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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e264875, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651450

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the phytochemical profile of essential oil obtained from the leaves of Coriandrum sativum L., and its antifungal activity against Candida spp. The research consisted of an in vitro study including collecting the vegetable product, analysis of its macronutrients, extraction, and chemical analysis of the essential oil, and assaying antifungal activity through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), with growth inhibition kinetics, and the product's effects on multi-species Candida biofilm. Nitrogen (47.08 g Kg-1), phosphorus (5.3 g Kg-1) and potassium (50.46 g Kg-1) levels were within the normal range. The major constituents were octanal, decanal, dec-(2E)-enal, and dodecanal. The MIC and MFC of the product evaluated against 11 tested Candida strains ranged from 31.25 to 250 µg/mL. There was inhibition of fungal growth during 24 hours of exposure at the 3 concentrations tested (250, 125, and 62.5 µg/mL). The concentration of 80 mg/mL promoted the greatest reduction in multispecies biofilm (70% reduction in biofilm). Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil extract is principally constituted of alcohols and aldehydes and presents fungicidal activity against Candida spp. in its in planktonic and biofilm forms.


Assuntos
Coriandrum , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida , Plâncton , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4100-4108, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197850

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative agents of food poisoning. This bacterium is an important component of cheese microbiota and plays an important role in foodborne diseases. Another important component of the microbiota is the lactic acid bacterium, which actively participates in processes that define the physicochemical, sensorial, and microbiological features of cheese. Of the various microbiological interactions in cheese, the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and Staph. aureus is most relevant. To this end, we evaluated the viability of Staph. aureus strains and the expression of their enterotoxins in cheeses produced experimentally, using Weissella paramesenteroides GIR16L4 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus D1 or both as starter cultures. Over 7 d, we observed that the presence of lactic acid bacteria did not impair Staph. aureus growth. However, via qPCR we observed a change in the gene expression of staphylococcal enterotoxins, suggesting that molecular communication exists between Staph. aureus strains and lactic acid bacteria in cheese.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superantígenos/metabolismo , Weissella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Queijo/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Leite , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Superantígenos/genética , Transcriptoma , Weissella/metabolismo
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2098-2110, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980224

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in cheeses produced with raw milk, including Minas artisanal cheese from Brazil. However, information about S. aureus isolated from artisanal cheeses and its sources of production in small-scale dairies is very limited. We aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from raw milk, endogenous starter culture, Minas artisanal cheese, and cheese handlers from the region of Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We identified the staphylococcal isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We evaluated biofilm production on Congo red agar and polystyrene plates. We used PCR to detect icaA, icaB, icaC, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, tsst-1, agr, and mecA. We evaluated the expression of staphylococcal toxin genes in PCR-positive staphylococcal isolates using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and we evaluated the production of these toxins and their hemolytic activity in vitro. We also evaluated the antimicrobial resistance profile of the staphylococcal isolates. For statistical analysis, we used cluster analysis, χ2 tests, and correspondence tests. We analyzed 76 staphylococcal isolates. According to PCR, 18.42, 18.42, 2.63, and 77.63% were positive for sea, tsst-1, sec, and agr, respectively. We found low expression of staphylococcal toxin genes according to quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and only 2 staphylococcal isolates produced toxic shock syndrome toxins. A total of 43 staphylococcal isolates (56.58%) had hemolytic activity; 53 were biofilm-forming on Congo red agar (69.73%), and 62 on polystyrene plates (81.58%). None of the staphylococcal isolates expressed the mecA gene, and none presented a multi-drug resistance pattern. The highest resistance was observed for penicillin G (67.11%) in 51 isolates and for tetracycline (27.63%) in 21 isolates. The staphylococcal isolates we evaluated had toxigenic potential, with a higher prevalence of sea and tsst-1. Biofilm production was the main virulence factor of the studied bacteria. Six clusters were formed whose distribution frequencies differed for hemolytic activity, biofilm formation (qualitative and quantitative analyses), and resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These findings emphasize the need for effective measures to prevent staphylococcal food poisoning by limiting S. aureus growth and enterotoxin formation throughout the food production chain and the final product.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Queijo/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar Estafilocócica/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Brasil , Enterotoxinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Superantígenos/genética
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 647-657, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011286

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese is made from endogenous starter cultures, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some LAB may possess probiotic potential. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in Minas Gerais. Ten samples of lactobacilli, formerly isolated from those cheeses, were submitted to the following assays: antimicrobial susceptibility, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and biliary salts, production of hydrogen peroxide and antagonism against pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Only L. plantarum (C0) was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials, while the other LAB samples were resistant to at least one drug. Six samples were tolerant to artificial gastric juice, and L. brevis (A6) even grew in that medium. Three samples were tolerant to biliary salts. Only L. brevis (E35) produced hydrogen peroxide. Difference (P< 0.05) was observed among the means of inhibition haloes of lactobacilli against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Lactobacillus plantarum C24 in spot-on-the-lawn assay. All samples of lactobacilli inhibited Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in co-culture antagonism test (P< 0.0001). Most lactobacilli samples showed in vitro probiotic potential. From the tested samples, L. brevis (A6) presented the best results considering all in vitro probiotic tests.(AU)


O queijo minas artesanal é produzido por culturas starters endógenas, incluindo bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL). Algumas BAL podem possuir potencial probiótico. Com isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades probióticas in vitro de lactobacilos isolados de queijo minas artesanal produzido no estado de Minas Gerais. Dez amostras de lactobacilos, previamente isoladas desses queijos, foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, tolerância ao suco gástrico artificial e aos sais biliares, produção de peróxido de hidrogênio e antagonismo contra micro-organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos. Apenas L. plantarum (C0) foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados, enquanto as outras amostras de BAL foram resistentes a, pelo menos, uma droga testada. Seis amostras foram tolerantes ao suco gástrico artificial, e L. brevis (A6) apresentou crescimento nesse meio. Três amostras foram tolerantes aos sais biliares. Apenas L. brevis (E35) produziu peróxido de hidrogênio. Diferença (P<0,05) foi observada entre as médias dos halos de inibição de lactobacilos contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 e Lactobacillus plantarum C24 no teste do spot-on-the-lawn. Todas as amostras de lactobacilos inibiram Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 no teste de antagonismo em cocultura (P<0,0001). A maioria das amostras de lactobacilos apresentou potencial probiótico in vitro. Com base nas amostras testadas, L. brevis (A6) apresentou os melhores resultados, considerando-se todos os testes probióticos in vitro.(AU)


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Antibiose
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 647-657, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23555

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese is made from endogenous starter cultures, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some LAB may possess probiotic potential. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in Minas Gerais. Ten samples of lactobacilli, formerly isolated from those cheeses, were submitted to the following assays: antimicrobial susceptibility, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and biliary salts, production of hydrogen peroxide and antagonism against pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Only L. plantarum (C0) was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials, while the other LAB samples were resistant to at least one drug. Six samples were tolerant to artificial gastric juice, and L. brevis (A6) even grew in that medium. Three samples were tolerant to biliary salts. Only L. brevis (E35) produced hydrogen peroxide. Difference (P< 0.05) was observed among the means of inhibition haloes of lactobacilli against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Lactobacillus plantarum C24 in spot-on-the-lawn assay. All samples of lactobacilli inhibited Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in co-culture antagonism test (P< 0.0001). Most lactobacilli samples showed in vitro probiotic potential. From the tested samples, L. brevis (A6) presented the best results considering all in vitro probiotic tests.(AU)


O queijo minas artesanal é produzido por culturas starters endógenas, incluindo bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL). Algumas BAL podem possuir potencial probiótico. Com isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades probióticas in vitro de lactobacilos isolados de queijo minas artesanal produzido no estado de Minas Gerais. Dez amostras de lactobacilos, previamente isoladas desses queijos, foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, tolerância ao suco gástrico artificial e aos sais biliares, produção de peróxido de hidrogênio e antagonismo contra micro-organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos. Apenas L. plantarum (C0) foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados, enquanto as outras amostras de BAL foram resistentes a, pelo menos, uma droga testada. Seis amostras foram tolerantes ao suco gástrico artificial, e L. brevis (A6) apresentou crescimento nesse meio. Três amostras foram tolerantes aos sais biliares. Apenas L. brevis (E35) produziu peróxido de hidrogênio. Diferença (P<0,05) foi observada entre as médias dos halos de inibição de lactobacilos contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 e Lactobacillus plantarum C24 no teste do spot-on-the-lawn. Todas as amostras de lactobacilos inibiram Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 no teste de antagonismo em cocultura (P<0,0001). A maioria das amostras de lactobacilos apresentou potencial probiótico in vitro. Com base nas amostras testadas, L. brevis (A6) apresentou os melhores resultados, considerando-se todos os testes probióticos in vitro.(AU)


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Antibiose
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 78(4): 691-696, Nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-736206

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals thymol, linalool, and citronellol against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis. Disk diffusion screening on solid medium and measurement of the diameter of the bacterial growth inhibition halos was the technique utilized. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the substances was determined using serial substance dilutions and microdilution technique in Brain Heart Infusion culture medium. After incubation for 24 hours in an oven at 37 °C, plate reading was completed and confirmed by visual method using 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dye. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined from MIC subcultures. Assays were performed in triplicate, and chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The diameters in mm of the growth inhibition halos ranged between 7.3 and 10.7 for S. mutans, 7.3 and 10.0 for S. oralis, and 8.2 and 9.8 for S. salivarius. The MIC and MBC values obtained converged, ranging from maximum values in the presence of Linalool (1,250.0 mg/mL, 2,500.0 mg/mL and 2,500.0 mg/mL, respectively, for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius); and minimum values with Thymol (312.5 g/ml, 156.2 g/mL and 156.2 g/ml, respectively for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius). All the tested phytochemicals displayed antibacterial activity, thus representing substances with potential applications in preventing tooth decay.(AU)


Este estudo objetivou avaliar a atividade antibacteriana in vitro dos fitoquímicos timol, linalol e citronelol sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivaris e Streptococcus oralis. Utilizou-se a técnica de discos de difusão em meio sólido e medição do diâmetro dos halos de inibição. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) das substâncias foi determinada utilizando diluições em série das substâncias e técnica de microdiluição em meio de cultura de Brain Heart Infusion. Após incubação durante 24 horas em estufa a 37 °C, a leitura da placa foi confirmada pelo método visual usando o corante 2,3,5 trifenil cloreto de tetrazólio. A concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) foi determinada a partir de subculturas de MIC. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata, e clorexidina foi usada como um controle positivo. Os diâmetros dos halos de inibição do crescimento variaram entre 7,3 e 10,7 por S. mutans, 7,3 e 10,0 por S. oralis, e 8,2 e 9,8 para S. salivaris. Os valores de CIM e CBM obtidos variaram de valores máximos na presença de linalol (1.250,0 mg/mL, 2.500.0 mg/mL e 2.500.0 mg/mL, respectivamente, para o S. mutans, S oralis e S. salivaris); a valores mínimos com timol (312,5 g/ml, 156,2 g/mL e 156,2 g/ml, respectivamente para S. mutans, S. oralis e S. salivaris). Todos os fitoquímicos testados apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, representando, assim, substâncias com potencial de aplicações na prevenção da cárie dentária.(AU)


Assuntos
Timol/uso terapêutico , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Cariogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Odontologia Preventiva/tendências
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 691-696, Nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951593

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals thymol, linalool, and citronellol against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis. Disk diffusion screening on solid medium and measurement of the diameter of the bacterial growth inhibition halos was the technique utilized. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the substances was determined using serial substance dilutions and microdilution technique in Brain Heart Infusion culture medium. After incubation for 24 hours in an oven at 37 °C, plate reading was completed and confirmed by visual method using 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dye. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined from MIC subcultures. Assays were performed in triplicate, and chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The diameters in mm of the growth inhibition halos ranged between 7.3 and 10.7 for S. mutans, 7.3 and 10.0 for S. oralis, and 8.2 and 9.8 for S. salivarius. The MIC and MBC values obtained converged, ranging from maximum values in the presence of Linalool (1,250.0 mg/mL, 2,500.0 mg/mL and 2,500.0 mg/mL, respectively, for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius); and minimum values with Thymol (312.5 μg/ml, 156.2 μg/mL and 156.2 μg/ml, respectively for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius). All the tested phytochemicals displayed antibacterial activity, thus representing substances with potential applications in preventing tooth decay.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a atividade antibacteriana in vitro dos fitoquímicos timol, linalol e citronelol sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivaris e Streptococcus oralis. Utilizou-se a técnica de discos de difusão em meio sólido e medição do diâmetro dos halos de inibição. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) das substâncias foi determinada utilizando diluições em série das substâncias e técnica de microdiluição em meio de cultura de Brain Heart Infusion. Após incubação durante 24 horas em estufa a 37 °C, a leitura da placa foi confirmada pelo método visual usando o corante 2,3,5 trifenil cloreto de tetrazólio. A concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) foi determinada a partir de subculturas de MIC. Os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata, e clorexidina foi usada como um controle positivo. Os diâmetros dos halos de inibição do crescimento variaram entre 7,3 e 10,7 por S. mutans, 7,3 e 10,0 por S. oralis, e 8,2 e 9,8 para S. salivaris. Os valores de CIM e CBM obtidos variaram de valores máximos na presença de linalol (1.250,0 mg/mL, 2.500.0 mg/mL e 2.500.0 mg/mL, respectivamente, para o S. mutans, S oralis e S. salivaris); a valores mínimos com timol (312,5 μg/ml, 156,2 μg/mL e 156,2 μg/ml, respectivamente para S. mutans, S. oralis e S. salivaris). Todos os fitoquímicos testados apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, representando, assim, substâncias com potencial de aplicações na prevenção da cárie dentária.


Assuntos
Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos
8.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 78(2): 368-374, maio-ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-735321

RESUMO

This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6%) and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%), followed by Candida krusei (25.0%); and Candida tropicalis (4.2%). The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL), followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL), and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL).Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.(AU)


Este estudo analisou a atividade antifúngica do fitoconstituinte linalol em cepas de Candida ssp, in vitro, isolados de pacientes com o diagnóstico clínico de candidíase oral associado ao uso de prótese dentária. As amostras biológicas foram coletadas de 12 pacientes portadores de próteses totais ou próteses parciais removíveis e que apresentavam características de mucosa eritematosa difusa ou pontilhadas, indicando um diagnóstico clínico de candidíase. Para identificar colônias de fungos do gênero Candida, as amostras foram semeadas em CHROMagar Candida®. A atividade antifúngica do linalol, um componente insaturado monoterpene de óleo de manjericão, foi realizada através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Em seguida, a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC), as duas concentrações consecutivas mais fortes e os controles positivos foram subcultivados em placas de Agar Sabouraud Dextrose para determinar a concentração fungicida mínima (MFC). Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata e a nistatina foi usada como controle positivo em todos os testes. O diagnóstico de candidíase oral foi comprovado em oito pacientes (66,6%) e as espécies de fungos mais prevalentes foram Candida albicans (37,5%), seguido por Candida krusei (25,0%); e Candida tropicalis (4,2%). A melhor atividade antifúngica do linalol foi observada em Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/ml), seguido por Candida albicans (CIM = 1,000 mg/mL), e Candida krusei (CIM = 2,000 mg/mL). Sob as condições do estudo e com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que as estirpes de Candida testadas foram susceptíveis a linalol.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Candidíase Bucal/terapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Monoterpenos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 368-374, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888882

RESUMO

Abstract This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6%) and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%), followed by Candida krusei (25.0%); and Candida tropicalis (4.2%). The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL), followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL), and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL).Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.


Resumo Este estudo analisou a atividade antifúngica do fitoconstituinte linalol em cepas de Candida ssp, in vitro, isolados de pacientes com o diagnóstico clínico de candidíase oral associado ao uso de prótese dentária. As amostras biológicas foram coletadas de 12 pacientes portadores de próteses totais ou próteses parciais removíveis e que apresentavam características de mucosa eritematosa difusa ou pontilhadas, indicando um diagnóstico clínico de candidíase. Para identificar colônias de fungos do gênero Candida, as amostras foram semeadas em CHROMagar Candida®. A atividade antifúngica do linalol, um componente insaturado monoterpene de óleo de manjericão, foi realizada através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Em seguida, a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC), as duas concentrações consecutivas mais fortes e os controles positivos foram subcultivados em placas de Agar Sabouraud Dextrose para determinar a concentração fungicida mínima (MFC). Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata e a nistatina foi usada como controle positivo em todos os testes. O diagnóstico de candidíase oral foi comprovado em oito pacientes (66,6%) e as espécies de fungos mais prevalentes foram Candida albicans (37,5%), seguido por Candida krusei (25,0%); e Candida tropicalis (4,2%). A melhor atividade antifúngica do linalol foi observada em Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/ml), seguido por Candida albicans (CIM = 1,000 mg/mL), e Candida krusei (CIM = 2,000 mg/mL). Sob as condições do estudo e com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que as estirpes de Candida testadas foram susceptíveis a linalol.


Assuntos
Humanos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos Acíclicos
10.
Braz J Biol ; 78(4): 691-696, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412250

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals thymol, linalool, and citronellol against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis. Disk diffusion screening on solid medium and measurement of the diameter of the bacterial growth inhibition halos was the technique utilized. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the substances was determined using serial substance dilutions and microdilution technique in Brain Heart Infusion culture medium. After incubation for 24 hours in an oven at 37 °C, plate reading was completed and confirmed by visual method using 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dye. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined from MIC subcultures. Assays were performed in triplicate, and chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The diameters in mm of the growth inhibition halos ranged between 7.3 and 10.7 for S. mutans, 7.3 and 10.0 for S. oralis, and 8.2 and 9.8 for S. salivarius. The MIC and MBC values obtained converged, ranging from maximum values in the presence of Linalool (1,250.0 mg/mL, 2,500.0 mg/mL and 2,500.0 mg/mL, respectively, for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius); and minimum values with Thymol (312.5 µg/ml, 156.2 µg/mL and 156.2 µg/ml, respectively for S. mutans, S. oralis, and S. salivarius). All the tested phytochemicals displayed antibacterial activity, thus representing substances with potential applications in preventing tooth decay.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
11.
Braz J Biol ; 78(2): 368-374, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977047

RESUMO

This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6%) and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%), followed by Candida krusei (25.0%); and Candida tropicalis (4.2%). The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL), followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL), and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL).Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
12.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 46(5): 662-667, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28233648

RESUMO

This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of (S)-(-)-perillyl alcohol (PA) on orofacial nociception in Swiss male mice using formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced pain tests. For each test, eight animals per group were pre-treated intraperitoneally by a blinded investigator with PA (50 or 75mg/kg), morphine, or vehicle (saline+0.2% Tween 80). The treatment was performed before the induction of orofacial nociception by injecting formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate solution into the right area of the upper lip. The orofacial nociceptive behaviour was timed in all tests by an investigator who was blinded to the treatments. The statistical analysis was performed using confidence intervals (CI), the effect size, and power. PA blocked the orofacial nociceptive behaviour at both doses tested (P<0.05) similarly to morphine (P>0.05), in all tests. The effect size was high in the phase 1 formalin test for 50mg/kg PA (95% CI 0.48-2.31, power 84.6%) and 75mg/kg PA (95% CI 0.82-2.76, power 96.2%), in phase 2 for 75mg/kg PA (95% CI 0.44-2.26, power 82.3%), and in the glutamate test for 75mg/kg PA (95% CI 1.11-3.16, power 99.2%). These findings show strong evidence for the antinociceptive properties of PA in the orofacial region.


Assuntos
Dor Facial/tratamento farmacológico , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Capsaicina , Formaldeído , Ácido Glutâmico , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfina/farmacologia , Medição da Dor
13.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 18(6): 1053-1057, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27419375

RESUMO

Jatropha curcas is an oilseed crop renowned for its tolerance to a diverse range of environmental stresses. In Brazil, this species is grown in semiarid regions where crop establishment requires a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying appropriate seed, seedling and plant behaviour under water restriction conditions. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the physiological and cytological profiles of J. curcas seeds in response to imbibition in water (control) and in polyethylene glycol solution (osmoticum). Seed germinability and reactivation of cell cycle events were assessed by means of different germination parameters and immunohistochemical detection of tubulin and microtubules, i.e. tubulin accumulation and microtubular cytoskeleton configurations in water imbibed seeds (control) and in seeds imbibed in the osmoticum. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increasing accumulation of tubulin and appearance of microtubular cytoskeleton in seed embryo radicles imbibed in water from 48 h onwards. Mitotic microtubules were only visible in seeds imbibed in water, after radicle protrusion, as an indication of cell cycle reactivation and cell proliferation, with subsequent root development. Imbibition in osmoticum prevented accumulation of microtubules, i.e. activation of cell cycle, therefore germination could not be resumed. Osmoconditioned seeds were able to survive re-drying and could resume germination after re-imbibition in water, however, with lower germination performance, possibly due to acquisition of secondary dormancy. This study provides important insights into understanding of the physiological aspects of J. curcas seed germination in response to water restriction conditions.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Germinação , Jatropha/fisiologia , Pressão Osmótica , Ciclo Celular , Jatropha/citologia , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Plântula/citologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/citologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Água/fisiologia
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(8): 6086-6096, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27289151

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Brasil , Queijo/análise , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus lactis/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Chuva , Água
15.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(1)2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909904

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of a modification of the simulated individual best linear unbiased prediction (BLUPIS) procedure, which is used for the approximation of classic individuals (BLUPI) for selection between and within sugarcane families. A total of 110 full-sib families were employed in an experiment initiated in 2007 using a randomized block design with five replicates. The variable tons of stalks per hectare was measured from a plot containing 20 plants. The modified BLUPIS (BLUPISM) procedure showed a 0.98 correlation with BLUPI, thus demonstrating great efficiency in selecting individuals in sugarcane families during the initial phase of genetic breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Modelos Genéticos , Saccharum/genética , Seleção Genética
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(5): 1592-1600, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-12239

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o potencial probiótico in vitro de Lactobacillus spp. isolados de queijos minas artesanais da Serra da Canastra, considerando-se o antagonismo entre amostras isoladas frente a microrganismos indicadores, a susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos, a sensibilidade ao ácido gástrico e a sensibilidade a sais biliares. Todas as bactérias ácido-lácticas testadas apresentaram resistência ao ácido gástrico (pH 2,0) e aos sais biliares (0,3%), bem como atividade antagonista contra Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium, Enterococcus faecalis e bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas dos próprios queijos - Lactobacillus plantarum (D27) e Lactobacillus rhamnosus (B25). Todas as amostras foram sensíveis à eritromicina e tetraciclina e resistentes à ciprofloxacina, gentamicina, oxacilina, estreptomicina e vancomicina. L. plantarum (B17) apresentou melhor potencial probiótico, pois obteve resultados satisfatórios em todas as propriedades avaliadas. Mais estudos são necessários para verificar a presença e a capacidade de transmissão de genes de resistência antimicrobiana a outros microrganismos e para avaliar o potencial dos microrganismos in vivo. As bactérias selecionadas poderão ser utilizadas na elaboração de queijos em que sejam mantidos o sabor e a tradição do queijo minas artesanal do estado de Minas Gerais.(AU)


The aim of this study was to determine some in vitro probiotic features of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Minas artisanal cheese from Serra da Canastra in order to select some bacteria for future production of safer cheeses keeping their natural flavor and tradition. The evaluated properties were antagonism against indicator microorganisms, antimicrobial susceptibility and also sensitivity to gastric acid and to bile salts. All lactic acid bacteria tested were resistant to gastric acid (pH 2.0) and bile salts (0.3%). Antagonistic activities were detected against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella entericavar. Typhimurium, Enterococcus faecalis and other lactic bacteria isolated from the same cheese - Lactobacillus plantarum (D27) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (B25). All samples were sensitive to the antimicrobials erythromycin, tetracycline and resistant to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, oxacillin, streptomycin and vancomycin. L.plantarum (B17) presented the best probiotic potential. Further studies are needed to verify the presence and the capacity of transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes to other microorganisms and evaluate the in vivo probiotic potential of the selected microorganisms.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Queijo/análise , Lactobacillus , Probióticos/análise , Bactérias , Ácido Láctico
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(5): 1592-1600, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-729757

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o potencial probiótico in vitro de Lactobacillus spp. isolados de queijos minas artesanais da Serra da Canastra, considerando-se o antagonismo entre amostras isoladas frente a microrganismos indicadores, a susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos, a sensibilidade ao ácido gástrico e a sensibilidade a sais biliares. Todas as bactérias ácido-lácticas testadas apresentaram resistência ao ácido gástrico (pH 2,0) e aos sais biliares (0,3%), bem como atividade antagonista contra Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium, Enterococcus faecalis e bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas dos próprios queijos - Lactobacillus plantarum (D27) e Lactobacillus rhamnosus (B25). Todas as amostras foram sensíveis à eritromicina e tetraciclina e resistentes à ciprofloxacina, gentamicina, oxacilina, estreptomicina e vancomicina. L. plantarum (B17) apresentou melhor potencial probiótico, pois obteve resultados satisfatórios em todas as propriedades avaliadas. Mais estudos são necessários para verificar a presença e a capacidade de transmissão de genes de resistência antimicrobiana a outros microrganismos e para avaliar o potencial dos microrganismos in vivo. As bactérias selecionadas poderão ser utilizadas na elaboração de queijos em que sejam mantidos o sabor e a tradição do queijo minas artesanal do estado de Minas Gerais...


The aim of this study was to determine some in vitro probiotic features of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Minas artisanal cheese from Serra da Canastra in order to select some bacteria for future production of safer cheeses keeping their natural flavor and tradition. The evaluated properties were antagonism against indicator microorganisms, antimicrobial susceptibility and also sensitivity to gastric acid and to bile salts. All lactic acid bacteria tested were resistant to gastric acid (pH 2.0) and bile salts (0.3%). Antagonistic activities were detected against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella entericavar. Typhimurium, Enterococcus faecalis and other lactic bacteria isolated from the same cheese - Lactobacillus plantarum (D27) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (B25). All samples were sensitive to the antimicrobials erythromycin, tetracycline and resistant to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, oxacillin, streptomycin and vancomycin. L.plantarum (B17) presented the best probiotic potential. Further studies are needed to verify the presence and the capacity of transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes to other microorganisms and evaluate the in vivo probiotic potential of the selected microorganisms...


Assuntos
Animais , Lactobacillus , Queijo/análise , Bactérias , Ácido Láctico , Probióticos/análise
18.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 618-627, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-722283

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica) using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10) and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.


O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar criticamente a produção científica acerca do uso de plantas medicinais em Odontologia nos periódicos brasileiros especializados. Realizou-se uma revisão da literatura, utilizando técnica de documentação indireta a partir de um estudo bibliográfico. Quatro pesquisadores procederam, de forma independente, uma busca nas revistas brasileiras de plantas medicinais indexadas na base de dados Scielo (Revista brasileira de farmacognosia; Revista brasileira de plantas medicinais; Brazilian journal of pharmaceutical sciences; Acta botânica. brasílica) utilizando como descritores "fitoterapia" ou "plantas medicinais" e "Odontologia". Os artigos publicados de 2002 a 2012 que envolveram o uso de plantas medicinais em Odontologia foram incluídos e analisados. A busca por descritores e leitura de resumos gerou 155 artigos, dos quais 44 foram lidos na íntegra, sendo selecionadas 16 publicações que se enquadraram aos critérios requeridos. Estudos laboratoriais foram majoritários (10), e limitaram-se em avaliar propriedades antimicrobianas através das concentrações inibitórias, fungicidas e bactericidas. Três foram revisões da literatura e apenas um ensaio clínico esteve presente, sendo o cegamento e a randomização ausentes. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de um melhor delineamento metodológico das pesquisas e de uma maior produção de estudos clínicos ou in vivo.


Assuntos
Odontologia/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Atividades Científicas e Tecnológicas , Etnobotânica/métodos , Fitoterapia/instrumentação , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(4): 649-655, 2012. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-664017

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antifúngica dos óleos essenciais de Ocimum basilicum L. (manjericão), Cymbopogon martinii L. (palmarosa), Thymus vulgaris L. (tomilho) e Cinnamomum cassia Blume (canela da china) sobre cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes HIV positivos e cepa padrão (ATCC 76845). Quinze amostras clínicas de C. albicans (C1-C15) foram repicadas em ágar Sabouraud Dextrose, para confecção de suspensões em solução salina estéril (0,9%) contendo 1,5 x 10(6) UFC mL-1. As emulsões dos óleos essenciais foram preparadas em água destilada estéril e tween 80, com concentrações variando entre 1024 µg mL-1 e 4 µg mL-1. A ação antifúngica foi determinada por meio da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) utilizando-se a técnica da microdiluição. Foram utilizados como controles positivos a nistatina e o miconazol (50 µg mL-1). Os testes foram realizados em triplicata, sendo a CIM, a menor concentração capaz de inibir o crescimento das leveduras, observada por método visual de acordo com a turvação do meio de cultura. Para C. albicans (ATCC 76845), a CIM do óleo essencial de C. cassia foi 64 µg mL-1, enquanto para óleo de C. martinii foi 1024 µg mL-1. Para as cepas clínicas, verificou-se que a CIM de C. cassia para 80% das cepas foi 64 µg mL-1, sendo a variação dos valores da CIM entre 128 µg mL-1 e 64 µg mL-1. Observou-se que para 66,6% das amostras clínicas, a CIM de C. martinii foi 612 µg mL-1. Constatou-se que a nistatina não apresentou atividade frente às cepas clínicas (C1-C15), enquanto a atividade antifúngica do miconazol foi verificada em 100% das amostras. Não se constatou atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de O. basilicum e T. vulgaris, nas concentrações avaliadas. Concluiu-se que os óleos essenciais de C. cassia e C. martinii, em diferentes concentrações, apresentam atividade antifúngica sobre cepas de C. albicans isoladas de pacientes HIV positivos e cepa padrão (ATCC 76845). Entretanto não foi observada inibição antimicrobiana para os óleos de O. basilicum e T. vulgaris.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Cymbopogon martinii L. (palmarosa), Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) and Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Chinese cinnamon) against Candida albicans strains isolated from HIV-positive patients and the standard strain (ATCC 76845). Fifteen clinical samples of C. albicans (C1-C15) were subcultured in Sabouraud Dextrose agar to prepare suspensions in sterile saline solution (0.9%) containing 1.5 x 10(6) CFU mL-1. The emulsions of essential oils were prepared in sterile distilled water and Tween 80, with concentrations ranging between 1024 µg mL-1 and 4 µg mL-1. The antifungal action was determined by means of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), using the microdilution technique. Nystatin and miconazole (50 µg mL-1) were used as positive controls. The tests were performed in triplicate and the MIC was the lowest concentration capable of inhibiting the growth of yeasts, which was observed by the visual method, according to the turbidity of the culture medium. For C. albicans (ATCC 76845), the MIC of C. cassia essential oil was 64 µg mL-1, while the MIC for C. martini was 1024 µg mL-1. Considering the clinical strains, the MIC of C. cassia was 64 µg mL-1 for 80% of the strains, and the variation in MIC values was between 128 µg mL-1 and 64 µg mL-1. For 66.6% of the clinical samples, the MIC of C. matinii was 612 µg mL-1. Nystatin did not present activity against the clinical strains (C1-C15), while the antifungal activity of miconazole was noticed for 100% of the samples. The antimicobrial activity of essential oils from O. basilicum and T. vulgaris was not identified at the evaluated concentrations. It was concluded that the essential oils from C. cassia and C. martinii, at different concentrations, presented antifungal activity against C. albicans strains isolated from HIV-positive patients and the standard strain (ATCC 76845). However, antifungal activity was not observed for the essential oils from O. basilicum and T. vulgaris.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/análise , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/classificação , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/efeitos adversos , HIV , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Ocimum basilicum/efeitos adversos , Thymus serpyllum/efeitos adversos
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(4): 700-711, 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-664024

RESUMO

Natural products have emerged as an effective and low-cost alternative for treating various diseases of the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate, through a systematic literature review, if there is scientific evidence ensuring the safe and effective use of natural product(s)-containing mouthwashes as adjunctive treatment of biofilm-induced gingivitis. Searches were conducted in the databases Medline, SciELO, LILACS and Cochrane Library, by using combinations of the key words gingivitis/natural products/phytotherapy/mouthwash, in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Studies published until September 2010 were considered. Four examiners analyzed independently: study design and phase, methodological quality (Jadad scale - JE), experimental product and its concentration, dosing interval and time of usage, as well as employed statistical analysis and clinical outcome of interest. From the 503 articles found, 08 were included in the final review as phase II, controlled, randomized and blind clinical trials, scoring 4 (25%) and 5 (75%) in JE. The main natural products assessed were: Azadirachta indica, Garcinia mangostana, Lippia sidoides, Salvadora persica and Sesamum indicum whose concentration, dosing interval, time of usage and adverse effects varied according to each study. The Plaque and Gingival Index were most employed, as well as α = 5% and paired t, Student's t, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. A total of 62.5% and 50% of the products significantly reduced supragingival biofilm and gingivitis, respectively. Mouthwashes containing the essential oil from the leaves of L. sidoides (1%) and the extract from the leaves of A. indica (25%) can be indicated as adjunctive treatment of biofilm-induced gingivitis.


Os produtos naturais têm surgido como alternativa eficaz e de baixo custo para o tratamento de várias doenças da cavidade oral. Objetivou-se avaliar, a partir de revisão sistemática da literatura, se há evidências científicas garantindo a utilização segura e eficaz de antissépticos bucais contendo produto(s) natural(is) como tratamento adjuvante da gengivite induzida por biofilme. Foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO, LILACS e Cochrane Library, através de combinações usando as palavras-chave gengivite/produtos naturais/ fitoterápicos/bochechos, em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. Consideraram-se os estudos publicados até setembro de 2010. Quatro examinadores analisaram separadamente: desenho e fase do estudo, qualidade metodológica (escala de Jadad - EJ), produto experimental e a concentração, intervalo de administração e tempo de uso, bem como a análise estatística empregada e os resultados clínicos de interesse. Foram encontrados 503 artigos dos quais 08 foram incluídos na revisão final como sendo ensaios clínicos fase II, controlados, randomizados e cegos, marcando 4 (25%) e 5 (75%) na EJ. Os principais produtos naturais avaliados foram Azadirachta indica, Garcinia mangostana, Lippia sidoides, Salvadora persica e Sesamum indicum, cuja concentração, intervalo de administração, tempo de uso, e efeitos adversos, variaram de acordo com cada estudo. Índice de placa e Índice Gengival foram os mais utilizados, bem como α=5% e testes t-pareado, t-Student, Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney. 62,5% e 50% dos produtos reduziram significativamente a presença de bioflme supragengival e gengivite, respectivamente. Os colutórios contendo o óleo essencial das folhas de L. sidoides (1%) e o extrato das folhas de A. indica (25%) podem ser indicados como tratamento adjuvante da gengivite induzida por biofilme.


Assuntos
Antissépticos Bucais/análise , Biofilmes/classificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Gengivite/patologia
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