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1.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 31, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462619

RESUMO

The garfish Belone belone represents the only valid endemic Belone species for the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. It shows a wide global distribution range, with a high commercial value and ecological relevance in the pelagic domain. Despite this, there needs to be more knowledge regarding the otoliths of this species, with the total absence of descriptions regarding asterisci and lapilli from Mediterranean populations and a lack of studies on the reliability of shape analysis on its sagittae. The present paper aims to provide the first main contours description of the three otoliths pairs from a Mediterranean population, providing an accurate investigation of morphology, morphometry, and intra-specific variability of sagittae, lapilli, and asterisci. Results showed (i) the absence of directional bilateral asymmetry and sexual asymmetry for the three otoliths pairs, (ii) a different morphology and morphometry of sagittae, lapilli and asterisci than those described in the literature, and (iii) an enhanced variability between sagittae morphometry and shape between the three investigated size classes. All these data confirmed the reliability of the studied species of shape analysis, showing a geographical and size-related variability of otoliths features probably related to genetics, environmental conditions, and life habits variations.


Assuntos
Beloniformes , Membrana dos Otólitos , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Membrana dos Otólitos/anatomia & histologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sáculo e Utrículo
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 137: 108791, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37146849

RESUMO

The internal defense system of mollusks represents an efficient protection against pathogens and parasites, involving several biological immune processes, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and antigenic recognition of self/non-self. Mollusks possess professional, migratory, and circulating cells that play a key role in the defense of the organism, the hemocytes. Several studies have been performed on hemocytes from different mollusks, but, to date, these cells are still scarcely explored. Different hemocyte populations have been found, according to the presence or absence of granules, size, and the species of mollusks studied. Our study aims to deepen the knowledge of the hemocytes of the gastropod Aplysia depilans using morphological techniques and light and confocal microscopy, testing Toll-like receptor 2, inducible nitric oxide synthetase, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 subunit. Our results show two hemocyte populations distinguishable by size, and presence/absence of granules in the cytoplasm, strongly positive for the antibodies tested, suggesting for the first time the presence of these receptors on the surface of sea hare hemocytes by immunohistochemistry. These data help in the understanding of the immune system of this gastropod, providing additional data for comprehending the evolution of the defense response in metazoan phylogenesis.


Assuntos
Aplysia , Gastrópodes , Animais , Hemócitos , Moluscos , Fagocitose
3.
Acta Histochem ; 125(3): 152031, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37075648

RESUMO

The integument acts as a barrier to protect the body from harmful pathogenic infectious agents, parasites, UV rays, trauma, and germs. The integument of invertebrates and vertebrates are structurally different: while invertebrates usually have a simple monolayer epidermis frequently covered by mucus, cuticles, or mineralized structures, vertebrates possess a multilayered epidermis with several specialized cells. This study aims to describe by morphological, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses, the morpho-structural adaptations throughout evolution of the integument of gastropod Aplysia depilans (Gmelin, 1791), ascidian Styela plicata (Lesuer, 1823), myxine hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus (Forster, 1801) and teleost Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) for the first time, with special reference to sensory epidermal cells. Different types of cells could be identified that varied according to the species; including mucous cells, serous glandular cells, clavate cells, club cells, thread cells, and support cells. In all integuments of the specimens analyzed, sensory solitary cells were identified in the epidermis, immunoreactive to serotonin and calbindin. Our study provided an essential comparison of integuments, adding new information about sensory epidermal cells phylogenetic conservation and on the structural changes that invertebrates and vertebrates have undergone during evolution.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Pele , Animais , Filogenia , Epiderme , Vertebrados
4.
Zoological Lett ; 9(1): 5, 2023 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36871038

RESUMO

Metazoans have several mechanisms of internal defense for their survival. The internal defense system evolved alongside the organisms. Annelidae have circulating coelomocytes that perform functions comparable to the phagocytic immune cells of vertebrates. Several studies have shown that these cells are involved in phagocytosis, opsonization, and pathogen recognition processes. Like vertebrate macrophages, these circulating cells that permeate organs from the coelomic cavity capture or encapsulate pathogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, they produce a range of bioactive proteins involved in immune response and perform detoxification functions through their lysosomal system. Coelomocytes can also participate in lithic reactions against target cells and the release of antimicrobial peptides. Our study immunohistochemically identify coelomocytes of Lumbricus terrestris scattered in the epidermal and the connective layer below, both in the longitudinal and in the smooth muscle layer, immunoreactive for TLR2, CD14 and α-Tubulin for the first time. TLR2 and CD14 are not fully colocalized with each other, suggesting that these coelomocytes may belong to two distinct families. The expression of these immune molecules on Annelidae coelomocytes confirms their crucial role in the internal defense system of these Oligochaeta protostomes, suggesting a phylogenetic conservation of these receptors. These data could provide further insights into the understanding of the internal defense system of the Annelida and of the complex mechanisms of the immune system in vertebrates.

5.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281621, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36787328

RESUMO

Mesopelagic species are enjoining increasing attention due to the growing impact of fisheries activities on deep marine biocenosis. Improving the knowledge base on mesopelagic species is required to enhance their conservation due to the knowledge gaps regarding many species and families. In this context, otoliths can be fundamental to assessing their life history, ecomorphological adaptation to the deep environment and stock composition. The present paper aims to explore the saccular and utricular otoliths morphology and intra-specific variability of the hatchetfish, Argyropelecus hemigymnus, from the Strait of Messina. Lapilli and sagittae were collected from 70 specimens and separated into four size classes. Morphometric, shape and SEM investigations were performed to describe their morphology, contours, and external structural organization, also studying their intraspecific variability related to sample sizes and differences between otolith pairs. Results showed an otolith morphology different from those reported in the literature with fluctuating asymmetry in sagittae and lapilli belonging to Class IV, and a high otolith variability between all the size classes. Data herein described confirm the otoliths singularity of the population from the Strait of Messina, shaped by a unique marine environment for oceanographic and ecological features.


Assuntos
Peixes , Membrana dos Otólitos , Humanos , Animais , Membrana dos Otólitos/anatomia & histologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Pesqueiros
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160874, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521610

RESUMO

The survey of available scientific literature shows a lack of data on the chronic effects of tebuconazole (TEB) on non-target aquatic organisms. Therefore, this study evaluates toxicity (10 and 20 days) of two considered concentrations 2 ng/L (E1) and 2 µg/L (E2) of TEB to bioindicator species Mytilus galloprovincialis. To this end, the TEB concentrations measured in soft mussel tissues showed a time-dependent increasing trend. The viability of haemocyte and digestive gland (DG) cells was higher than 95 % during the experiment. However, DG cells lost the ability to regulate their volume in both groups after 20-d. The E1 treatment increased Cl- and Na+ levels, and E2 decreased Na+ levels in the haemolymph. In addition, levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and oxidatively modified protein (OMP) increased after 10- and 20-d in both treatments. Histopathological findings showed abnormalities in the E2, e.g., haemocyte infiltration, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia in gills and DG. This study reveals the potential risks of TEB usage in the model organism M. galloprovincialis, primarily via bioaccumulation of TEB in food web links, and improves knowledge about its comprehensive toxicity.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Mytilidae , Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Mytilus/fisiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
7.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358317

RESUMO

Deep Sea environments represent the final collector of anthropogenic debris mainly represented by both plastic and non-plastic materials with different size. This led to potential contamination of deep marine fauna due to direct and indirect ingestion, representing a potential hazard for the species itself and for the final consumer. In this framework, the present study explored the occurrence of anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract of three Decapoda species of high commercial and ecological value (Parapenaeus longirostris, Aristeus antennatus, and Aristaeomorpha foliacea) from south-western Ionian Sea. After morphometrical measurements and sex determination, the gastrointestinal tract of 136 specimens were extracted and then chemically digested. A total of 230 low density microparticles were isolated, with a high frequency of occurrence in all the analyzed species (76% in P. longirostris, 70% in A. antennatus, and 83% in A. foliacea) mainly represented by fibers (92.6%) with a size between 0.10 and 0.49 mm, and with a dominance of the blue color. The results of the present study report for the first time the anthropogenic debris presence in the studied Decapoda from south-western Ionian Sea, highlighting the necessity to broaden the knowledge about anthropogenic debris pollution status in Mediterranean deep-sea species.

8.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421366

RESUMO

The immune system of a fish has cellular and molecular defense mechanisms that are substantially retained throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The innate immune system provides biological processes, such as phagocytosis and mechanical barriers, to implement an efficient defensive response after exposure to chemical or biological contaminants, pollutants, and contact with parasites, germs, and pathogens. Club cells (CCs) are widespread in the skin of Ostariophysi. After a predator attack or exposure to toxins and parasites, these cells can produce alarming substances. Given their effectiveness against viruses, parasites, and common skin lesions, recent studies have suggested that CCs are a component of the immune system. This study aims to immunohistochemically characterize the CCs for the first time in the skin of zebrafish, using mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, Piscidin1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) peptides involved in the function of all types of vertebrate immune cells. According to our analysis, the intermediate layer of the epidermis exhibited rounded, oval, and elongated CCs, with central acidophilic cytoplasm and a spherical basophilic nucleus, that are positive to the antibodies tested. Our results may confirm that CCs could be involved in the immune function, increasing our knowledge of the immune system of teleosts.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430187

RESUMO

The amphibious teleost Giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri, Pallas 1770) inhabit muddy plains and Asian mangrove forests. It spends more than 90% of its life outside of the water, using its skin, gills, and buccal-pharyngeal cavity mucosa to breathe in oxygen from the surrounding air. All vertebrates have been found to have mast cells (MCs), which are part of the innate immune system. These cells are mostly found in the mucous membranes of the organs that come in contact with the outside environment. According to their morphology, MCs have distinctive cytoplasmic granules that are released during the degranulation process. Additionally, these cells have antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that fight a variety of infections. Piscidins, hepcidins, defensins, cathelicidins, and histonic peptides are examples of fish AMPs. Confocal microscopy was used in this study to assess Piscidin1 expression in Giant Mudskipper branchial MCs. Our results demonstrated the presence of MCs in the gills is highly positive for Piscidin1. Additionally, colocalized MCs labeled with TLR2/5-HT and Piscidin1/5-HT supported our data. The expression of Piscidin1 in giant mudskipper MCs highlights the involvement of this peptide in the orchestration of teleost immunity, advancing the knowledge of the defense system of this fish.


Assuntos
Brânquias , Perciformes , Animais , Brânquias/metabolismo , Mastócitos , Serotonina/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo
10.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(10)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290437

RESUMO

Lampriformes are circumglobally distributed and contain several families of strictly marine bony fishes that have a peculiar morphology. Lampriformes systematics is affected by limitations in biometric, meristic, and molecular data; for this reason, it underwent several rearrangements in the past. This review aimed to describe the biological and ecological characteristics of the order Lampriformes, summarizing the current taxonomy of the group. The main aim was to clarify what is known about the distribution of the order Lampriformes in the Mediterranean Sea, collecting all the scarce and fragmented reports and notes on their occurrence. Knowledge scarcity is due to their solitary nature, in addition to their low to absent economic value. Despite this, the order Lampriformes represents a taxon of high biological and ecological importance. The high depth range of distribution characterizes their lifestyle. In the Mediterranean Sea, four families are present-Lampridae, Lophotidae, Regalecidae, and Trachipteridae-with the following species respectively, Lampris guttatus (Brünnich, 1788), Lophotus lacepede (Giorna, 1809), Regalecus glesne (Ascanius, 1772), Trachipterus arcticus (Brünnich, 1788), T. trachypterus (Gmelin, 1789), and Zu cristatus (Bonelli, 1819). Data deficiencies affect information on this taxon; the present review, which collected all the reports of the Mediterranean Sea, creates a baseline for depicting the biogeography of these rare and important species.

11.
Acta Histochem ; 124(7): 151954, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174310

RESUMO

We have conducted a morphological and immunohistochemical study of the gills of juvenile specimens of the obligate air-breathing fish Heterotis niloticus. The study has been performed under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The gills showed a reduced respiratory surface area by development of an interlamellar cellular mass (ILCM). The ILCM persisted without changes under both normoxia and hypoxia. Neuroepithelial cells (NECs), the major oxygen and hypoxia sensing cell type, were located in the distal end of the gill filaments and along the ILCM edges. These cells expressed 5HT, the neuronal isoform of the nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Furthermore, NECs appeared associated with nitrergic nerve fibres. The O2 levels did not modify the location, number or the immunohistochemical characteristics of NECs. Pavement cells covering the ILCM were also positive to nNOS and VAChT. The mechanisms of O2 sensing in the gills of Heterotis appears to involve several cell populations, the release of multiple neurotransmitters and a diversity of excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Peixes , Brânquias , Animais , Biomarcadores , Peixes/metabolismo , Brânquias/fisiologia , Hipóxia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Acetilcolina
12.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101424

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that regulate the beginning of adaptive immune responses. The mechanisms of tolerance to antigens moving through the digestive tract are known to be regulated by intestinal DCs. Agnatha and Gnathostoma are descendants of a common ancestor. The Ostracoderms gave rise to Cyclostomes, whereas the Placoderms gave rise to Chondrichthyes. Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii are two evolutionary lines of bony fishes. Brachiopterygii and Neopterygii descend from the Actinopterygii. From Neopterygii, Holostei and Teleostei evolved. Using immunohistochemistry with TLR-2, Langerin/CD207, and MHC II, this study aimed to characterize intestinal DCs, from myxines to teleosts. The findings reveal that DCs are positive for the antibodies tested, highlighting the presence of DCs and DC-like cells phylogenetically from myxines, for the first time, to teleosts. These findings may aid in improving the level of knowledge about the immune system's evolution and these sentinel cells, which are crucial to the body's defense.

13.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(9)2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138844

RESUMO

The fish intestine operates as a complicated interface between the organism and the environment, providing biological and mechanical protections as a result of a viscous layer of mucus released by goblet cells, which serves as a barrier against bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, and contributes to the functions of the immune system. Therefore, goblet cells have a role in preserving the health of the body by secreting mucus and acting as sentinels. The ancient jawless fish broadgilled hagfish (Eptatretus cirrhatus, Forster, 1801) has a very basic digestive system because it lacks a stomach. By examining the presence, localization, and co-localization of 5-HT, TLR2, iNOS, and Piscidin1, this study intends to provide insight into the potential immune system contributions arranged by the gut goblet cells of broadgilled hagfish. Our results characterize intestinal goblet cells of broadgilled hagfish, for the first time, with the former antibodies, suggesting the hypothesis of conservation of the roles played by these cells also in primitive vertebrates. Moreover, this study deepens the knowledge about the still little-known immune system of hagfish.

14.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35625510

RESUMO

In fish, the spleen is the prime secondary lymphoid organ. It has a role in the induction of adaptive immune responses, in addition to its significance in the elimination of immune complexes. This study was conducted on 18 randomly obtained adult molly fish (Poecilia sphenops) of both sexes using histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies to highlight the cellular components of the spleen and their potential role in the immune system. The spleen of molly fish was characterized by the presence of well-distinct melanomacrophage centers, and other basic structures present in higher vertebrates including red and white pulps, blood vessels, and ellipsoids. Some mitotic cells could also be identified in the red pulp. Mast cells with characteristic metachromatic granules could be seen among the splenic cells. Rodlet cells were randomly distributed in the spleen and were also observed around the ellipsoids. The white pulp of the spleen expressed APG5. The expressions were well distinct in the melanomacrophages, leukocytes, and macrophages. Myostatin was expressed in leukocytes and epithelial reticular cells. IL-1ß showed immunoreactivity in monocytes and macrophages around the ellipsoids. NF-κB and TGF-ß were expressed in macrophages and epithelial reticular cells. Nrf2 expression was detected in stem cells and rodlet cells. Sox-9 had a higher expression in epithelial reticular cells and stem cells. The high frequency of immune cells in the spleen confirmed its role in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, cell proliferation, and apoptosis.

15.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(7): 2651-2658, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394101

RESUMO

The endostyle is the first component of the ascidian digestive tract, it is shaped like a through and is located in the pharynx's ventral wall. This organ is divided longitudinally into nine zones that are parallel to each other. Each zone's cells are physically and functionally distinct. Support elements are found in zones 1, 3, and 5, while mucoproteins secreting elements related to the filtering function are found in zones 2, 4, and 6. Zones 7, 8, and 9, which are located in the lateral dorsal section of the endostyle, include cells with high iodine and peroxidase concentrations. Immunohistochemical technique using the following antibodies, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and lectin histochemistry (WGA-wheat-germagglutinin), were used in this investigation to define immune cells in the endostyle of Styela plicata (Lesueur, 1823). Our results demonstrate the presence of immune cells in the endostyle of S. plicata, highlighting that innate immune mechanisms are highly conserved in the phylogeny of the chordates. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Immune cells positive to TLR-2 and VIP in the endostyle of Styela plicata. Expression of WGA in several zones of endostyle. Use of comparative biology to improve the knowledge about immunology in ascidians.


Assuntos
Urocordados , Animais , Filogenia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Urocordados/metabolismo , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo
16.
Acta Histochem ; 124(3): 151876, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303512

RESUMO

Rodlet cells (RCs) have always been an enigma for scientists. RCs have been given a variety of activities over the years, including ion transport, osmoregulation, and sensory function. These cells, presumably as members of the granulocyte line, are present only in teleosts and play a role in the innate immune response. RCs are migratory cells found in a variety of organs, including skin, vascular, digestive, uropoietic, reproductive, and respiratory systems, and present distinct physical properties that make them easily recognizable in tissues and organs. The development of RCs can be divided into four stages: granular, transitional, mature, and ruptured, having different morphological characteristics. Our study aims to characterize the different stages of these cells by histomorphological and histochemical techniques. Furthermore, we characterized these cells at all stages with peroxidase and fluorescence immunohistochemical techniques using different antibodies: S100, tubulin, α-SMA, piscidin, and for the first time TLR-2. From our results, the immunoreactivity of these cells to the antibodies performed may confirm that RCs play a role in fish defense mechanisms, helping to expand the state of the art on immunology and immune cells of teleosts.


Assuntos
Carpa Dourada , Rim , Animais , Anticorpos , Imunidade Inata , Microscopia Confocal
17.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(11): 3212-3229, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142056

RESUMO

Acetylcholine (Ach) represents the old neurotransmitter in central and peripheral nervous system. Its muscarinic and nicotinic receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) constitute an independent cholinergic system that is found in immune cells and play a key role in the regulation of the immune function and cytokine production. Gas exchanging surfaces of the gills and air-breathing organs (ABOs) of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were investigated using ultrastructural and confocal immunofluorescence techniques. This study was predominantly focused on the structure of the immune cell types, the expression of their neurotransmitters, including the antimicrobial peptide piscidin 1, and the functional significance of respiratory gas exchange epithelia. A network of immune cells (monocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells) was observed in the gill and the ABO epithelia. Eosinophils containing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immunoreactivity were seen in close association with mast cells expressing acetylcholine (Ach), 5-HT, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and piscidin 1. A rich and dense cholinergic innervation dispersing across the islet capillaries of the gas exchange barrier and the localization of Ach in the squamous pavement cells covering the capillaries were evidenced byVAChT antibodies. We report for the first time that piscidin 1 (Pis 1)-positive mast cells interact with Pis 1-positive nerves found in the epithelia of the respiratory organs. Pis 1 immunoreactivity was also observed in the covering respiratory epithelium of the ABOs and associated with a role in local mucosal immune defense. The above results anticipate future studies on the neuro-immune interactions at mucosal barrier surfaces, like the gill and the skin of fish, areas densely populated by different immune cells and sensory nerves that constantly sense and adapt to tissue-specific environmental challenges.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Receptores Nicotínicos , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Animais , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo
18.
Mar Drugs ; 20(2)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200674

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widespread in nature and possess antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Due to their multifunctional properties, these peptides are a focus of growing body of interest and have been characterized in several fish species. Due to their similarities in amino-acid composition and amphipathic design, it has been suggested that neuropeptides may be directly involved in the innate immune response against pathogen intruders. In this review, we report the molecular characterization of the fish-specific AMP piscidin1, the production of an antibody raised against this peptide and the immunohistochemical identification of this peptide and enkephalins in the neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in the gill of several teleost fish species living in different habitats. In spite of the abundant literature on Piscidin1, the biological role of this peptide in fish visceral organs remains poorly explored, as well as the role of the neuropeptides in neuroimmune interaction in fish. The NECs, by their role as sensors of hypoxia changes in the external environments, in combination with their endocrine nature and secretion of immunomodulatory substances would influence various types of immune cells that contain piscidin, such as mast cells and eosinophils, both showing interaction with the nervous system. The discovery of piscidins in the gill and skin, their diversity and their role in the regulation of immune response will lead to better selection of these immunomodulatory molecules as drug targets to retain antimicrobial barrier function and for aquaculture therapy in the future.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Aquicultura , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Peixes , Brânquias/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Neuropeptídeos/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo
19.
Zoology (Jena) ; 148: 125958, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399394

RESUMO

Heteropneustes fossilis is an air-breathing teleost inhabiting environments with very poor O2 conditions, and so it has evolved to cope with hypoxia. In the gills and respiratory air-sac, the sites for O2 sensing and the response to hypoxia rely on the expression of acetylcholine (Ach) acting via its nicotinic receptor (nAChR). This study examined the expression patterns of neuronal markers and some compounds in the NECs of the gills and respiratory air sac having an immunomodulatory function in mammalian lungs. Mucous cells, epithelial cells and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were immunopositive to a variety of both neuronal markers (VAChT, nAChR, GABA-B-R1 receptor, GAD679) and the antimicrobial peptide piscidin, an evolutionary conserved humoral component of the mucosal immune system in fish. We speculate that Ach release via nAChR from mucous cells may be modulated by GABA production in the NECs and it is required for the induction of mucus production in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The presence of piscidin in mucous cells may act in synergy with the autocrine/paracrine signals of Ach and GABA binding to GABA B R1B receptor that may play a local immunomodulatory function in the mucous epithelia of the gills and the respiratory air sac. The potential role of the NECs in the immunobiological behaviour of the gill/air-sac is at moment a matter of speculation. The extent to which the NECs as such may participate is elusive at this stage and waits investigation.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Brânquias/citologia , Muco/metabolismo , Células Neuroepiteliais/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Sacos Aéreos/citologia , Animais , Peixes-Gato/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/genética
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16315, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381131

RESUMO

Otolith features are useful tools for studying taxonomy, ecology, paleontology, and fish biology since they represent a permanent record of life history. Nevertheless, the functional morphology of otoliths remains an open research question that is useful to completely understand their eco-morphology. This study aims to deepen the knowledge of intra- and interspecific variation in sagitta morphology in three congeneric seabreams, to understand how such variability could be related to the lifestyles of each species. Therefore, the sagittae (n = 161) of 24 Pagellus bogaraveo, 24 Pagellus acarne, and 37 Pagellus erythrinus specimens, collected from the south Tyrrhenian Sea, were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and a stereomicroscope to assess morphometric features, variability between otolith pairs and the external crystalline structure the of sulcus acusticus. Statistical analysis demonstrated that, between the species, variability in sagittal otolith rostral length growth and sulcus acusticus features, correlated with increased fish total length and body weight. Moreover, slight differences between otolith pairs were detected in P. acarne and P. erythrinus (P < 0.05). The results confirm changes in otolith morphometry and morphology between different congeneric species and populations of the same species from different habitats.

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