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1.
Osteoarthr Cartil Open ; 4(4): 100316, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36474801

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare co-expression networks of normal and osteoarthritis knee cartilage to uncover molecules associated with the transcriptional misregulation compromising biological processes (BPs) critical for cartilage homeostasis. Design: Normal and osteoarthritis human knee cartilage RNA-seq GSE114007 dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Partial Correlation and Information Theory (PCIT) algorithm was used to build co-expression networks containing all nodes connecting to at least one differentially expressed gene (DEG) in normal and osteoarthritis networks. Hub and hub centrality genes were used to perform functional enrichment analysis. Enriched BPs known to be associated with both healthy and diseased cartilage were compared in depth. Results: Differential co-expression network analyses allowed the identification of DDX43 and USP42 as exclusively co-expressed with DEGs in normal and osteoarthritis networks, respectively. The top hub and hub centrality genes of these networks were HIST1H3A and SNHG12 (normal) and TAF9B and OTUD1 (osteoarthritis). Enrichment analysis revealed several shared BPs between the contrasting groups, which are well-known in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Protein-protein interaction network analysis for these BPs showed a global down-regulation of transcription factors in osteoarthritis. Specific transcription factors were identified as pleiotropic mediators in articular cartilage maintenance since they take part in several BPs. In addition, chromatin organisation and modification proteins were found relevant for osteoarthritis development. Conclusion: Differential gene co-expression analysis allowed the identification of novel and high priority therapeutic candidate genes that may drive modifications in the transcriptional "status" of cartilage in osteoarthritis.

2.
Mamm Genome ; 33(4): 619-628, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816191

RESUMO

Cis-acting effects of noncoding variants on gene expression and regulatory molecules constitute a significant factor for phenotypic variation in complex traits. To provide new insights into the impacts of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on transcription factors (TFs) and transcription cofactors (TcoF) coding genes, we carried out a multi-omic analysis to identify cis-regulatory effects of SNPs on these genes' expression in muscle and describe their association with feed efficiency-related traits in Nelore cattle. As a result, we identified one SNP, the rs137256008C > T, predicted to impact the EEF1A1 gene expression (ß = 3.02; P-value = 3.51E-03) and the residual feed intake trait (ß = - 3.47; P-value = 0.02). This SNP was predicted to modify transcription factor sites and overlaps with several QTL for feed efficiency traits. In addition, co-expression network analyses showed that animals containing the T allele of the rs137256008 SNP may be triggering changes in the gene network. Therefore, our analyses reinforce and contribute to a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying gene expression control of feed efficiency traits in bovines. The cis-regulatory SNP can be used as biomarker for feed efficiency in Nelore cattle.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fenótipo , Músculos , Expressão Gênica , Ração Animal
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(4): 3296-3305, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094861

RESUMO

The present study aimed to estimate covariance components of milk fatty acids (FA) and to compare the genomic estimated breeding values under general and heat-stress effects. Data consisted of 38,762 test-day records from 6,344 Holstein cows obtained from May 2012 through January 2018 on 4 dairy herds from Brazil. Single-trait repeatability test-day models with random regressions as a function of temperature-humidity index values were used for genetic analyses. The models included contemporary groups, parity order (1-6), and days in milk classes as fixed effects, and general and thermotolerance additive genetic and permanent environmental as random effects. Notably, differences in heritability estimates between environments (general and heat stress) increased (0.03 to 0.06) for unsaturated FA traits, such as unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated, at higher heat-stress levels. In contrast, heritability estimated between environments for saturated FA traits, including saturated FA, palmitic acid (C16:0), and stearic acid (C18:0) did not observe significant differences between environments. In addition, our study revealed negative genetic correlations between general and heat-stress additive genetic effects (antagonistic effect) for the saturated FA, C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1, which ranged from -0.007 to -0.32. Spearman's ranking correlation between genomic estimated breeding values ranged from -0.27 to 0.99. Results indicated a moderate to strong interaction of genotype by the environment for most FA traits comparing a heat-stress environment with thermoneutral conditions. Our findings point out novel opportunities to explore the use of FA milk profile and heat-stress models.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Lactação/genética , Gravidez
4.
Anim Genet ; 51(6): 899-909, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006182

RESUMO

The presence of intermuscular bones in fisheries products limits the consumption and commercialization potential of many fish species, including tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). These bones have caused medical emergencies and are an undesirable characteristic for fish farming because their removal is labor-intensive during fish processing. Despite the difficulty in identifying genes related to the lack of intermuscular bone in diverse species of fish, the discovery of individuals lacking intermuscular bones in a Neotropical freshwater characiform fish has provided a unique opportunity to delve into the genetic mechanisms underlying the pathways of intermuscular bone formation. In this study, we carried out a GWAS among boneless and wt tambaqui populations to identify markers associated with a lack of intermuscular bone. After analyzing 11 416 SNPs in 360 individuals (12 boneless and 348 bony), we report 675 significant (Padj  < 0.003) associations for this trait. Of those, 13 associations were located near candidate genes related to the reduction of bone mass, promotion of bone formation, inhibition of bone resorption, central control of bone remodeling, bone mineralization and other related functions. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we have successfully identified genes related to a lack of intermuscular bones using GWAS in a non-model species.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Caraciformes/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Osteogênese/genética , Animais , Brasil , Caraciformes/anatomia & histologia , Frequência do Gene , Ligação Genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Peixe-Zebra
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5305-5314, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904307

RESUMO

Advances in the molecular area of selection have expanded knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Several GWAS have been performed so far, but confirming these results is not always possible due to several factors, including environmental conditions. Thus, our objective was to identify genomic regions associated with traditional milk production traits, including milk yield, somatic cell score, fat, protein and lactose percentages, and fatty acid composition in a Holstein cattle population producing under tropical conditions. For this, 75,228 phenotypic records from 5,981 cows and genotypic data of 56,256 SNP from 1,067 cows were used in a weighted single-step GWAS. A total of 46 windows of 10 SNP explaining more than 1% of the genetic variance across 10 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) harbored well-known and novel genes. The MGST1 (BTA5), ABCG2 (BTA6), DGAT1 (BTA14), and PAEP (BTA11) genes were confirmed within some of the regions identified in our study. Potential novel genes involved in tissue damage and repair of the mammary gland (COL18A1), immune response (LTTC19), glucose homeostasis (SLC37A1), synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (LTBP1), and sugar transport (SLC37A1 and MFSD4A) were found for milk yield, somatic cell score, fat percentage, and fatty acid composition. Our findings may assist genomic selection by using these regions to design a customized SNP array to improve milk production traits on farms with similar environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Genoma , Genômica , Leite/metabolismo
6.
Animal ; 13(8): 1563-1569, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614429

RESUMO

Many economic losses occur in the poultry industry due to leg fragility. Knowing the genomic regions that influence traits associated with the growth and composition of the leg's bone can help to improve the selection process leading to increased leg resistance to fracture. The present study aimed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mineral composition and morphometric traits of the tibia in 478 animals from an F2 broiler × layer cross. The measurement of weight, length and width of Tibia was carried out at 42 days of age. Ash, dry matter, levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn) and Calcium:Phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio were also recorded. The population was genotyped for 128 microsatellite markers and one single nucleotide polymorphism, covering 2630 cM of the chicken genome. A likelihood ratio test was performed to find QTLs. Additive and dominance effects of the QTLs were included in the model. In the chromosomes 2 (GGA2), 6 (GGA6), 8 (GGA8), 24 (GGA24) and 26 (GGA26) some suggestive QTLs (P<0.00276) were mapped for tibia weight (GGA2 and GGA26), ash percentage (GGA2 and GGA6), dry matter percentage (GGA2), Ca (GGA8 and GGA24) and Ca:P ratio (GGA8), many of which are close to genes already identified as good candidates for those traits. The suggestive QTL on GGA2 has a pleiotropic effect on ash percentage, dry matter and bone weight, whereas in the GGA8 there seems to be two QTLs, one for Ca and another for Ca:P ratio. Thus, this study identified at least five genomic regions, in different chromosomes, that can be targeted for further research to identify potential mutations influencing the development and composition of leg bones in Gallus gallus.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Minerais/síntese química , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Densidade Óssea/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Minerais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Animal ; 13(3): 460-468, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976267

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in the growth hormone (GH) and IGF type-1 (IGF1) genes have been associated with the economic traits in farm animals, including BW of some sheep breeds. However, it remains unknown if these polymorphisms also affect carcass traits in sheep. Thus, we aimed to identify polymorphisms in the GH and IGF1 genes in Santa Ines sheep in order to describe their allelic and genotypic frequencies as well as to test the hypotheses that they are associated with the carcass traits. Fragments of 4550 bp (IGF1) and 1194 bp (GH) were sequenced in up to 191 lambs. In all, 18 polymorphisms were identified in the IGF1 and 21 in the GH gene. The IGF1 polymorphisms rs430457475, rs412470350, rs409110739 and rs400113576 showed an additive effect on the internal carcass length (-0.9265±0.4223), rump girth (-2.9285±1.1473), rib yield (-1.0003±0.4588) and neck weight (-0.0567±0.0278), respectively. In addition, the polymorphisms rs58957314 in the GH affected the rib weight (-0.4380±0.1272) and rib yield (-2.2680±0.6970), loin weight (-0.1893±0.0516) and loin yield (-0.9423±0.3259), palette weight (-0.2265±0.0779) and palette yield (-0.9424±0.4184), leg weight (-0.3960±0.1375), neck weight (-0.0851±0.0394) and carcass finishing score (-0.1700±0.0839). These results allow us to conclude that there are polymorphisms in the IGF1 and GH genes associated with carcass traits in Santa Ines sheep, which can provide important information for marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Ovinos/genética
8.
Poult Sci ; 98(2): 590-601, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239913

RESUMO

White striping (WS) is one of the most common myopathies identified in broiler chickens leading to substantial production losses, where the incidence reaches 12% in commercial chickens. It occurs primarily in heavier chickens being a modification of the breast muscle characterized by the presence of pale parallel streaks in the same orientation of the muscle fibers. Since the WS etiology remains unclear, we aimed to identify the biological and genetic mechanisms involved in its occurrence through the whole transcriptome analysis of WS in affected and unaffected chicken breast muscles. A total of 11,177 genes were expressed in the pectoralis major muscle. Out of those, 1,441 genes were differentially expressed (FDR ≤ 0.01) between the two analyzed groups, being, respectively, 772 genes upregulated and 669 downregulated in the WS affected group. A total of 36 significantly overrepresented GO terms related to WS myopathy were enriched, and the most relevant biological processes were activation of immune system, angiogenesis, hypoxia, cell death, and striated muscle contraction. The unbalance of those biological processes may trigger the occurrence of the WS phenotype in broilers. The possible lack of capillary blood supply homogeneously in the muscle triggers the hypoxia, following the activation of glycolysis, calcium signaling and apoptosis related genes facilitating the tissue damage and WS incidence.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Músculos Peitorais/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Animais , Masculino , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia
9.
Animal ; 13(2): 333-340, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983126

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate transcriptome changes in the muscle tissue of Bos taurus indicus cull cows subjected to recovery weight gain under grazing conditions. In all, 38 Nellore cull cows were divided randomly into two different management groups: (1) Maintenance (MA) and (2) Recovery gain (RG) from weight loss by moderate growth under high forage availability. After slaughter, RNA analysis was performed on the Longissimus thoracis muscle. Semaphorin 4A, solute carrier family 11 member 1, and Ficolin-2 were expressed in the RG, which may indicate an inflammatory response during tissue regrowth. Signaling factors, such as Myostatin, related to fibroblast activation, negative control of satellite cell proliferation in adults and muscle protein synthesis were less abundant in the RG group. The only gene related to anabolic processes that were more abundant in the MA group was related to fat deposition. The genes that were differentially expressed in the experiment showed muscle repair-related changes during RG based on the greater expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and the lower expression of negative regulators of muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Expressão Gênica , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Aumento de Peso , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 375, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the health concerns and nutritional importance of fatty acids, there is a relative paucity of studies in the literature that report genetic or genomic parameters, especially in the case of sheep populations. To investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition of sheep, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and estimated genomic heritabilities for fatty acid profile in Longissimus dorsi muscle of 216 male sheep. RESULTS: Genomic heritability estimates for fatty acid content ranged from 0.25 to 0.46, indicating that substantial genetic variation exists for the evaluated traits. Therefore, it is possible to alter fatty acid profiles through selection. Twenty-seven genomic regions of 10 adjacent SNPs associated with fatty acids composition were identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18, each explaining ≥0.30% of the additive genetic variance. Twenty-three genes supporting the understanding of genetic mechanisms of fat composition in sheep were identified in these regions, such as DGAT2, TRHDE, TPH2, ME1, C6, C7, UBE3D, PARP14, and MRPS30. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of genomic heritabilities and elucidating important genomic regions can contribute to a better understanding of the genetic control of fatty acid deposition and improve the selection strategies to enhance meat quality and health attributes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Análise Multivariada
11.
Animal ; 12(6): 1126-1134, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065939

RESUMO

Genomic regions under high selective pressure present specific runs of homozygosity (ROH), which provide valuable information on the genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation to environment imposed challenges. In broiler chickens, the adaptation to conventional production systems in tropical environments lead the animals with favorable genotypes to be naturally selected, increasing the frequency of these alleles in the next generations. In this study, ~1400 chickens from a paternal broiler line were genotyped with the 600 K Affymetrix® Axiom® high-density (HD) genotyping array for estimation of linkage disequilibrium (LD), effective population size (N e ), inbreeding and ROH. The average LD between adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all autosomes was 0.37, and the LD decay was higher in microchromosomes followed by intermediate and macrochromosomes. The N e of the ancestral population was high and declined over time maintaining a sufficient number of animals to keep the inbreeding coefficient of this population at low levels. The ROH analysis revealed genomic regions that harbor genes associated with homeostasis maintenance and immune system mechanisms, which may have been selected in response to heat stress. Our results give a comprehensive insight into the relationship between shared ROH regions and putative regions related to survival and production traits in a paternal broiler line selected for over 20 years. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of environmental and artificial selection in shaping the distribution of functional variants in the chicken genome.


Assuntos
Homozigoto , Endogamia , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(1)2017 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28218779

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to characterize the allelic and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms in the µ-calpain and calpastatin genes, and to assess their association with meat tenderness and animal growth in Nellore cattle. We evaluated 605 Nellore animals at 24 months of age, on average, at slaughter. The polymorphisms were determined for the molecular markers CAPN316, CAPN530, CAPN4751, CAPN4753, and UOGACAST1. Analyses of meat tenderness at 7, 14, and 21 days of maturation were performed in samples of longissimus thoracis obtained between the 12th and 13th rib and sheared using a Warner Bratzler Shear Force. Significant effects were observed for meat tenderness at days 7, 14, and 21 of maturation for the marker CAPN4751, at day 21 for the marker CAPN4753, and at days 14 and 21 for the marker UOGCAST1. For genotypic combinations of markers, the results were significant for the combination CAPN4751/UOGCAST1 in the three maturation periods and CAPN4753/UOGCAST1 at days 14 and 21 of maturation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Calpaína/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Bovinos , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Carne Vermelha/análise
14.
J Anim Sci ; 95(12): 5537-5546, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293746

RESUMO

Alterations in progesterone (P4) catabolism due to high feed intake underlie some effects of nutrition on reproduction. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that high feed intake could potentially increase P4 catabolism, likely due to increased liver blood flow. However, there could also be an opposing action due to increased circulating insulin, which has been shown to inhibit hepatic expression of key enzymes involved in P4 catabolism. To test which effect would have the greatest impact on circulating P4 during a 1- and 2 -mo time frame, we used a noncyclic ewe model. The plane of nutrition was controlled, and effects on circulating insulin, P4 catabolism in response to exogenous P4, and steady state mRNA for key hepatic enzymes were evaluated. Twenty-four F Dorper × Santa Inês ewe lambs (5 mo old and approximately 25 kg BW) were used. After 14 d of adaptation, ewes were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum fed (Ad), with intake of 3.8% DM/kg BW, or restricted feed intake (R), with 2% DM/kg BW, for 8 wk. At wk 4 and 8, ewes received an intravaginal P4 implant to evaluate P4 catabolism. As designed, Ad ewes had greater daily feed intake than R ewes (means of 1.8 [SE 0.03] and 0.6 kg/ewe [SE 0.01]; < 0.001) and greater weekly gain in BW (means of 1.7 [SE 0.12] vs. -0.1 kg/ewe [SE 0.03]; < 0.001). Mean circulating insulin of samples collected from -0.5 to 7 h after the start of feeding was over 5-fold greater in Ad ewes than in R ewes (least squares means of 8.2 [SE 0.93] vs. 1.5 µIU/mL [SE 0.16], respectively, at wk 4 and 12.0 [SE 1.02] vs. 2.2 µIU/mL [SE 0.18], respectively, at wk 8; < 0.001). Although both groups received the same P4 treatment, mean circulating P4 of samples collected from -0.5 to 7 h after feeding was much lower in Ad ewes than in R ewes (least squares means of 3.2 [SE 0.32] vs. 5.5 ng/mL [SE 0.32], respectively, at wk 4 and 2.8 [SE 0.28] vs. 5.2 ng/mL [SE 0.28], respectively, at wk 8; < 0.001) indicating much greater P4 catabolism in ewes with high feed intake. Unexpectedly, there was no effect of diet on hepatic mRNA concentrations for , , , or at wk 4 or 8 in spite of dramatically elevated insulin. Therefore, high energy/feed intake primarily increased P4 catabolism with no evidence for offsetting effects due to insulin-induced changes in hepatic P4 metabolizing enzymes.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodução , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Biópsia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Lipólise , Fígado/metabolismo , Hipernutrição , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(3)2016 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27706648

RESUMO

In contrast to the Mendelian inheritance model, parental alleles can contribute unequally to gene expression, which may result in phenotypic variance among individuals and bias in the predicted additive effect of molecular markers associated with production traits. Given the need to understand the effects of allelic variation and parent-of-origin effects on the expression of genes with a commercial interest in cattle, we analyzed the expression of KCNJ11 (potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11), which was previously described as a functional candidate gene for meat tenderness. Allele-specific and parent-of-origin-dependent expression of this gene were assessed in bovine muscle using the rs379610823 single nucleotide polymorphism as a reference. Biallelic expression was observed; however, the T allele was expressed at significantly higher levels than the C allele. Furthermore, increased expression of KCNJ11 was found in animals harboring the maternal T allele. This study is the first to describe the differential allelic expression of bovine KCNJ11. Our findings are important for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the pattern of KCNJ11 expression and its potential impact on the phenotypic variation of meat tenderness in Nelore beef cattle. This reinforces the need for further investigation of allelic- and parent-of-origin expression deviation in genetic markers eligible for the selection of target traits.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Padrões de Herança , Carne/análise , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(2)2016 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27420997

RESUMO

Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Alelos , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Carne Vermelha , Aumento de Peso/genética
17.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 133(5): 384-95, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26968150

RESUMO

Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. These estimates are population specific; however, there are few studies with dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Thus, the aim was to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield and quality traits using pedigree and genomic information from a Holstein population maintained in a tropical environment. Phenotypic records (n = 36 457) of 4203 cows as well as the genotypes for 57 368 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 755 of these cows were used. Covariance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method under a mixed animal model, considering a pedigree-based relationship matrix or a combined pedigree-genomic matrix. High heritabilities (around 0.30) were estimated for lactose and protein content in milk whereas moderate values (between 0.19 and 0.26) were obtained for percentages of fat, saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid in milk. Genetic correlations ranging from -0.38 to -0.13 were determined between milk yield and composition traits. The smaller estimates compared to other similar studies can be due to poor environmental conditions, which may reduce genetic variability. These results highlight the importance in using genetic parameters estimated in the population under evaluation for selection decisions.


Assuntos
Bovinos/classificação , Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Clima , Feminino , Genótipo , Leite/economia , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Genom Data ; 7: 26-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26981354

RESUMO

Studying the multitude of molecular networks and pathways that are potentially involved in a complex trait such as fertility requires an equally complex and broad strategy. Here, we used Next-Generation Sequencing for the characterization of the transcriptional signature of the bovine endometrial tissue. Periovulatory endocrine environments were manipulated to generate two distinctly different fertility phenotypes. Cycling, non-lactating, multiparous Nelore cows were manipulated to ovulate larger (> 13 mm; LF group; high fertility phenotype) or smaller (< 12 mm; SF group) follicles. As a result, greater proestrus estrogen concentrations, corpora lutea and early diestrus progesterone concentrations were also observed in LF group in comparison to SF group. Endometrial cell proliferation was estimated by the protein marker MKI67 on tissues collected 4 (D4) and 7 (D7) days after induction of ovulation. Total RNA extracts from D7 were sequenced and compared according to the transcriptional profile of each experimental group (LF versus SF). Functional enrichment analysis revealed that LF and SF endometria were asynchronous in regards to their phenotype manifestation. Major findings indicated an LF endometrium that was switching phenotypes earlier than the SF one. More specifically, a proliferating SF endometrium was observed on D7, whereas the LF tissue, which expressed a proliferative phenotype earlier at D4, seemed to have already shifted towards a biosynthetically and metabolically active endometrium on D7. Data on MKI67 support the transcriptomic results. RNA-Seq-derived transcriptional profile of the endometrial tissue indicated a temporal effect of the periovulatory endocrine environment, suggesting that the moment of the endometrial exposure to the ovarian steroids, E2 and P4, regulates the timing of phenotype manifestation. Gene expression profiling revealed molecules that may be targeted to elucidate ovarian steroid-dependent mechanisms that regulate endometrial tissue receptivity. Data was deposited in the SRA database from NCBI (SRA Experiment SRP051330) and are associated with the Bio-Project (PRJNA270391). An overview of the gene expression data has been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and is accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE65450. Further assessment of the data in combination with other data sets exploring the transcriptional profile of the endometrial tissue during early diestrus may potentially identify novel molecular mechanisms and/or markers of the uterine receptivity.

19.
Anim Genet ; 47(4): 491-4, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27028139

RESUMO

The myogenic differentiation 1 gene (MYOD1) has a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation and composition through its regulation of the expression of several muscle-specific genes. We first used a general linear mixed model approach to evaluate the association of MYOD1 expression levels on individual beef tenderness phenotypes. MYOD1mRNA levels measured by quantitative polymerase chain reactions in 136 Nelore steers were significantly associated (P ≤ 0.01) with Warner-Bratzler shear force, measured on the longissimus dorsi muscle after 7 and 14 days of beef aging. Transcript abundance for the muscle regulatory gene MYOD1 was lower in animals with more tender beef. We also performed a co-expression network analysis using whole transcriptome sequence data generated from 30 samples of longissimus muscle tissue to identify genes that are potentially regulated by MYOD1. The effect of MYOD1 gene expression on beef tenderness may emerge from its function as an activator of muscle-specific gene transcription such as for the serum response factor (C-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor) gene (SRF), which determines muscle tissue development, composition, growth and maturation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteína MyoD/genética , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Composição Corporal , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
20.
Animal ; 10(1): 163-71, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677935

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed chickens, meat color was similar to the heat stressed group. Shear force was not influenced by heat stress, but pair-fed chickens showed the tenderest meat. In conclusion, reduction in growth performance and negative changes in meat color in heat stressed chickens were attributed to depression in feed intake, whereas negative changes in body composition, higher meat pH and cooking loss were credited to high ambient temperature per se. Diet supplementation with vitamins C and E as antioxidants did not mitigate any of these negative effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/normas , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
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