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2.
Genes Immun ; 18(1): 48-56, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053322

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients can be stratified into two subgroups defined by the presence or absence of antibodies against citrullinated circular peptides (anti-CCP) with most of the genetic association found in anti-CCP positive RA. Here we addressed the role of VAV1, previously associated to multiple sclerosis (MS), in the pathogenesis of RA in experimental models and in a genetic association study. Experimental arthritis triggered by pristane or collagen type II was induced in DA rats and in the DA.BN-R25 congenic line that carries a polymorphism in Vav1. Difference in arthritis severity was observed only after immunization with pristane. In a case-control study, 34 SNPs from VAV1 locus were analyzed by Immunochip genotyping in 11475 RA patients (7573 anti-CCP positive and 3902 negative) and 15,870 controls in six cohorts of European Caucasians. A combination of the previous MS-associated haplotype and two additional SNPs was associated with anti-CCP negative RA (alleles G-G-A-A of rs682626-rs2546133-rs2617822-rs12979659, OR=1.13, P=1.27 × 10-5). The same markers also contributed to activity of RA at baseline with the strongest association in the anti-CCP negative group for the rs682626-rs12979659 G-A haplotype (ß=-0.283, P=0.0048). Our study suggests a role for VAV1 and T-cell signaling in the pathology of anti-CCP-negative RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/genética , Animais , Artrite Experimental/sangue , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN
3.
Genes Immun ; 15(7): 457-65, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25008863

RESUMO

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms close to IL22RA2, coding for the soluble interleukin (IL)-22-binding protein (IL-22BP), are strongly and reproducibly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is little data on how this molecule may affect neuroinflammation. Here, we have studied the mouse ortholog in C57BL/6 wild-type and Il22ra2-deficient mice in the context of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-EAE). In wild-type mice, we demonstrated changes in the levels of transcripts for IL-22, the signaling IL-22 receptor and IL-22BP in lymphoid tissues at the time of T-cell priming and in the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). Because IL-22BP is known to antagonize IL-22 signaling, a primarily pro-inflammatory cytokine, we hypothesized that the Il22ra2-deficient mice would have more severe EAE. Paradoxically, the knockout mice displayed a less severe disease course, less demyelination and less infiltration of immune cells in the CNS. The most straightforward interpretation of our findings is that lack of IL-22BP leads to a higher availability of IL-22, which in the case of CNS inflammation, surprisingly acts in a protective fashion. Thus, deletion of the ortholog of the MS risk gene Il22ra2 in mice has beneficial effects on EAE, which may be considered in new therapeutic strategies for treating neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Camundongos , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina/metabolismo
4.
Genes Immun ; 14(7): 409-19, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23784360

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is genetically complex. There is evidence supporting a role of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) humoral immunity in MS. We aimed to determine the genetic regulation of anti-MOG antibodies and their involvement in disease, by using MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rat, an animal model that closely mimics human MS. We show polygenic regulation of anti-MOG antibodies in two backcross populations, including a major genetic determinant for antibody expression on chromosome 4, Amig3. We fine-mapped the region to 539 kilobases (kb) consisting of a complex of seven C-type lectin receptor genes (Dcir4, Dcir3, Dcir2, Dcir1, Dcar1, Mcl and Mincle) that was captured in the APLEC congenic strain. We confirmed that Amig3 regulates anti-MOG antibody levels in MOG-EAE, and further showed that immune reactions during initiation of EAE were skewed toward increased numbers of B cells in the EAE-protected APLEC strain, together with higher anti-MOG IgG1 and lower IgG2b levels. Taken together, our data demonstrated complex regulation of the antibody response during EAE and that skewing the antibody response toward Th2 contributed to protection from EAE.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo
5.
Biotechnol Prog ; 16(3): 522-4, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10835259

RESUMO

Trichoderma harzianum strains T4 and T6, Acrophialophora nainiana, and Humicola grisea var. thermoidea were screened for their ability to produce carbohydrate-degrading enzyme activities in a medium containing banana plant residue as the carbon source. The best balance of enzyme activities was obtained from cultures of H. grisea var. thermoidea. Xylanase activity from crude extract of A. nainiana had a maximum activity at pH 5.5-7.0 and a temperature range of 50-55 degrees C. It was stable up to 55 degrees C at pH 7.0 for at least 2 h. The fungi were also able to produce xylanase and pectinase activities when grown on extractives as substrate.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/biossíntese , Fungos Mitospóricos/enzimologia , Meios de Cultura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 32(8): 947-52, 1999 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10454755

RESUMO

Xylanase activity was isolated from crude extracts of Trichoderma harzianum strains C and 4 grown at 28 degree C in a solid medium containing wheat bran as the carbon source. Enzyme activity was demonstrable in the permeate after ultrafiltration of the crude extracts using an Amicon system. The hydrolysis patterns of different xylans and paper pulps by xylanase activity ranged from xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose to higher xylooligosaccharides. A purified ss-xylosidase from the Trichoderma harzianum strain released xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose from seaweed, deacetylated, oat spelt and birchwood xylans. The purified enzyme was not active against acetylated xylan and catalyzed the hydrolysis of xylooligosaccharides, including xylotriose, xylotetraose and xylopentaose. However, the enzyme was not able to degrade xylohexaose. Xylanase pretreatment was effective for hardwood kraft pulp bleaching. Hardwood kraft pulp bleached in the XEOP sequence had its kappa number reduced from 13.2 to 8.9 and a viscosity of 20. 45 cp. The efficiency of delignification was 33%.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Trichoderma/enzimologia , Xilanos/metabolismo , Xilosidases/metabolismo , Xilosidases/isolamento & purificação
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 32(8): 947-52, Aug. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-238962

RESUMO

Xylanase activity was isolated from crude extracts of Trichoderma harzianum strains C and 4 grown at 28oC in a solid medium containing wheat bran as the carbon source. Enzyme activity was demonstrable in the permeate after ultrafiltration of the crude extracts using an Amicon system. The hydrolysis patterns of different xylans and paper pulps by xylanase activity ranged from xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose to higher xylooligosaccharides. A purified ß-xylosidase from the Trichoderma harzianum strain released xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose from seaweed, deacetylated, oat spelt and birchwood xylans. The purified enzyme was not active against acetylated xylan and catalyzed the hydrolysis of xylooligosaccharides, including xylotriose, xylotetraose and xylopentaose. However, the enzyme was not able to degrade xylohexaose. Xylanase pretreatment was effective for hardwood kraft pulp bleaching. Hardwood kraft pulp bleached in the XEOP sequence had its kappa number reduced from 13.2 to 8.9 and a viscosity of 20.45 cp. The efficiency of delignification was 33


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Trichoderma/enzimologia , Xilanos/metabolismo , Xilosidases/metabolismo , Xilosidases/isolamento & purificação
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