergoing brain MRI for any clinical indication and to explore their association with papilledema. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cross-sectional study of outpatients undergoing brain MRI at 1 outpatient imaging facility was conducted between August 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020, with ocular fundus photographs taken concurrently. Radiographic images from consecutive adult patients who were undergoing brain MRI and able to participate in fundus photography were analyzed for MRI signs of IH. A univariate analysis using either Fisher exact tests or t tests was performed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of MRI signs of IH and prevalence of papilledema detected on ocular fundus photographs. Radiographic signs of IH included empty sella, optic nerve head protrusion, posterior scleral flattening, increased perioptic cerebrospinal fluid, optic nerve tortuosity, enlarged Meckel caves, cephaloceles, cerebellar tonsillar descent, and bilateral transverse venous sinus stenosis. Results: A total of 388 patients were screened for eligibility; of those, 92 patients were excluded (58 declined participation, 16 were unable to consent, 14 were unable to complete fundus photography, and 4 completed MRI and fundus photography twice, so their second set of findings was removed). Among the 296 patients included in the study, the median age was 49.5 years (interquartile range, 37.8-62.0 years), and 188 patients (63.5%) were female. The most common indication for MRI was surveillance of a brain neoplasm (82 patients [27.7%]). Investigations of headaches (26 patients [8.8%]) and disorders of intracranial pressure (4 patients [1.4%]) were uncommon. At least 1 radiographic sign of IH was present in 145 patients (49.0%). Among 296 total study patients, 98 patients (33.1%) had empty sella, 47 patients (15.9%) had enlarged Meckel caves, 32 patients (10.8%) had increased perioptic cerebrospinal fluid, 23 patients (7.8%) had optic nerve tortuosity, 2 patients (0.7%) had scleral flattening, and 4 patients (1.4%) had cephaloceles. Bilateral transverse venous sinus stenosis was present in 6 of 198 patients (3.0%). Five patients (1.7%) had papilledema. Compared with patients without papilledema, those with papilledema had a significantly higher body mass index and history of IIH, in addition to an increased prevalence of empty sella, optic nerve tortuosity, and transverse venous sinus stenosis detected on MRI. The prevalence of papilledema increased from 2.8% among patients with at least 1 MRI sign of IH to 40.0% among patients with 4 or more MRI signs of IH. Conclusions and Relevance: Magnetic resonance imaging signs of IH were common among patients undergoing brain MRI in this study but rarely associated with papilledema. The management of patients with incidentally detected signs of IH likely does not require systematic lumbar puncture unless concerning symptoms or papilledema are present.


Assuntos
Achados Incidentais , Hipertensão Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Papiledema/diagnóstico por imagem , Papiledema/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1164-1168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754981
13.
Taiwan J Ophthalmol ; 11(1): 53-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether papilledema severity is associated with specific demographic or clinical factors in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive IIH patients seen at one tertiary care institution between 1989 and March 31, 2017 was performed. IIH patients were classified as mild (Frisén Grade 1 or 2) or severe (Frisén Grade 4 or 5) based on grading of fundus photographs obtained at first presentation. Demographic and clinical variables including age, body mass index (BMI), gender, visual acuity, Humphrey visual field mean deviation, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure were extracted from patient medical records for statistical analyses. RESULTS: A total of 239 patients were included in the study: 152 with mild papilledema and 87 with severe papilledema. There was no difference in age, race, BMI, or male gender between the mild and severe papilledema groups. CSF opening pressure was significantly higher in the severe papilledema group (41.89 cm of water vs. 33.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.79--5.62, P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in the Humphrey mean deviation (-6.38 dB compared to - 3.25 dB, 95% CI: -4.82--1.44 dB, P < 0.001) and average logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity at final follow-up (0.21 vs. 0.045, 95% CI: -0.299--0.040 , P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Age, race, sex, and BMI were similar in IIH patients with mild versus severe papilledema, emphasizing the importance of a dilated fundus examination to reliably stratify patients. Patients with severe papilledema are at higher risk of visual acuity and visual field loss at final follow-up.

14.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(4): e490-e497, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A relationship between idiopathic intracranial hypertension and spontaneous skull base cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks has been proposed, by which CSF leak decreases intracranial pressure (ICP) and masks the symptoms and signs of elevated ICP. These patients are at risk of developing papilledema, symptoms of elevated ICP, or a recurrent CSF leak after CSF leak repair. The objective of this study was to assess whether radiographic signs of raised ICP on preoperative magnetic resonance or computed venography (MRI or CTV) are predictors of postoperative papilledema, recurrence of CSF leak, or need for CSF shunt surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of systematically collected demographics, fundus examination, and presurgical brain MRI and magnetic resonance venography/computed tomography venography (MRV/CTV) in patients seen at 1 institution between 2013 and 2019 with spontaneous skull base CSF leak repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on whether they developed papilledema, recurrent CSF leak, or required CSF shunting (Group 1) or not (Group 2). RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included, among whom 19 were in Group 1. There was no difference in demographic characteristics or clinical features between patients in Group 1 and Group 2. Controlling for other imaging features, bilateral transverse venous sinus stenosis (TVSS) on preoperative imaging increased the odds of being in Group 1 by 4.2 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-21.2, P = 0.04), optic nerve tortuosity decreased the odds of being in Group 1 by 8.3 times (95% CI: 1.4-74.6, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Imaging of the intracranial venous system with MRV or CTV is warranted before repair of spontaneous CSF leak, as bilateral TVSS is an independent risk factor for postoperative papilledema, CSF leak recurrence, or need for a CSF shunting procedure.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Intracraniana , Pseudotumor Cerebral , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/cirurgia , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Base do Crânio/cirurgia
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa596, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological features and outcomes of hospitalized adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described; however, the temporal progression and medical complications of disease among hospitalized patients require further study. Detailed descriptions of the natural history of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients are paramount to optimize health care resource utilization, and the detection of different clinical phenotypes may allow tailored clinical management strategies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 305 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 8 academic and community hospitals. Patient characteristics included demographics, comorbidities, medication use, medical complications, intensive care utilization, and longitudinal vital sign and laboratory test values. We examined laboratory and vital sign trends by mortality status and length of stay. To identify clinical phenotypes, we calculated Gower's dissimilarity matrix between each patient's clinical characteristics and clustered similar patients using the partitioning around medoids algorithm. RESULTS: One phenotype of 6 identified was characterized by high mortality (49%), older age, male sex, elevated inflammatory markers, high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and shock. Patients with this severe phenotype had significantly elevated peak C-reactive protein creatinine, D-dimer, and white blood cell count and lower minimum lymphocyte count compared with other phenotypes (P < .01, all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Among a cohort of hospitalized adults, we identified a severe phenotype of COVID-19 based on the characteristics of its clinical course and poor prognosis. These findings need to be validated in other cohorts, as improved understanding of clinical phenotypes and risk factors for their development could help inform prognosis and tailored clinical management for COVID-19.

16.
Emerg Med Australas ; 33(2): 302-309, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of fundus pathology in metropolitan Australian EDs utilising a non-mydriatic fundus photography screening programme. Secondary objectives include diagnostic accuracy among emergency physicians compared to telehealth ophthalmologist review. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study investigating non-mydriatic fundus photography as a new diagnostic test in two tertiary Australian EDs. Consecutive adult patients were enrolled if they presented with headache, focal neurological deficit, visual disturbance or diastolic BP >120 mmHg. Diagnostic agreement was determined using kappa statistics and sensitivity and specificity using a reference standard consensus ophthalmology review. RESULTS: A total of 345 consecutive patients were enrolled among whom 56 (16%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13-21) had urgent fundus pathology. Agreement between emergency physician and ophthalmic assessment of fundus photographs was 74% (kappa = 0.196, P = 0.001). Emergency physicians had 40% sensitivity (95% CI 27-54) and 82% specificity (95% CI 76-86) for detecting urgent pathology on photographs. CONCLUSIONS: Fundus photography detects a clinically significant proportion of fundus pathology and urgent diagnoses. Telehealth specialist image review is important to detect some important, time-critical illnesses that can be missed in routine care. This offers an accurate alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy that warrants further research in Australian EDs.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Midriáticos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Fotografação , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 105(2): 253-257, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the long-term effects of treat-and-extend dosing of ranibizumab with and without navigated focal laser for diabetic macular oedema (DME). METHODS: This is a multicentre, randomised clinical trial where 150 eyes were randomised into three cohorts; Monthly (n=30), TReat and EXtend without macular laser photocoagulation (TREX; n=60), and treat and extend with angiography-GuIded macular LAser photocoagulation (GILA; n=60). During the first 2 years, eyes either received ranibizumab 0.3 mg every 4 weeks or underwent treat-and-extend ranibizumab with or without angiography-guided laser therapy. In the third year, all eyes were treated as needed with ranibizumab for >5 letters vision loss or if the central retinal thickness (CRT) was >325 µm, and all eyes were eligible to receive focal laser. RESULTS: 109 eyes (73%) completed the 3-year end-point. At week 156, mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and CRT improved by 6.9, 9.7, 9.5 letters (p=0.60) and 129, 138, 165 µm (p=0.39), in the Monthly, TREX and GILA cohorts, respectively. These improvements were reached prior to week 104 and no significant changes occurred from week 104 to week 156 (BCVA: p=0.34; CRT: p=0.36). The mean number of injections in the third year was 3.0, 3.1, and 2.4 in the Monthly, TREX and GILA cohorts, respectively (p=0.56). 86 eyes (79%) required at least one ranibizumab injection in the third year. CONCLUSION: The improvements achieved after 2 years of treat-and-extend ranibizumab for DME were maintained in the third year with a mean of 3 intravitreal injections. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: FDA IND 119146, NCT01934556.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Fotocoagulação a Laser , Edema Macular/terapia , Ranibizumab/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/cirurgia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Edema Macular/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ranibizumab/administração & dosagem , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 140-149, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350905

RESUMO

Provision of safe drinking water in the United States is a great public health achievement. However, new waterborne disease challenges have emerged (e.g., aging infrastructure, chlorine-tolerant and biofilm-related pathogens, increased recreational water use). Comprehensive estimates of the health burden for all water exposure routes (ingestion, contact, inhalation) and sources (drinking, recreational, environmental) are needed. We estimated total illnesses, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, deaths, and direct healthcare costs for 17 waterborne infectious diseases. About 7.15 million waterborne illnesses occur annually (95% credible interval [CrI] 3.88 million-12.0 million), results in 601,000 ED visits (95% CrI 364,000-866,000), 118,000 hospitalizations (95% CrI 86,800-150,000), and 6,630 deaths (95% CrI 4,520-8,870) and incurring US $3.33 billion (95% CrI 1.37 billion-8.77 billion) in direct healthcare costs. Otitis externa and norovirus infection were the most common illnesses. Most hospitalizations and deaths were caused by biofilm-associated pathogens (nontuberculous mycobacteria, Pseudomonas, Legionella), costing US $2.39 billion annually.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 182-195, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350907

RESUMO

Illnesses transmitted by food and water cause a major disease burden in the United States despite advancements in food safety, water treatment, and sanitation. We report estimates from a structured expert judgment study using 48 experts who applied Cooke's classical model of the proportion of disease attributable to 5 major transmission pathways (foodborne, waterborne, person-to-person, animal contact, and environmental) and 6 subpathways (food handler-related, under foodborne; recreational, drinking, and nonrecreational/nondrinking, under waterborne; and presumed person-to-person-associated and presumed animal contact-associated, under environmental). Estimates for 33 pathogens were elicited, including bacteria such as Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Legionella spp., and Pseudomonas spp.; protozoa such as Acanthamoeba spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Naegleria fowleri; and viruses such as norovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus. The results highlight the importance of multiple pathways in the transmission of the included pathogens and can be used to guide prioritization of public health interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Julgamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Água
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