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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339364

RESUMO

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: 00264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669793

RESUMO

Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cebolas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Suínos , alfa-Glucosidases
3.
Ann Oncol ; 32(9): 1167-1177, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multi-cancer early detection (MCED) test used to complement existing screening could increase the number of cancers detected through population screening, potentially improving clinical outcomes. The Circulating Cell-free Genome Atlas study (CCGA; NCT02889978) was a prospective, case-controlled, observational study and demonstrated that a blood-based MCED test utilizing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing in combination with machine learning could detect cancer signals across multiple cancer types and predict cancer signal origin (CSO) with high accuracy. The objective of this third and final CCGA substudy was to validate an MCED test version further refined for use as a screening tool. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This pre-specified substudy included 4077 participants in an independent validation set (cancer: n = 2823; non-cancer: n = 1254, non-cancer status confirmed at year-one follow-up). Specificity, sensitivity, and CSO prediction accuracy were measured. RESULTS: Specificity for cancer signal detection was 99.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 99.0% to 99.8%]. Overall sensitivity for cancer signal detection was 51.5% (49.6% to 53.3%); sensitivity increased with stage [stage I: 16.8% (14.5% to 19.5%), stage II: 40.4% (36.8% to 44.1%), stage III: 77.0% (73.4% to 80.3%), stage IV: 90.1% (87.5% to 92.2%)]. Stage I-III sensitivity was 67.6% (64.4% to 70.6%) in 12 pre-specified cancers that account for approximately two-thirds of annual USA cancer deaths and was 40.7% (38.7% to 42.9%) in all cancers. Cancer signals were detected across >50 cancer types. Overall accuracy of CSO prediction in true positives was 88.7% (87.0% to 90.2%). CONCLUSION: In this pre-specified, large-scale, clinical validation substudy, the MCED test demonstrated high specificity and accuracy of CSO prediction and detected cancer signals across a wide diversity of cancers. These results support the feasibility of this blood-based MCED test as a complement to existing single-cancer screening tests. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: NCT02889978.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Oncogenes , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673210

RESUMO

The 3GPP standardized the physical layer specification in 5G New Radio to support enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC) coexistence in usage scenarios including aerial vehicles (AVs). Dynamic multiplexing of URLLC traffic was standardized to increase the outage capacity. DM allocates a fully overlapped bandwidth part (BWP) of eMBB and URLLC AVs to perform the immediate scheduling of URLLC traffic by puncturing ongoing eMBB traffic. However, DM often suffers from a significant frame error incurred by puncturing. Meanwhile, BWP can be sliced orthogonally for eMBB and URLLC AVs, possibly preventing overdimensioning the resources depending on the eMBB and URLLC traffic loads. In this paper, we propose a dynamic BWP allocation scheme that switches between two multiplexing methods, dynamic multiplexing (DM) and orthogonal slicing (OS), so as to minimize an impact of uRLLC traffic on eMBB traffic. To implement efficient BWP allocation, the capacity region is analyzed by considering the effect of physical layer parameters, such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) levels and code block group size on DM and OS. OS is effective for improving the eMBB throughput under a URLLC latency constraint for deterministic and predictable URLLC traffic, whereas DM has limited error-correcting capability against the URLLC's puncturing effect. The relative MCS level of eMBB and URLLC is critical in determining the eMBB traffic tolerance against puncturing. Identifying the performance tradeoff between DM and OS, the tolerance level is quantified by a URLLC load threshold. It is given in an approximate closed form, which is an essential reference for selecting DM over OS, enabling dynamic BWP allocation for the URLLC AV.

5.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(6): 589-596, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970882

RESUMO

Morphology of antennal sensilla and their distribution were investigated in male and female adults of the parasitoid fly Gymnosoma rotundatum (Diptera: Tachinidae) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The overall length and shape were not different between males and females from each other. Three basic types of sensilla (sensilla basiconica, s. chaetica, and s. coeloconica) were identified from both sexes, but with variations in numbers and distribution along the antennae. The s. basiconica and s. chaetica could be divided further into subtypes; s. basiconica into three subtypes and s. chaetica into two subtypes. All the basiconica subtypes 1, 2, and 3 were multiporous, indicating that their primary function was olfactory. The sensilla basiconica was most abundant on the antennae of both sexes. The abundance of s. basiconica subtype 1 was different, but other subtypes 2 and 3 were similar between males and females. There was no pore on the cuticular surface of the s. chaetica and s. coeloconica, suggesting that they are likely to be a mechanosensory or a thermohygroreceptory function. The abundance of the two sensillum types was similar between males and females. The morphological information obtained in our study provides a basis for future investigations into the sensory physiological function, and associated behaviors, of each type of sensilla in this parasitoid fly.


Assuntos
Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Sensilas/anatomia & histologia , Sensilas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(4)2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795604

RESUMO

One of the key requirements for next generation wireless or cellular communication systems is to efficiently support a large number of connections for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, and uplink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) schemes can be used for this purpose. In uplink NOMA systems, pilot symbols, as well as data symbols can be superimposed onto shared resources. The error rate performance can be severely degraded due to channel estimation errors, especially when the number of superimposed packets is large. In this paper, we discuss uplink NOMA schemes with channel estimation errors, assuming that quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation is used. When pilot signals are superimposed onto the shared resources and a large number of devices perform random accesses concurrently to a single resource of the base station, the channels might not be accurately estimated even in high SNR environments. In this paper, we propose an uplink NOMA scheme, which can alleviate the performance degradation due to channel estimation errors.

7.
Vascular ; : 1708538118817666, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid artery geometry has been suggested as a risk factor for atherosclerotic carotid disease. Although normal aging and disease development can both lead to geometric changes in the arteries, the exact nature of this phenomenon remains elusive. The aim of our study was to investigate carotid artery geometric changes in a longitudinal study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 114 subjects who underwent carotid contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography at our clinic at baseline (2005 to 2007) and after 10 years. The right (Rev#2-1) carotid arteries were segmented using semi-automated methods to obtain various measurements of carotid artery geometry. For each patient, these parameters were assessed at both time points, including bifurcation angle, internal carotid artery angle, vessel diameter, and circumference. RESULTS: The median age for the total patient population (n = 114) at baseline was 59.06 ± 10.40 years. Mean time interval between baseline magnetic resonance angiography and magnetic resonance angiography after 10 years of these patients was 129.18 ± 7.77 months. For the whole group, there was a significant increase in the bifurcation angle (p < 0.05) over a 10-year period. A significant increase was also noted in the diameter and circumference of the common carotid artery (p < 0.05). However, the other vessel diameters and circumferences (bulb carotid, internal carotid) as well as the internal carotid angle did not significantly change (p ≥ 0.05). CONCLUSION: The diameter and circumference of the common carotid artery and bifurcation angle significantly increased over a decade of life.

8.
Hong Kong Med J ; 24(5): 492-500, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232267

RESUMO

With the ageing of the global population, China is projected to be impacted significantly by the rising number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A cure for AD is not yet available, so society should be prepared for an increasing AD-related burden. In this review, we examine this impending problem and provide overviews on (a) the magnitude of the problem of AD in Hong Kong/China in the near future; (b) the genetic and lifestyle risk factors that contribute to AD; (c) current diagnostic approaches and the potential of newly discovered genetic biomarkers for early detection; (d) medications, non-pharmacological interventions, and possible preventive measures; and (e) the need for social and psychological care from the community. In Hong Kong, primary care and AD-related support for at-risk individuals, patients, and caregivers are inadequate. A joint effort from the medical community, government, universities, non-governmental organisations/charities, and industry should initiate the development of a long-term programme for AD. Finally, we outline recommendations for the relevant parties to consider.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 36(6): 554-564, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28539089

RESUMO

In real life, consumers are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals via food, water and commercial products consumption. Since risk assessment usually focuses on individual compounds, the current regulatory approach doesn't assess the overall risk of chemicals present in a mixture. This study will evaluate the cumulative toxicity of mixtures of different classes of pesticides and mixtures of different classes of pesticides together with food additives (FAs) and common consumer product chemicals using realistic doses after long-term exposure. Groups of Sprague Dawley (CD-SD) rats (20 males and 20 females) will be treated with mixtures of pesticides or mixtures of pesticides together with FAs and common consumer product chemicals in 0.0, 0.25 × acceptable daily intake (ADI)/tolerable daily intake (TDI), ADI/TDI and 5 × ADI/TDI doses for 104 weeks. All animals will be examined every day for signs of morbidity and mortality. Clinical chemistry hematological parameters, serum hormone levels, biomarkers of oxidative stress, cardiotoxicity, genotoxicity, urinalysis and echocardiographic tests will be assessed periodically at 6 month intervals. At 3-month intervals, ophthalmological examination, test for sensory reactivity to different types of stimuli, together with assessment of learning abilities and memory performance of the adult and ageing animals will be conducted. After 24 months, animals will be necropsied, and internal organs will be histopathologically examined. If the hypothesis of an increased risk or a new hazard not currently identified from cumulative exposure to multiple chemicals was observed, this will provide further information to public authorities and research communities supporting the need of replacing current single-compound risk assessment by a more robust cumulative risk assessment paradigm.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Consenso , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
J Dent Res ; 96(2): 200-207, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27694154

RESUMO

Odontoblasts form dentin at the outermost surface of tooth pulp. An increasing level of evidence in recent years, along with their locational advantage, implicates odontoblasts as a secondary role as sensory or immune cells. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in the neuronal and immune systems, and its potential involvement in interodontoblast communications was recently demonstrated. In an effort to elaborate the ATP-mediated signaling pathway in odontoblasts, the current study performed single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescent detection to investigate the expression of ATP receptors related to calcium signal in odontoblasts from incisal teeth of 8- to 10-wk-old rats, and demonstrated an in vitro response to ATP application via calcium imaging experiments. While whole tissue RT-PCR analysis detected P2Y2, P2Y4, and all 7 subtypes (P2X1 to P2X7) in tooth pulp, single-cell RT-PCR analysis of acutely isolated rat odontoblasts revealed P2Y2, P2Y4, P2X2, P2X4, P2X6, and P2X7 expression in only a subset (23% to 47%) of cells tested, with no evidence for P2X1, P2X3, and P2X5 expression. An increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration in response to 100µM ATP, which was repeated after pretreatment of thapsigargin or under the Ca2+-free condition, suggested function of both ionotropic and metabotropic ATP receptors in odontoblasts. The enhancement of ATP-induced calcium response by ivermectin and inhibition by 5-(3-bromophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzofuro[3,2-e]-1,4-diazepin-2-one (5-BDBD) confirmed a functional P2X4 subtype in odontoblasts. Positive calcium response to 2',3'-O-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and negative response to α,ß-methylene ATP suggested P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 as functional subunits in rat odontoblasts. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis of the cells with confirmed calcium response and immunofluorescent detection further corroborated the expression of P2X4 and P2X7 in odontoblasts. Overall, this study demonstrated heterogeneous expression of calcium-related ATP receptor subtypes in subsets of individual odontoblasts, suggesting extracellular ATP as a potential signal mediator for odontoblastic functions.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Odontoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Odontoblastos/metabolismo , Odontoblastos/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Purinérgicos P2/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X2/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X4/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y2/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
11.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 63(7): 545-554, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234414

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causative pathogens of outbreaks or sporadic cases of diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. In this study, we compared the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of C. jejuni isolates of human and food-producing animal origins in Korea and examined the genetic relatedness between these two groups of isolates. Regardless of isolation source, all C. jejuni isolates harboured four virulence genes, cadF, cdtB, ciaB and racR, whereas the wlaN and virB11 genes were more frequently observed in human isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the majority of C. jejuni isolates displayed high-level resistance to fluoroquinolone (95.2%) or tetracycline (76.2%) antibiotics, and 12.4% of isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (more than three classes of antibiotics tested). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of all Campylobacter isolates revealed 51 different SmaI-PFGE patterns and six major clusters containing both human and animal isolates. These results indicate that genetically diverse strains of C. jejuni with antimicrobial drug-resistance and virulence properties have prevailed in Incheon. Nevertheless, some particular populations continue to circulate within the community, providing the evidence for an epidemiological link of C. jejuni infections between humans and food-producing animals. Therefore, the continued monitoring and surveillance of C. jejuni isolates of human and food-producing animal origins are required for public health and food safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Vigilância da População , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
12.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 37(4): 686-91, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26542236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid artery stent placement in patients with intraplaque hemorrhage remains controversial because of the incidence of cerebral embolism after the procedure. The purpose of this study is to determine if intraplaque hemorrhage is a significant risk factor for cerebral embolism during carotid artery stent placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study assessed 94 consecutive patients with severe carotid stenosis. These patients underwent preprocedural carotid MR imaging and postprocedural DWI after carotid artery stent placement. Intraplaque hemorrhage was defined as the presence of high signal intensity within the carotid plaque that was >200% of the signal from the adjacent muscle on MPRAGE. We then analyzed the incidence of postprocedural ipsilateral ischemic events on DWI and primary outcomes within 30 days of carotid artery stent placement. RESULTS: Forty-three patients (45.7%) had intraplaque hemorrhage on an MPRAGE image. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postprocedural ipsilateral ischemic events and primary outcomes between the intraplaque hemorrhage and non-intraplaque hemorrhage group. However, postprocedural ipsilateral ischemic events were more frequently observed in the symptomatic group (17/41 [41.5%]) than in the asymptomatic group (8/53 [15.1%]; P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Intraplaque hemorrhage was not a significant risk factor for cerebral embolism during carotid artery stent placement in patients with severe carotid stenosis. Symptomatic patients should receive more careful treatment during carotid artery stent placement because of the higher risk of postprocedural ipsilateral ischemic events.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Stents/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Oral Dis ; 21(4): 530-5, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25639149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant with a negative side effect of dry mouth. The Na(+) /H(+) exchanger was suggested to be a target of desipramine in salivary gland cells. However, it is unclear whether desipramine has other targets in the salivary secretion pathway. Here, we studied the effect of desipramine on salivary Ca(2+) signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) was determined with the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator fura-2/AM. Aquaporin translocation was analyzed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry of confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Desipramine inhibited the carbachol- and histamine-mediated increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]i ) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, desipramine did not affect increases in [Ca(2+) ]i mediated by extracellular ATP, sphingosine-1-phosphate, or thapsigargin. The adrenergic receptor blockers prazosin and propranolol did not reverse the desipramine-mediated inhibition of carbachol- and histamine-induced increases in [Ca(2+) ]i . We also found that desipramine inhibits the increase in membrane aquaporin-5 level triggered by carbachol and histamine treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply that desipramine blocks muscarinic and histamine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and the subsequent translocation of aquaporin-5 in human salivary gland cells, suggesting a novel mechanism for the xerogenic effects of desipramine.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 5/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Desipramina/farmacologia , Glândulas Salivares/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citosol/efeitos dos fármacos , Citosol/metabolismo , Humanos , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo
14.
Neuroscience ; 261: 153-60, 2014 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24384226

RESUMO

Eugenol is a bioactive plant extract used as an analgesic agent in dentistry. The structural similarity of eugenol to cinnamaldehyde, an active ligand for transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), suggests that eugenol might produce its effect via TRPA1, in addition to TRPV1 as we reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effect of eugenol on TRPA1, by fura-2-based calcium imaging and patch clamp recording in trigeminal ganglion neurons and in a heterologous expression system. As the result, eugenol induced robust calcium responses in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons that responded to a specific TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and not to capsaicin. Capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist failed to inhibit eugenol-induced calcium responses in AITC-responding neurons. In addition, eugenol response was observed in trigeminal ganglion neurons from TRPV1 knockout mice and human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines that express human TRPA1, which was inhibited by TRPA1-specific antagonist HC-030031. Eugenol-evoked TRPA1 single channel activity and eugenol-induced TRPA1 currents were dose-dependent with EC50 of 261.5µM. In summary, these results demonstrate that the activation of TRPA1 might account for another molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of eugenol.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Eugenol/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPC/metabolismo , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/metabolismo , Acetanilidas/farmacologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/agonistas , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/farmacologia , Canal de Cátion TRPA1 , Canais de Cátion TRPC/agonistas , Canais de Cátion TRPC/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/agonistas , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/genética , Gânglio Trigeminal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglio Trigeminal/fisiologia
15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 142(3): 616-23, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23800632

RESUMO

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is now recognized as a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to describe the first ETEC O169 outbreak identified in Korea. In this outbreak, we identified 1642 cases from seven schools. Retrospective cohort studies were performed in two schools; and case-control studies were conducted in five schools. In two schools, radish kimchi was associated with illness; and in five other schools, radish or cabbage kimchi was found to have a higher risk among food items. Adjusted relative risk of kimchi was 5·87-7·21 in schools that underwent cohort studies; and adjusted odds ratio was 4·52-12·37 in schools that underwent case-control studies. ETEC O169 was isolated from 230 affected students, and was indistinguishable from the isolates detected from the kimchi product distributed by company X, a food company that produced and distributed kimchi to all seven schools. In this outbreak, we found that the risk of a kimchi-borne outbreak of ETEC O169 infection is present in Korea. We recommend continued monitoring regarding food safety in Korea, and strengthening surveillance regarding ETEC O169 infection through implementation of active laboratory surveillance to confirm its infection.


Assuntos
Brassica/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
J Dent Res ; 92(11): 1005-10, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24056223

RESUMO

We recently demonstrated that pain-sensing neurons in the trigeminal system can be selectively anesthetized by co-application of QX-314 with the TRPV1 receptor agonist, capsaicin (QX cocktail). Here we examined whether this new anesthetic strategy can block the neuronal changes in the brainstem following molar tooth extraction in the rat. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received infiltration injection of anesthetic 10 min prior to lower molar tooth extraction. Neuronal activation was determined by immunohistochemistry for the proto-oncogene protein c-Fos in transverse sections of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C). After tooth extraction, c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) detected in the dorsomedial region of bilateral Sp5C was highest at 2 hrs (p < .01 vs. naïve ipsilateral) and declined to pre-injury levels by 8 hrs. Pre-administration of the QX cocktail significantly reduced to sham levels Fos-LI examined 2 hrs after tooth extraction; reduced Fos-LI was also observed with the conventional local anesthetic lidocaine. Pulpal anesthesia by infiltration injection was confirmed by inhibition of the jaw-opening reflex in response to electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Our results suggest that the QX cocktail anesthetic is effective in reducing neuronal activation following tooth extraction. Thus, a selective pain fiber 'nociceptive anesthetic' strategy may provide an effective local anesthetic option for dental patients in the clinic.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Tronco Encefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsaicina/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/análogos & derivados , Nociceptores/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/administração & dosagem , Extração Dentária , Núcleo Inferior Caudal do Nervo Trigêmeo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Polpa Dentária/inervação , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nervo Mandibular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos da Mastigação/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Aferentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Dent Res ; 92(11): 948-55, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23955160

RESUMO

Due, in part, to the unique structure of the tooth, dental pain is initiated via distinct mechanisms. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of inflammatory tooth pain and discuss 3 hypotheses proposed to explain dentinal hypersensitivity: The first hypothesis, supported by functional expression of temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels, emphasizes the direct transduction of noxious temperatures by dental primary afferent neurons. The second hypothesis, known as hydrodynamic theory, attributes dental pain to fluid movement within dentinal tubules, and we discuss several candidate cellular mechanical transducers for the detection of fluid movement. The third hypothesis focuses on the potential sensory function of odontoblasts in the detection of thermal or mechanical stimuli, and we discuss the accumulating evidence that supports their excitability. We also briefly update on a novel strategy for local nociceptive anesthesia via nociceptive transducer molecules in dental primary afferents with the potential to specifically silence pain fibers during dental treatment. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of dental pain would greatly enhance the development of therapeutics that target dental pain.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/fisiopatologia , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Dentina/inervação , Líquido Dentinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Terminações Nervosas/fisiologia , Neurônios Aferentes/fisiologia , Nociceptores/fisiologia , Odontoblastos/fisiologia , Termorreceptores/fisiologia , Odontalgia/fisiopatologia
18.
Oncoimmunology ; 2(11): e26889, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24482753

RESUMO

The preclinical development of anticancer drugs including immunotherapeutics and targeted agents relies on the ability to detect minimal residual tumor burden as a measure of therapeutic efficacy. Real-time quantitative (qPCR) represents an exquisitely sensitive method to perform such an assessment. However, qPCR-based applications are limited by the availability of a genetic defect associated with each tumor model under investigation. Here, we describe an off-the-shelf qPCR-based approach to detect a broad array of commonly used preclinical murine tumor models. In particular, we report that the mRNA coding for the envelope glycoprotein 70 (gp70) encoded by the endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is universally expressed in 22 murine cancer cell lines of disparate histological origin but is silent in 20 out of 22 normal mouse tissues. Further, we detected the presence of as few as 100 tumor cells in whole lung extracts using qPCR specific for gp70, supporting the notion that this detection approach has a higher sensitivity as compared with traditional tissue histology methods. Although gp70 is expressed in a wide variety of tumor cell lines, it was absent in inflamed tissues, non-transformed cell lines, or pre-cancerous lesions. Having a high-sensitivity biomarker for the detection of a wide range of murine tumor cells that does not require additional genetic manipulations or the knowledge of specific genetic alterations present in a given neoplasm represents a unique experimental tool for investigating metastasis, assessing antitumor therapeutic interventions, and further determining tumor recurrence or minimal residual disease.

19.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 34(4): 841-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23139078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients who develop severe stroke symptoms due to acute internal carotid artery occlusion eventually in combination with a thromboembolic obstruction of the middle cerebral artery incur a major risk of developing extensive MCA infarction with a poor outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome for patients with tandem occlusions in the MCA and/or distal ICA, retrospectively, who had undergone stent implantation in the proximal segment of the ICA in addition to intra-arterial thrombolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with tandem occlusions of the MCA and/or distal ICA and acute occlusion of the proximal ICA underwent stent implantation for the proximal ICA occlusion and IAT for the tandem occlusion. Clinical outcome measures were assessed on admission and at discharge by using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale as well as 3 months after treatment by using the modified Rankin Scale. RESULTS: The median NIHSS score on admission was 12 (range, 6-22). All patients had patent flow into the M1 and ICA after carotid artery stent placement and IAT. After the procedure, 19 patients (54.3%) were TICI grade III; 7 (20.0%), TICI grade IIb; and 9 (25.7%), TICI grade IIa. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient (2.9%). The overall mortality rate was 11.4% (4/35). At 3-month follow-up, the median NIHSS score was 4 (range, 1-17). NIHSS score at admission and TICI grade were all found to be independently associated with an unfavorable outcome at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Initial stroke severity, degree of successful revascularization, and the side of ischemia were found to independently predict the functional outcome at 3 months after treatment.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Revascularização Cerebral/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/terapia , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 18(1): 80-8, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22440605

RESUMO

We present the results of our approach for treating 12 consecutive cases of acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke by performing balloon-expandable stent (BES) placement after immediate reocclusion due to the underlying stenosis after intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 12 patients with acute MCA stroke who underwent recanalization by BES placement in an underlying stenosis after IAT. The time to treatment, urokinase dose, duration of the procedure, recanalization rates and symptomatic hemorrhage were analyzed. Clinical outcome measures were assessed on admission and at discharge (the National Institutes of Health stroke scores [NIHSS]) as well as three months after treatment (modified Rankin scales [mRS]). The median NIHSS score on admission was 8.6. Four patients received IV rtPA. The median time from symptom onset to IAT was 236 minutes and the median duration of IAT was 62 minutes. The median dose of urokinase was 140,000 units. Initial recanalization after stent deployment (thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia attack grade of II or III) was achieved in all patients. Two patients died in the hospital due to aspiration pneumonia during medical management. In two patients, in-stent reocclusion occurred within 48 hours after stent deployment. At discharge, the median NIHSS score in ten patients (including the patients with reobstruction) was 2.4. The three-month outcome was excellent (mRS, 0-1) in eight patients. In this study, BES deployment was safe and effective in patients with an immediately reoccluded MCA after successful IAT.


Assuntos
Revascularização Cerebral/métodos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Stents , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Revascularização Cerebral/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevenção Secundária
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