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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253497, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355892

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to estimate the length-weight ratio (LWR) of the stingray Potamotrygon wallacei, known locally as the cururu, which was caught in streams and lakes in the middle Negro River region, Amazonas, Brazil. The stingrays were captured during the night (from 11 pm to 1 am) near the shores of streams and lakes, through active search using wooden canoes, head lanterns and scoop nets. The samplings were carried out in November 2017 (5 days), February (8 days), March (3 days) and April (2 days) of 2018, totaling 18 days of sampling. The total fresh weight was measured to 0.1 g of accuracy and the disc width to 0.1 cm accuracy. The parameters a and b of the equation W=a.DWb were estimated. This study provides new maximum length data for the cururu stingray.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo estimar a relação peso-comprimento (LWR) da arraia Potamotrygon wallacei, conhecida localmente como cururu, que foi capturada em igarapés e lagos na região do médio Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. As arraias foram capturadas durante a noite (das 23h-1h) nas margens dos igarapés e lagos, por meio de busca ativa utilizando canoas de madeira, lanternas de cabeça e puçás. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de novembro de 2017 (5 dias), fevereiro (8 dias), março (3 dias) e abril (2 dias) de 2018, totalizando 18 dias de amostragem. Foram medidos o peso fresco total com precisão de 0,01 g e a largura do disco com precisão de 0,1 cm. Os parâmetros a e b da equação W= a.DWb foram estimados. Este estudo prover novos dados de comprimento máximo para a arraia cururu.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Rajidae , Rosa , Afro-Americanos , Brasil , Rios
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253497, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043834

RESUMO

This research aimed to estimate the length-weight ratio (LWR) of the stingray Potamotrygon wallacei, known locally as the cururu, which was caught in streams and lakes in the middle Negro River region, Amazonas, Brazil. The stingrays were captured during the night (from 11 pm to 1 am) near the shores of streams and lakes, through active search using wooden canoes, head lanterns and scoop nets. The samplings were carried out in November 2017 (5 days), February (8 days), March (3 days) and April (2 days) of 2018, totaling 18 days of sampling. The total fresh weight was measured to 0.1 g of accuracy and the disc width to 0.1 cm accuracy. The parameters a and b of the equation W=a.DWb were estimated. This study provides new maximum length data for the cururu stingray.


Assuntos
Rosa , Rajidae , Afro-Americanos , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Rios
3.
Braz J Biol ; 69(2): 319-25, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19675933

RESUMO

The metabolic profiles of selected tissues were analyzed in hatchlings of the Amazonian freshwater turtles Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis and P. sextuberculata. Metabolic design in these species was judged based on the key enzymes of energy metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and ketone body metabolism. All species showed a high glycolytic potential in all sampled tissues. Based on low levels of hexokinase, glycogen may be an important fuel for these species. The high lactate dehydrogenase activity in the liver may play a significant role in carbohydrate catabolism, possibly during diving. Oxidative metabolism in P. sextuberculata appears to be designed for the use of lipids, amino acids and ketone bodies. The maximal activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and succinyl-CoA keto transferase display high aerobic potential, especially in muscle and liver tissues of this species. Although amino acids and ketone bodies may be important fuels for oxidative metabolism, carbohydrates and lipids are the major fuels used by P. expansa and P. unifilis. Our results are consistent with the food habits and lifestyle of Amazonian freshwater turtles. The metabolic design, based on enzyme activities, suggests that hatchlings of P. unifilis and P. expansa are predominately herbivorous, whereas P. sextuberculata rely on a mixed diet of animal matter and vegetation.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Água Doce , Fígado/enzimologia , Músculos/enzimologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Tartarugas/classificação , Tartarugas/fisiologia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(2): 319-325, May 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-519173

RESUMO

The metabolic profiles of selected tissues were analyzed in hatchlings of the Amazonian freshwater turtles Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis and P. sextuberculata. Metabolic design in these species was judged based on the key enzymes of energy metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and ketone body metabolism. All species showed a high glycolytic potential in all sampled tissues. Based on low levels of hexokinase, glycogen may be an important fuel for these species. The high lactate dehydrogenase activity in the liver may play a significant role in carbohydrate catabolism, possibly during diving. Oxidative metabolism in P. sextuberculata appears to be designed for the use of lipids, amino acids and ketone bodies. The maximal activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and succinyl-CoA keto transferase display high aerobic potential, especially in muscle and liver tissues of this species. Although amino acids and ketone bodies may be important fuels for oxidative metabolism, carbohydrates and lipids are the major fuels used by P. expansa and P. unifilis. Our results are consistent with the food habits and lifestyle of Amazonian freshwater turtles. The metabolic design, based on enzyme activities, suggests that hatchlings of P. unifilis and P. expansa are predominately herbivorous, whereas P. sextuberculata rely on a mixed diet of animal matter and vegetation.


O perfil metabólico de vários tecidos foi analisado em quelônios aquáticos recém-eclodidos: Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis e P. sextuberculata. O potencial metabólico dessas espécies foi avaliado por meio das atividades absolutas das enzimas do metabolismo energético com ênfase no metabolismo dos carboidratos, lipídios, aminoácidos e corpos cetônicos. Todas as espécies estudadas apresentaram alto potencial glicolítico em todos os tecidos analisados. Com base nos baixos níveis da enzima hexoquinase, as reservas de glicogênio podem ser importantes substratos energéticos para estas espécies. A alta atividade da lactato desidrogenase no fígado pode indicar que este órgão desempenha um importante papel no metabolismo dos carboidratos, possivelmente relacionado com a resistência ao mergulho prolongado. O perfil metabólico de P. sextuberculata parece organizado para utilizar preferencialmente lipídios, aminoácidos e corpos cetônicos. Os dados das atividades máximas das enzimas 3-hidroxi-acil-Co A desidrogenase, malato desidrogenase e succinil-Co A ceto-transferase, especialmente no músculo branco e no fígado dessa espécie corroboram esta hipótese. Por outro lado, os carboidratos e os lipídios parecem ser os principais substratos metabólicos de P. expansa e P. unifilis, muito embora, os corpos cetônicos e aminoácidos sejam importantes metabólitos para sustentar o potencial oxidativo nessas espécies. Os dados enzimáticos parecem estar correlacionados com o hábito alimentar e o estilo de vida dos quelônios de água doce da Amazônia. O perfil metabólico sugere que os recém-eclodidos de P. unifilis e P. expansa são predominantemente herbívoros, enquanto que P. sextuberculata pode depender de uma dieta mista de material vegetal e proteína animal.


Assuntos
Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Água Doce , Fígado/enzimologia , Músculos/enzimologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Tartarugas/classificação , Tartarugas/fisiologia
5.
J Fish Biol ; 74(4): 956-60, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20735610

RESUMO

During low-water period, freshwater stingray Paratrygon aiereba collected in the whitewater (WW) of the River Amazon showed higher urea content, osmolality, Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations in plasma and perivisceral fluid than those caught in blackwater (BW) of the River Negro. Gills and kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activities were significantly lower in WW than in BW fish. The high level of kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in P. aiereba may minimize ion loss and generate diluted solute-free urine in ion-poor BW environment.


Assuntos
Brânquias/enzimologia , Rim/enzimologia , Rios , Rajidae/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Ureia/sangue
6.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 125(2): 219-26, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10817909

RESUMO

Astronotus ocellatus is one of the most hypoxia tolerant fish of the Amazon; adult animals can tolerate up to 6 h of anoxia at 28 degrees C. Changes in energy metabolism during growth have been reported in many fish species and may reflect the way organisms deal with environmental constraints. We have analyzed enzyme levels (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH: EC 1.1.1.27; and malate dehydrogenase, MDH: EC 1.1.1.37) in four different tissues (white muscle, heart, liver, and brain) from different-sized animals. Both enzymes correlate with body size, increasing the anaerobic potential positively with growth. To our knowledge, this is the first description of scaling effects on hypoxia tolerance and it is interesting to explore the fact that hypoxia survivorship increases due to combining effects of suppressing metabolic rates and increasing anaerobic power as fish grow.


Assuntos
L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Percas/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida/enzimologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Estações do Ano , Estatística como Assunto , Extratos de Tecidos
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 28(11/12): 1257-63, Nov.-Dec. 1995. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-161528

RESUMO

The isozyme distribution of cichlid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is related to species environmental preferences. Cichlasoma amazonarum. occurs in different environments and presents LDH tissue distribution patterns that correlate with oxygen tension at the capture location. Cichlasoma amazonarum was exposed to long term severe hypoxia (51 days at 36.4 +/- 5.9 mmHg), tissue LDH isozyme distribution was analyzed by electrophoresis and enzyme activities were measured by monitoring the oxidation of NADH as pyruvate was reduced to lactate. The exposure of Cichlasoma amazonarum to long-term severe hypoxia resulted in changes in the tissue distribution of LDH isozymes. The major changes in response to hypoxia occurred in heart, liver and brain: isozyme A4 was activated in heart and brain, whereas isozyme B4 was activated in liver. The most significant quantitative change occurred in brain LDH of hypoxia-exposed animals which adopted muscle type kinetics, reflecting a new LDH isozyme distribution. LDH activity was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in animals exposed to hypoxia (N = 8), suggesting an overall LDH suppression. Pyruvate inhibition decreased in all hypoxia-exposed tissues. Thus, the ability of Cichlasoma amazonarum to regulate LDH tissue expression according to oxygen availability allows the animal to survive chronic hypoxic environments. This phenotypic plasticity may occur in other hypoxia-tolerant fish species.


Assuntos
Animais , Hipóxia/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Percas/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Cérebro/enzimologia , Eletroforese , Fígado/enzimologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 28(11-12): 1257-63, 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8728856

RESUMO

The isozyme distribution of cichlid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is related to species environmental preferences. Cichlasoma amazonarum occurs in different environments and presents LDH tissue distribution patterns that correlate with oxygen tension at the capture location. Cichlasoma amazonarum was exposed to long-term severe hypoxia (51 days at 36.4 +/- 5.9 mmHg), tissue LDH isozyme distribution was analyzed by electrophoresis and enzyme activities were measured by monitoring the oxidation of NADH as pyruvate was reduced to lactate. The exposure of Cichlasoma amazonarum to long-term severe hypoxia resulted in changes in the tissue distribution of LDH isozymes. The major changes in response to hypoxia occurred in heart, liver and brain: isozyme A4 was activated in heart and brain, whereas isozyme B4 was activated in liver. The most significant quantitative change occurred in brain LDH of hypoxia-exposed animals which adopted muscle type kinetics, reflecting a new LDH isozyme distribution. LDH activity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in animals exposed to hypoxia (N = 8), suggesting an overall LDH suppression. Pyruvate inhibition decreased in all hypoxia-exposed tissues. Thus, the ability of Cichlasoma amazonarum to regulate LDH tissue expression according to oxygen availability allows the animal to survive chronic hypoxic environments. This phenotypic plasticity may occur in other hypoxia-tolerant fish species.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Percas/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Eletroforese , Isoenzimas , Fígado/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia
9.
Clin Chem ; 35(7): 1279-81, 1989 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2758572

RESUMO

We describe the use of a combined gas chromatographic/infrared/mass spectrometric system to identify some common, clinically important drugs. Sensitivity for the serially configured combined system is demonstrated to be in the low nanogram range for strong infrared-absorbing compounds. Linearity for cocaine in the infrared detector was shown to have a correlation coefficient of 0.9914. Vapor-phase infrared spectra are shown to be very reproducible, which is important in identifying drugs such as the barbiturates. Finally, the two completely independent principles of infrared and mass spectral detection lend significant confidence to the correct identification of the various drugs from a single injection of sample.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/análise , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Microquímica/instrumentação , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
10.
Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung ; 28(1): 7-24, 1981.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7020355

RESUMO

Treponema pallidum was discovered relatively late and was not cultured in vitro. Both the delineation of T. pallidum biology and the eradication of syphilis suggest the necessity of cultivation in vitro. An attempt has been made with an improved medium to cultivate pathogenic T. pallidum Budapest strain in vitro. Only in the first passage, evidence of in vitro multiplication of T. pallidum has been established by (i) macroscopic observation, (ii) darkfield examination, (iii) electron microscopic examination, (iv) optical densities, (v) tritium labelled thymidine incorporation, and (vi) the pathogenicity off the cultured organisms was evidenced by rabbit challenge. Explanation of the oxygen utilization of T. pallidum suspension is discussed. Unidentified formations were observed on electron micrographs from the 96 h cultures. They may belong to the multiplication forms of treponemes. Further experiments are needed for their identification and for expansion of the multiplication of T. pallidum beyond the first passage.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Treponema pallidum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cobre/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Coelhos , Timidina/metabolismo , Estanho/farmacologia , Treponema pallidum/metabolismo , Treponema pallidum/ultraestrutura
11.
Br J Vener Dis ; 52(5): 316-25, 1976 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-825184

RESUMO

The extensive in vitro cultivation methods used in propagating and maintaining gonococcal cells were found to affect their virulence, antigenicity, and ultrastructure. Adapting a laboratory-maintained strain of gonococci to animal virulence resulted in two lines of pilated cells with similar colonial morphologies. The animal-adapted cells, however, had a greater amount of extracellular pili and a more prominent peptidoglycan cell wall layer. They were also more resistant to the bactericidal effects of guinea-pig complement and more reactive in macroagglutination and bactericidal tests with strain-specific gonococcal antibody. In comparative guinea-pig protection trials, formalin-fixed cells of the animal-adapted cell line were 500 times more effective as immunogens than the laboratory-maintained cell line.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias , Membrana Celular/imunologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/imunologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Linhagem Celular , Cobaias , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/ultraestrutura , Virulência
12.
J Infect Dis ; 133(4): 441-7, 1976 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-816974

RESUMO

Relative and absolute resistance to urethral and pharyngeal infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae persisted for up to two years in male chimpanzees parenterally immunized with a colony type 2 gonococcal antigen. Twelve additional adult males were immunized with either a colony type 1 gonococcal antigen or a sham diluent before being challenged with the immunizing isolate of N. gonorrhoeae. Serum specimens were obtained throughout the immunization procedure and tested for indirect fluorescent, bactericidal, microhemagglutinating, and complement-fixing antibody to the immunizing isolate of N. gonorrhoeae. The serological response measured by the indirect fluorescent antibody and serum bactericidal tests correlated most closely with the resistance of individual chimpanzees when they were challenged in the pharynx and urethra with graduated doses of N. gonorrhoeae one month after the last immunization. In this study, the resistance of the immunized chimpanzees to urethral infection with N. gonorrhoeae varied from one to greater than 1,000 times that of sham-injected controls.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Gonorreia/imunologia , Imunização , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/imunologia , Animais , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Imunidade Ativa , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Pan troglodytes , Doenças Faríngeas/imunologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Uretra/microbiologia , Doenças Uretrais/imunologia
18.
Appl Microbiol ; 19(6): 898-901, 1970 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-4917188

RESUMO

Two evaluations of the automated fluorescent treponemal antibody (AFTA) test for the serodiagnosis of syphilis are described. The results of AFTA and manually performed fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) tests were compared on serum samples from clinically defined donor groups, and the reproducibility of each procedure was studied. Significant improvement of AFTA test results was obtained in the most recent study after developmental modifications of the instrument and test technique. AFTA test agreement with both syphilis and nonsyphilis categories was considered good. With the increasing usage of the FTA-ABS test as an effective tool for the diagnosis of syphilis, successful automation of this procedure is particularly timely and significant.


Assuntos
Automação , Imunofluorescência , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Absorção , Anticorpos/análise , Antígenos , Imunofluorescência/instrumentação , Humanos , Métodos , Sífilis/sangue , Sífilis/imunologia , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/instrumentação , Treponema pallidum
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