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1.
Int J Biopharm Sci ; 2(1)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778816

RESUMO

Cancer is caused by a compilation of hereditary and environmental factors. In the past decade, next-generation sequencing has revealed the extent to which the microbiome influences the maintenance of homeostasis and therefore the prevention of diseases such as cancer. Current research efforts explore the interaction between cancer and the microbiome, and the results are anticipated to transform how clinicians approach cancer treatment. There is a plausible transition from the use of human genetic biomarkers to microbiomic biomarkers for genomic diagnostics. Considering the expanding knowledge of the ways in which the microbiome can affect the development of cancer, clinicians treating cancer patients should be considerate of how the microbiome can influence the host-drug or microbiome-cancer interactions. Recognition of the importance of the microbiome within the field of oncology is pertinent to understanding and furthering cancer development and treatment.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 713-717, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437141

RESUMO

In September 2018, CDC identified Salmonella enterica serotype Newport (Newport) infections that were multidrug resistant (MDR), with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin, a recommended oral treatment agent. Until 2017, decreased susceptibility to azithromycin had occurred in fewer than 0.5% of Salmonella isolates from U.S. residents. This report summarizes the investigation of a multistate MDR Salmonella outbreak conducted by CDC, state and local health departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. During June 2018-March 2019, 255 cases of infection with the outbreak strain were identified in 32 states; 43% of patients (89 of 206 with information on travel) reported recent travel to Mexico. Infections were linked to consumption of soft cheese obtained in Mexico and beef obtained in the United States. Consumers should avoid eating soft cheese that could be made from unpasteurized milk, regardless of the source of the cheese. When preparing beef, a food thermometer should be used to ensure that appropriate cooking temperatures are reached. When antibiotic treatment is needed for a patient, clinicians should choose antibiotics based on susceptibility testing wherever possible.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Queijo/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(5): 504-511, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152500

RESUMO

Mass bat exposures (MBEs) occur when multiple people are exposed to a bat or a bat colony, often over an extended period. In August 2017, a public health investigation was started in response to an MBE that occurred during May-August 2017 at a national park research station in Wyoming. We identified 176 people who had slept primarily in two lodges (Lodges A and B) at the research station, and successfully contacted 165 (93.8%) of these individuals. Risk assessments (RAs) were administered to all 165 individuals to determine degree and type of exposures to bats (e.g., biting or scratching). Exposure status for research station guests was classified as "non-exposed," "low risk" or "high risk," and counselling was provided to guide post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) recommendations. Prior to public health notification and intervention, 19 persons made the decision to pursue PEP. The healthcare-seeking behaviours of this group were taken to represent outcomes in the absence of public health intervention. (These persons received a RA, and their risk classification was retrospectively assigned.) Approximately 1-2 weeks after conducting the RAs, we conducted a follow-up survey to determine whether recommendations regarding PEP were ultimately followed. The proportion of individuals that unnecessarily pursued PEP was higher among the 19 individuals that sought health care prior to receiving the RA (p < 0.00001). Among those receiving the RA first, all persons classified as high risk followed public health guidance to seek PEP treatment. Despite this, upon re-interview, only 21/79 (26.6%) of guests could accurately recall their risk classification, with most people (55.7%) overestimating their risk. Study findings demonstrate that early public health interventions such as RAs can reduce unnecessary use of PEP and that messaging used during rabies counselling should be clear.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Habitação , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Wyoming/epidemiologia
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