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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246322, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285614

RESUMO

Abstract A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Resumo Um total de 10 espécimes foi capturado em locais selecionados da Bajaur Agency FATA, Paquistão, usando redes de neblina. Os espécimes capturados foram identificados morfologicamente e várias medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento da cabeça e do corpo (HB) de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n = 10) foi de 43 ± 0,11 mm e 45 ± 1,1, respectivamente. Pipistrellus kuhlii identificado morfologicamente e confirmado como Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus com base em sequências de rRNA 16S. As sequências de DNA foram submetidas ao GenBank e os números de acesso foram obtidos (MN 719478 e MT430902). As sequências do gene 16S rRNA disponíveis de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram recuperadas do NCBI e incorporadas na análise da árvore N-J. No geral, as variações genéticas interespecíficas entre Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram de 8% e 1%, respectivamente. Em nossa recomendação, uma identificação molecular abrangente de morcegos precisa de uma hora para relatar mais espécies crípticas e novas do Paquistão.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMO

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245261, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249221

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Resumo O presente estudo foi planejado para determinar variações nos parâmetros externos e internos de qualidade dos ovos de diferentes espécies de aves, incluindo avestruz Struthio camelus, patos Anas platyrhynchos, frango Gallus gallus, perus Meleagris gallopavo e francolin cinza Francolinus pondicerinus. Todas as aves foram mantidas em condições de criação semelhantes. Um total de 150 ovos foi coletado para cada espécie para registrar as características externas desses ovos. Variações estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) foram registradas no peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo e largura do ovo entre os ovos de avestruz, patos, galinha, peru e codorna. Significativamente (p < 0,05) maior peso do ovo, comprimento e largura do ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto o mesmo foi menor para ovos de francolina cinza. Da mesma forma, significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores valores de índice de forma e volume de ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto os menores valores de índice de forma foram registrados para ovos de peru e o volume de ovo foi menor para francolina cinza. Significativamente, maiores (p < 0,05) valores de densidade de ovos foram observados para ovos de codorna e os mesmos foram menores para ovos de avestruz. Variações não significativas nos valores de densidade de ovos foram observadas entre os ovos de pato, frango, peru e francolina cinza. Concluiu-se que as correlações positivas entre as características internas e externas de qualidade do ovo indicaram que as características podem ser melhoradas por meio da seleção.

7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816973

RESUMO

During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586192

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Escherichia coli , Fezes
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468516

RESUMO

The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan's herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247562, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495155

RESUMO

To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cádmio , Bovinos , Feminino , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495161

RESUMO

The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431908

RESUMO

A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Quirópteros/genética , Paquistão , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378683

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Carboidratos
16.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e245261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076170

RESUMO

Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Struthioniformes , Animais , Paquistão
17.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 856-866, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161702

RESUMO

AIMS: We developed a strategy for localized delivery of the LFCA (lactoferricinlactoferrampin), which is actively synthesized in situ by Lactococcus lactis (pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363), and explored the possibility of using pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363 as an alternative additive diet to antibiotics. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antimicrobial activities of the LFCA derived from pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363 were tested in vitro. The results showed that LFCA had an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. Then, the pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363 was used as an additive diet for piglets. Our data demonstrated that oral administration of pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363 significantly improved the average daily gain, feed-to-gain ratio, intestinal mucosal integrity and decreased the serum endotoxin and d-lactic acid levels. The mRNA expression levels of intestinal tight junction proteins (including occludin, Claudin-1 and ZO-1) were significantly upregulated by pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363 administration. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, IL-2, IL-10 and TGF-ß levels were significantly increased by pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363. Furthermore, our data revealed that oral administration of pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363 significantly increased the number of general Lactobacillus, and decreased the total viable E. coli counts in the ileum and cecum contents. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a novel pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363 secreting LFCA, which had probiotic effects on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier function and immunological indices of weaned piglets. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: pAMJ399-LFCA/LLMG1363, with probiotic effects on the health of weaned piglets, may be a promising feed additive for weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Suínos/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Probióticos/farmacologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
Eye (Lond) ; 30(12): 1579-1587, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27540832

RESUMO

PurposeThe role of microvascular endothelial dysfunction on severity of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) was investigated in this study.Patients and methodsA prospective cohort study was conducted. One hundred and fourteen ethnically Malay patients (114 eyes) with POAG treated at the eye clinic of Hospital University Sains Malaysia between April 2012 and December 2014 were recruited. Patients aged between 40 and 80 years with two consecutive reliable and reproducible Humphrey visual field 24-2 analyses were selected. Patients who were diagnosed with any other type of glaucoma, previous glaucoma-filtering surgery, or other surgeries except uncomplicated cataract and pterygium surgery were excluded. Humphrey visual field analysis 24-2 was used to stratify the severity of glaucoma using Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score at the time of recruitment. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed using Laser Doppler fluximetry and iontophoresis. Iontophoresis process with acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used to measure microvascular endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation, respectively.ResultsBased on the AGIS score, 55 patients showed mild glaucoma, with 29 moderate and 30 severe. There was statistically significant difference in microvascular endothelial function (ACh% and AChmax) between mild and moderate POAG cases (P=0.023) and between mild and severe POAG cases (P<0.001). There was negative correlation between microvascular endothelial function and severity of POAG (r=-0.457, P<0.001).ConclusionMicrovascular endothelial dysfunction may have a role in influencing the severity of POAG in Malay patients.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Humanos , Iontoforese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Testes de Campo Visual , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
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