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1.
Hum Genet ; 140(10): 1459-1469, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436670

RESUMO

During human organogenesis, lung development is a timely and tightly regulated developmental process under the control of a large number of signaling molecules. Understanding how genetic variants can disturb normal lung development causing different lung malformations is a major goal for dissecting molecular mechanisms during embryogenesis. Here, through exome sequencing (ES), array CGH, genome sequencing (GS) and Hi-C, we aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of bilateral isolated lung agenesis in three fetuses born to a non-consanguineous family. We detected a complex genomic rearrangement containing duplicated, triplicated and deleted fragments involving the SHH locus in fetuses presenting complete agenesis of both lungs and near-complete agenesis of the trachea, diagnosed by ultrasound screening and confirmed at autopsy following termination. The rearrangement did not include SHH itself, but several regulatory elements for lung development, such as MACS1, a major SHH lung enhancer, and the neighboring genes MNX1 and NOM1. The rearrangement incorporated parts of two topologically associating domains (TADs) including their boundaries. Hi-C of cells from one of the affected fetuses showed the formation of two novel TADs each containing SHH enhancers and the MNX1 and NOM1 genes. Hi-C together with GS indicate that the new 3D conformation is likely causative for this condition by an inappropriate activation of MNX1 included in the neo-TADs by MACS1 enhancer, further highlighting the importance of the 3D chromatin conformation in human disease.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Pneumopatias/genética , Pulmão/anormalidades , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Organogênese/genética , Adulto , Cadáver , Feminino , Feto , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
2.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2167-2178, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131162

RESUMO

Herein, we report the screening of a large panel of genes in a series of 80 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and/or heterotaxy and no cytogenetic anomalies. There were 49 males (61%/39%), with a family history in 28 cases (35%) and no parental consanguinity in 77 cases (96%). All fetuses had complex CHD except one who had heterotaxy and midline anomalies while 52 cases (65%) had heterotaxy in addition to CHD. Altogether, 29 cases (36%) had extracardiac and extra-heterotaxy anomalies. A pathogenic variant was found in 10/80 (12.5%) cases with a higher percentage in the heterotaxy group (8/52 cases, 15%) compared with the non-heterotaxy group (2/28 cases, 7%), and in 3 cases with extracardiac and extra-heterotaxy anomalies (3/29, 10%). The inheritance was recessive in six genes (DNAI1, GDF1, MMP21, MYH6, NEK8, and ZIC3) and dominant in two genes (SHH and TAB2). A homozygous pathogenic variant was found in three cases including only one case with known consanguinity. In conclusion, after removing fetuses with cytogenetic anomalies, next-generation sequencing discovered a causal variant in 12.5% of fetal cases with CHD and/or heterotaxy. Genetic counseling for future pregnancies was greatly improved. Surprisingly, unexpected consanguinity accounts for 20% of cases with identified pathogenic variants.


Assuntos
Feto/anormalidades , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Síndrome de Heterotaxia/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise Citogenética , Família , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Linhagem
3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(6): 1466-1472, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212228

RESUMO

The clinical and radiological spectrum of spondylocostal dysostosis syndromes encompasses distinctive costo-vertebral anomalies. RIPPLY2 biallelic pathogenic variants were described in two distinct cervical spine malformation syndromes: Klippel-Feil syndrome and posterior cervical spine malformation. RIPPLY2 is involved in the determination of rostro-caudal polarity and somite patterning during development. To date, only four cases have been reported. The current report aims at further delineating the posterior malformation in three new patients. Three patients from two unrelated families underwent clinical and radiological examination through X-ray, 3D computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. After informed consent was obtained, family-based whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed. Complex vertebral segmentation defects in the cervico-thoracic spine were observed in all patients. WES led to the identification of the homozygous splicing variant c.240-4T>G in all subjects. This variant is predicted to result in aberrant splicing of Exon 4. The current report highlights a subtype of cervical spine malformation with major atlo-axoidal malformation compromising spinal cord integrity. This distinctive mutation-specific pattern of malformation differs from Klippel-Feil syndrome and broadens the current classification, defining a sub-type of RIPPLY2-related skeletal disorder. Of note, the phenotype of one patient overlaps with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hérnia Diafragmática/genética , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/genética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Hérnia Diafragmática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Diafragmática/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Klippel-Feil/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , Mutação/genética , Radiografia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(9): 103539, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240710

RESUMO

A 5,6 Mb de novo 19q12-q13.12 interstitial deletion was diagnosed prenatally by array-comparative genomic hybridization in a 26 weeks male fetus presenting with intra-uterine growth retardation, left clubfoot, atypical genitalia and dysmorphic features. Autopsic examination following termination of pregnancy identified a severe disorder of sex development (DSD) including hypospadias, micropenis, bifid scrotum and right cryptorchidism associated with signs of ectodermal dysplasia: scalp hypopigmentation, thick and frizzy hair, absence of eyelashes, poorly developed nails and a thin skin with prominent superficial veins. Other findings were abnormal lung lobation and facial dysmorphism. This new case of DSD with a 19q12q13 deletion expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with this chromosomal rearrangment and suggests that WTIP is a strong candidate gene involved in male sex differentiation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Deleção de Genes , Adulto , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/patologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(12): 2740-2750, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548201

RESUMO

The oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome (OAFNS) is a rare disorder characterized by the association of frontonasal dysplasia (widely spaced eyes, facial cleft, and nose abnormalities) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS)-associated features, such as preauricular ear tags, ear dysplasia, mandibular asymmetry, epibulbar dermoids, eyelid coloboma, and costovertebral anomalies. The etiology is unknown so far. This work aimed to identify molecular bases for the OAFNS. Among a cohort of 130 patients with frontonasal dysplasia, accurate phenotyping identified 18 individuals with OAFNS. We describe their clinical spectrum, including the report of new features (micro/anophtalmia, cataract, thyroid agenesis, polymicrogyria, olfactory bulb hypoplasia, and mandibular cleft), and emphasize the high frequency of nasal polyps in OAFNS (56%). We report the negative results of ALX1, ALX3, and ALX4 genes sequencing and next-generation sequencing strategy performed on blood-derived DNA from respectively, four and four individuals. Exome sequencing was performed in four individuals, genome sequencing in one patient with negative exome sequencing result. Based on the data from this series and the literature, diverse hypotheses can be raised regarding the etiology of OAFNS: mosaic mutation, epigenetic anomaly, oligogenism, or nongenetic cause. In conclusion, this series represents further clinical delineation work of the rare OAFNS, and paves the way toward the identification of the causing mechanism.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Orelha Externa/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Padrões de Herança , Fenótipo , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/genética , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Facies , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Crânio/anormalidades , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Hum Mutat ; 39(8): 1076-1080, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782060

RESUMO

We describe progressive spastic paraparesis in two male siblings and the daughter of one of these individuals. Onset of disease occurred within the first decade, with stiffness and gait difficulties. Brisk deep tendon reflexes and extensor plantar responses were present, in the absence of intellectual disability or dermatological manifestations. Cerebral imaging identified intracranial calcification in all symptomatic family members. A marked upregulation of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts was recorded in all three affected individuals and in two clinically unaffected relatives. A heterozygous IFIH1 c.2544T>G missense variant (p.Asp848Glu) segregated with interferon status. Although not highly conserved (CADD score 10.08 vs. MSC-CADD score of 19.33) and predicted as benign by in silico algorithms, this variant is not present on publically available databases of control alleles, and expression of the D848E construct in HEK293T cells indicated that it confers a gain-of-function. This report illustrates, for the first time, the occurrence of autosomal-dominant spastic paraplegia with intracranial calcifications due to an IFIH1-related type 1 interferonopathy.


Assuntos
Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , Paraparesia Espástica/genética , Algoritmos , Encefalopatias/genética , Calcinose/genética , Feminino , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Células HEK293 , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 803-814, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100091

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute a major cause of chronic kidney disease in children and 20% of prenatally detected anomalies. CAKUT encompass a spectrum of developmental kidney defects, including renal agenesis, hypoplasia, and cystic and non-cystic dysplasia. More than 50 genes have been reported as mutated in CAKUT-affected case subjects. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to bilateral kidney agenesis (BKA) remain largely elusive. Whole-exome or targeted exome sequencing of 183 unrelated familial and/or severe CAKUT-affected case subjects, including 54 fetuses with BKA, led to the identification of 16 heterozygous variants in GREB1L (growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1-like), a gene reported as a target of retinoic acid signaling. Four loss-of-function and 12 damaging missense variants, 14 being absent from GnomAD, were identified. Twelve of them were present in familial or simplex BKA-affected case subjects. Female BKA-affected fetuses also displayed uterus agenesis. We demonstrated a significant association between GREB1L variants and BKA. By in situ hybridization, we showed expression of Greb1l in the nephrogenic zone in developing mouse kidney. We generated a Greb1l knock-out mouse model by CRISPR-Cas9. Analysis at E13.5 revealed lack of kidneys and genital tract anomalies in male and female Greb1l-/- embryos and a slight decrease in ureteric bud branching in Greb1l+/- embryos. We showed that Greb1l invalidation in mIMCD3 cells affected tubulomorphogenesis in 3D-collagen culture, a phenotype rescued by expression of the wild-type human protein. This demonstrates that GREB1L plays a major role in early metanephros and genital development in mice and humans.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Nefropatias/congênito , Rim/anormalidades , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Feto/anormalidades , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Nefropatias/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20162016 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003230

RESUMO

Intestinal volvulus is a life-threatening emergency requiring prompt surgical management. Prenatal intestinal volvulus is rare, and most are secondary to intestinal atresia, mesenteric defect or without any underlying cause. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is known to cause digestive tract disorders. After birth, 10-15% of newborns with CF may develop intestinal obstruction within a few days of birth because of meconial ileus.1 This obstruction is a result of dehydrated thickened meconium obstructing the intestinal lumen. We report two cases of fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of segmental volvulus in whom CF was diagnosed.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/complicações , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Íleo/diagnóstico por imagem , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Cesárea , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/etiologia , Humanos , Doenças do Íleo/etiologia , Recém-Nascido , Atresia Intestinal/cirurgia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Volvo Intestinal/etiologia , Masculino , Mecônio , Pneumoperitônio/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Radiografia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 94(5): 677-94, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24768552

RESUMO

Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 × 10(-5)) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci associated with dominant or X-linked ASD and intellectual disability (odds ratio = 12.62, p = 2.7 × 10(-15), ∼3% of ASD subjects). Pathogenic CNVs, often showing variable expressivity, included rare de novo and inherited events at 36 loci, implicating ASD-associated genes (CHD2, HDAC4, and GDI1) previously linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as other genes such as SETD5, MIR137, and HDAC9. Consistent with hypothesized gender-specific modulators, females with ASD were more likely to have highly penetrant CNVs (p = 0.017) and were also overrepresented among subjects with fragile X syndrome protein targets (p = 0.02). Genes affected by de novo CNVs and/or loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants converged on networks related to neuronal signaling and development, synapse function, and chromatin regulation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Criança , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Linhagem , Deleção de Sequência
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(16): 3306-14, 2013 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23615299

RESUMO

Existence of a discrete new X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndrome due to KIAA2022 deficiency was questioned by disruption of KIAA2022 by an X-chromosome pericentric inversion in a XLID family we reported in 2004. Three additional families with likely pathogenic KIAA2022 mutations were discovered within the frame of systematic parallel sequencing of familial cases of XLID or in the context of routine array-CGH evaluation of sporadic intellectual deficiency (ID) cases. The c.186delC and c.3597dupA KIAA2022 truncating mutations were identified by X-chromosome exome sequencing, while array CGH discovered a 70 kb microduplication encompassing KIAA2022 exon 1 in the third family. This duplication decreased KIAA2022 mRNA level in patients' lymphocytes by 60%. Detailed clinical examination of all patients, including the two initially reported, indicated moderate-to-severe ID with autistic features, strabismus in all patients, with no specific dysmorphic features other than a round face in infancy and no structural brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Interestingly, the patient with decreased KIAA2022 expression had only mild ID with severe language delay and repetitive behaviors falling in the range of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since little is known about KIAA2022 function, we conducted morphometric studies in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We found that siRNA-mediated KIAA2022 knockdown resulted in marked impairment in neurite outgrowth including both the dendrites and the axons, suggesting a major role for KIAA2022 in neuron development and brain function.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/metabolismo , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Neuritos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Ligação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Neuritos/metabolismo , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 4(4): e5274, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19384407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypocatabolism of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), making pharmacological activation of IDE an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, it has not been established whether the proteolytic activity of IDE can be enhanced by drug-like compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the finding that ATP and other nucleotide polyphosphates modulate IDE activity at physiological concentrations, we conducted parallel high-throughput screening campaigns in the absence or presence of ATP and identified two compounds--designated Ia1 and Ia2--that significantly stimulate IDE proteolytic activity. Both compounds were found to interfere with the crosslinking of a photoaffinity ATP analogue to IDE, suggesting that they interact with a bona fide ATP-binding domain within IDE. Unexpectedly, we observed highly synergistic activation effects when the activity of Ia1 or Ia2 was tested in the presence of ATP, a finding that has implications for the mechanisms underlying ATP-mediated activation of IDE. Notably, Ia1 and Ia2 activated the degradation of Abeta by approximately 700% and approximately 400%, respectively, albeit only when Abeta was presented in a mixture also containing shorter substrates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes the first examples of synthetic small-molecule activators of IDE, showing that pharmacological activation of this important protease with drug-like compounds is achievable. These novel activators help to establish the putative ATP-binding domain as a key modulator of IDE proteolytic activity and offer new insights into the modulatory action of ATP. Several larger lessons abstracted from this screen will help inform the design of future screening campaigns and facilitate the eventual development of IDE activators with therapeutic utility.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulisina/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Marcadores de Fotoafinidade
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