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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(1): 6-14, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with HIV (PWH) are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recommended for use in US children in 2010 and for PWH aged 19 years or older in 2012. We evaluated the population-level impact of PCV13 on IPD among PWH and non-PWH aged 19 years or older. METHODS: We identified IPD cases from 2008 to 2018 through the Active Bacterial Core surveillance platform. We estimated IPD incidence using the National HIV Surveillance System and US Census Bureau data. We measured percent changes in IPD incidence from 2008 to 2009 to 2017-2018 by HIV status, age group, and vaccine serotype group, including serotypes in recently licensed 15-valent (PCV15) and 20-valent (PCV20) PCVs. RESULTS: In 2008-2009 and 2017-2018, 8.4% (552/6548) and 8.0% (416/5169) of adult IPD cases were among PWH, respectively. Compared with non-PWH, a larger proportion of IPD cases among PWH were in adults aged 19-64 years (94.7%-97.4% vs. 56.0%-60.1%) and non-Hispanic Black people (62.5%-73.0% vs. 16.7%-19.2%). Overall and PCV13-type IPD incidence in PWH declined by 40.3% (95% confidence interval: -47.7 to -32.3) and 72.5% (95% confidence interval: -78.8 to -65.6), respectively. In 2017-2018, IPD incidence was 16.8 (overall) and 12.6 (PCV13 type) times higher in PWH compared with non-PWH; PCV13, PCV15/non-PCV13, and PCV20/non-PCV15 serotypes comprised 21.5%, 11.2%, and 16.5% of IPD in PWH, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite reductions post-PCV13 introduction, IPD incidence among PWH remained substantially higher than among non-PWH. Higher-valent PCVs provide opportunities to reduce remaining IPD burden in PWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Adulto , Criança , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Conjugadas , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-nonsusceptible invasive pneumococcal disease (NS-IPD) incidence declined dramatically in the United States following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) into the infant immunization schedule (7-valent PCV7 in 2000, replaced by the 13-valent PCV13 in 2010). We evaluated the long-term impact of PCVs on NS-IPD. METHODS: We identified IPD cases through the Centers for Disease Control Active Bacterial Core surveillance during 1998-2018. Isolates intermediate or resistant to ≥1 antibiotic class were classified as nonsusceptible. We calculated annual rates of IPD (cases per 100,000 persons). RESULTS: From 1998 through 2018, NS-IPD incidence decreased from 43.9 to 3.2 among children <5 years and from 19.8 to 9.4 among adults ≥65 years. Incidence of vaccine-type NS-IPD decreased in all age groups, while incidence of NVT NS-IPD increased in all age groups; the greatest absolute increase in NVT NS-IPD occurred among adults ≥65 years (2.3 to 7.2). During 2014-18, NVTs 35B, 33F, 22F, and 15A were the most common NS-IPD serotypes. CONCLUSIONS: NS-IPD incidence decreased following PCV7 and PCV13 introduction in the United States. However, recent increases in NVT NS-IPD, most pronounced among older adults, have been observed. New higher valency PCVs containing the most common nonsusceptible serotypes, including 22F and 33F, could help further reduce NS-IPD.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disseminated gonococcal infections (DGI) are thought to be uncommon; surveillance is limited and case reports are analyzed retrospectively or in case clusters. We describe the population-level burden of culture-confirmed DGI through the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system. METHODS: During 2015-2016, retrospective surveillance was conducted among residents in two ABCs areas and prospectively in three ABCs areas during 2017-2019. A DGI case was defined as isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) from a normally sterile site. A case report form was completed for each case and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed on available isolates. RESULTS: During 2015-2019, 77 DGI cases were identified (~a rate of 0.13 cases per 100,000 population) and accounted for 0.06% of all reported gonorrhea cases in the three surveillance areas. Most DGI cases were male (64%), non-Hispanic Black (68%), and ranged from 16-67 years; blood (55%) and joint (40%) were the most common sterile sites. Among 29 isolates with AST results during 2017-2019, all were susceptible to ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: DGI is an infrequent complication of Ng; since Ng can quickly develop antimicrobial resistance, continued DGI surveillance, including monitoring trends in antimicrobial susceptibility, could help inform DGI treatment recommendations.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 802-811, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented healthcare challenges, and COVID-19 has been linked to secondary infections. Candidemia, a fungal healthcare-associated infection, has been described in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. However, studies of candidemia and COVID-19 coinfection have been limited in sample size and geographic scope. We assessed differences in patients with candidemia with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-level analysis using population-based candidemia surveillance data collected through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program during April-August 2020 to compare characteristics of candidemia patients with and without a positive test for COVID-19 in the 30 days before their Candida culture using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Of the 251 candidemia patients included, 64 (25.5%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Liver disease, solid-organ malignancies, and prior surgeries were each >3 times more common in patients without COVID-19 coinfection, whereas intensive care unit-level care, mechanical ventilation, having a central venous catheter, and receipt of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants were each >1.3 times more common in patients with COVID-19. All-cause in-hospital fatality was 2 times higher among those with COVID-19 (62.5%) than without (32.1%). CONCLUSIONS: One-quarter of candidemia patients had COVID-19. These patients were less likely to have certain underlying conditions and recent surgery commonly associated with candidemia and more likely to have acute risk factors linked to COVID-19 care, including immunosuppressive medications. Given the high mortality, it is important for clinicians to remain vigilant and take proactive measures to prevent candidemia in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Candidemia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(10): ofab473, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660837

RESUMO

Automated identification systems may misidentify Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis, which may be re-emerging in the United States as the result of an expanding feral swine population. We present a case of Brucella suis likely associated with feral swine exposure that was misidentified as Ochrobactrum anthropi, a phylogenetic relative.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(32): 1088-1093, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383730

RESUMO

Clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized for emergency use in the United States (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) indicate that these vaccines have high efficacy against symptomatic disease, including moderate to severe illness (1-3). In addition to clinical trials, real-world assessments of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness are critical in guiding vaccine policy and building vaccine confidence, particularly among populations at higher risk for more severe illness from COVID-19, including older adults. To determine the real-world effectiveness of the three currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines among persons aged ≥65 years during February 1-April 30, 2021, data on 7,280 patients from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) were analyzed with vaccination coverage data from state immunization information systems (IISs) for the COVID-NET catchment area (approximately 4.8 million persons). Among adults aged 65-74 years, effectiveness of full vaccination in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 94%-98%) for Pfizer-BioNTech, 96% (95% CI = 95%-98%) for Moderna, and 84% (95% CI = 64%-93%) for Janssen vaccine products. Effectiveness of full vaccination in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults aged ≥75 years was 91% (95% CI = 87%-94%) for Pfizer-BioNTech, 96% (95% CI = 93%-98%) for Moderna, and 85% (95% CI = 72%-92%) for Janssen vaccine products. COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized in the United States are highly effective in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in older adults. In light of real-world data demonstrating high effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines among older adults, efforts to increase vaccination coverage in this age group are critical to reducing the risk for COVID-19-related hospitalization.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Sintéticas
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1609-1616, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a common opportunistic infection causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Because of an increasing proportion of non-albicans Candida species and rising antifungal drug resistance, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) changed treatment guidelines in 2016 to recommend echinocandins over fluconazole as first-line treatment for adults with candidemia. We describe candidemia treatment practices and adherence to the updated guidelines. METHODS: During 2017-2018, the Emerging Infections Program conducted active population-based candidemia surveillance at 9 US sites using a standardized case definition. We assessed factors associated with initial antifungal treatment for the first candidemia case among adults using multivariable logistic regression models. To identify instances of potentially inappropriate treatment, we compared the first antifungal drug received with species and antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) results from initial blood cultures. RESULTS: Among 1835 patients who received antifungal treatment, 1258 (68.6%) received an echinocandin and 543 (29.6%) received fluconazole as initial treatment. Cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio = 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.29) was the only underlying medical condition significantly associated with initial receipt of an echinocandin (versus fluconazole). More than one-half (n = 304, 56.0%) of patients initially treated with fluconazole grew a non-albicans species. Among 265 patients initially treated with fluconazole and with fluconazole AFST results, 28 (10.6%) had a fluconazole-resistant isolate. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients with candidemia were initially treated with fluconazole, resulting in potentially inappropriate treatment for those involving non-albicans or fluconazole-resistant species. Reasons for nonadherence to IDSA guidelines should be evaluated, and clinician education is needed.


Assuntos
Candidemia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Equinocandinas/uso terapêutico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofaa634, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive group B Streptococcus (iGBS) isolates with mutations in the pbp2x gene that encodes penicillin binding protein 2x can have reduced beta-lactam susceptibility (RBLS) when susceptible by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. We assessed the emergence and characteristics of RBLS strains in US iGBS isolates. METHODS: We analyzed iGBS isolates from 8 multistate population-based surveillance sites from 1998 to 2018. During 1998-2014, phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution; criteria for 6 antibiotics were used to identify RBLS, followed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). WGS for all isolates was added in 2015; we used phenotypic and genotypic results of >2000 isolates to validate phenotypic RBLS criteria and genotypic predictions. Since 2016, WGS has been used to screen for RBLS with broth microdilution confirmation of predicted RBLS isolates. RESULTS: Of 28 269 iGBS isolates, 28 (0.1%) were nonsusceptible by CLSI criteria; 137 (0.5%) met RBLS criteria. RBLS isolates were detected in all Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites. The RBLS proportion increased, especially since 2013 (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.32); the proportion that were nonsusceptible remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: The RBSL proportion was low but increasing among US iGBS isolates. Ongoing monitoring is needed to detect emerging threats to prevention and treatment of GBS infections.

9.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500343

RESUMO

Heteroresistance is a form of antibiotic resistance where a bacterial strain is comprised of a minor resistant subpopulation and a majority susceptible subpopulation. We showed previously that colistin heteroresistance can mediate the failure of colistin therapy in an in vivo infection model, even for isolates designated susceptible by clinical diagnostics. We sought to characterize the extent of colistin heteroresistance among the highly drug-resistant carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). We screened 408 isolates for colistin heteroresistance. These isolates were collected between 2012 and 2015 in eight U.S. states as part of active surveillance for CRE. Colistin heteroresistance was detected in 10.1% (41/408) of isolates, and it was more common than conventional homogenous resistance (7.1%, 29/408). Most (93.2%, 38/41) of these heteroresistant isolates were classified as colistin susceptible by standard clinical diagnostic testing. The frequency of colistin heteroresistance was greatest in 2015, the last year of the study. This was especially true among Enterobacter isolates, of which specific species had the highest rates of heteroresistance. Among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, which were the majority of isolates tested, there was a closely related cluster of colistin-heteroresistant ST-258 isolates found mostly in Georgia. However, cladistic analysis revealed that, overall, there was significant diversity in the genetic backgrounds of heteroresistant K. pneumoniae isolates. These findings suggest that due to being largely undetected in the clinic, colistin heteroresistance among CRE is underappreciated in the United States.IMPORTANCE Heteroresistance is an underappreciated phenomenon that may be the cause of some unexplained antibiotic treatment failures. Misclassification of heteroresistant isolates as susceptible may lead to inappropriate therapy. Heteroresistance to colistin was more common than conventional resistance and was overwhelmingly misclassified as susceptibility by clinical diagnostic testing. Higher proportions of colistin heteroresistance observed in certain Enterobacter species and clustering among heteroresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains may inform colistin treatment recommendations. Overall, the rate of colistin nonsusceptibility was more than double the level detected by clinical diagnostics, suggesting that the prevalence of colistin nonsusceptibility among CRE may be higher than currently appreciated in the United States.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estados Unidos
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(6): 1004-1013, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis and an important cause of invasive infections in pregnant and nonpregnant adults. Vaccines targeting capsule polysaccharides and common proteins are under development. METHODS: Using whole genome sequencing, a validated bioinformatics pipeline, and targeted antimicrobial susceptibility testing, we characterized 6340 invasive GBS isolates recovered during 2015-2017 through population-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) in 8 states. RESULTS: Six serotypes accounted for 98.4% of isolates (21.8% Ia, 17.6% V, 17.1% II, 15.6% III, 14.5% Ib, 11.8% IV). Most (94.2%) isolates were in 11 clonal complexes (CCs) comprised of multilocus sequence types identical or closely related to sequence types 1, 8, 12, 17, 19, 22, 23, 28, 88, 452, and 459. Fifty-four isolates (0.87%) had point mutations within pbp2x associated with nonsusceptibility to 1 or more ß-lactam antibiotics. Genes conferring resistance to macrolides and/or lincosamides were found in 56% of isolates; 85.2% of isolates had tetracycline resistance genes. Two isolates carrying vanG were vancomycin nonsusceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration = 2 µg/mL). Nearly all isolates possessed capsule genes, 1-2 of the 3 main pilus gene clusters, and 1 of 4 homologous alpha/Rib family determinants. Presence of the hvgA virulence gene was primarily restricted to serotype III/CC17 isolates (465 isolates), but 8 exceptions (7 IV/CC452 and 1 IV/CC17) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This first comprehensive, population-based quantitation of strain features in the United States suggests that current vaccine candidates should have good coverage. The ß-lactams remain appropriate for first-line treatment and prophylaxis, but emergence of nonsusceptibility warrants ongoing monitoring.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas , Vacinas , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Gravidez , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3670-e3676, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) increased an average of 13% annually from 2002 through 2015. We describe clinical characteristics and adverse clinical outcomes of US invasive Hia cases detected through multistate surveillance during 2011-2015. METHODS: Medical record data were abstracted for cases reported in 8 jurisdictions conducting active population- and laboratory-based surveillance for invasive Hia disease across the United States. Isolates from sterile sites were serotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Adverse clinical outcomes were defined as any possible complication of meningitis, bacteremic pneumonia, or bacteremia (including hearing loss and developmental delay, but excluding death) and were assessed at hospital discharge and one-year post-disease onset. RESULTS: During 2011-2015, 190 Hia cases were reported to the 8 participating sites; 169 (88.9%) had data abstracted. Many patients were aged <5 years (42.6%). Meningitis was the most common clinical presentation among those aged <1 year (71.4%); bacteremic pneumonia was the most common presentation among persons aged ≥50 years (78.7%). Overall, 95.9% of patients were hospitalized. Among those hospitalized, 47.5% were admitted to an intensive care unit and 6.2% died during hospitalization. At hospital discharge and one-year post-disease onset, adverse outcomes were identified in 17.7% and 17.8% of patients overall and in 43.9% and 48.5% of patients with meningitis (primarily children). CONCLUSIONS: Hia infection can cause severe disease that requires hospitalization and may also cause short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, especially among children. Novel vaccines could prevent morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por Haemophilus , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus , Idoso , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Haemophilus influenzae , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3978-e3979, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797235
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e371-e379, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) can cause invasive disease similar to serotype b; no Hia vaccine is available. We describe the epidemiology of invasive Hia disease in the United States overall and specifically in Alaska during 2008-2017. METHODS: Active population- and laboratory-based surveillance for invasive Hia disease was conducted through Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites and from Alaska statewide invasive bacterial disease surveillance. Sterile-site isolates were serotyped via slide agglutination or real-time polymerase chain reaction. Incidences in cases per 100 000 were calculated. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2017, an estimated average of 306 invasive Hia disease cases occurred annually in the United States (estimated annual incidence: 0.10); incidence increased by an average of 11.1% annually. Overall, 42.7% of cases were in children aged <5 years (incidence: 0.64), with highest incidence among children aged <1 year (1.60). Case fatality was 7.8% overall and was highest among adults aged ≥65 years (15.1%). Among children aged <5 years, the incidence was 17 times higher among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children (8.29) than among children of all other races combined (0.49). In Alaska, incidences among all ages (0.68) and among children aged <1 year (24.73) were nearly 6 and 14 times higher, respectively, than corresponding US incidences. Case fatality in Alaska was 10.2%, and the vast majority (93.9%) of cases occurred among AI/AN. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of invasive Hia disease has increased since 2008, with the highest burden among AI/AN children. These data can inform prevention strategies, including Hia vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Adulto , Alaska/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Conjugadas
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(7): 1247-1250, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597466

RESUMO

Hyperinflammation is associated with increased mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective, uncontrolled patient cohort with moderate -severe COVID-19, treatment with baricitinib plus hydroxychloroquine was associated with recovery in 11 of 15 patients. Baricitinib for the treatment of COVID-19 should be further investigated in randomized, controlled clinical trials.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Purinas , Pirazóis , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamidas , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Infect Dis ; 223(12): 2038-2047, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which Neisseria meningitidis cause persistent human carriage and transition from carriage to invasive disease have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Georgia and Maryland high school students were sampled for pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis during the 2006-2007 school year. A total of 321 isolates from 188 carriers and all 67 invasive disease isolates collected during the same time and from the same geographic region underwent whole-genome sequencing. Core-genome multilocus sequence typing was used to compare allelic profiles, and direct read mapping was used to study strain evolution. RESULTS: Among 188 N. meningitidis culture-positive students, 98 (52.1%) were N. meningitidis culture positive at 2 or 3 samplings. Most students who were positive at >1 sampling (98%) had persistence of a single strain. More than a third of students carried isolates that were highly genetically related to isolates from other students in the same school, and occasional transmission within the same county was also evident. The major pilin subunit gene, pilE, was the most variable gene, and no carrier had identical pilE sequences at different time points. CONCLUSION: We found strong evidence of local meningococcal transmission at both the school and county levels. Allelic variation within genes encoding bacterial surface structures, particularly pilE, was common.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas , Neisseria meningitidis , Adolescente , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Maryland/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/transmissão , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
17.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(8): 962-967, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) bacteriuria and to determine whether urinary catheters increase the risk of subsequent CRE bacteremia. DESIGN: Using active population- and laboratory-based surveillance we described a cohort of patients with incident CRE bacteriuria and identified risk factors for developing CRE bacteremia within 1 year. SETTING: The study was conducted among the 8 counties of Georgia Health District 3 (HD3) in Atlanta, Georgia. PATIENTS: Residents of HD3 with CRE first identified in urine between 2012 and 2017. RESULTS: We identified 464 patients with CRE bacteriuria (mean yearly incidence, 1.96 cases per 100,000 population). Of 425 with chart review, most had a urinary catheter (56%), and many resided in long-term care facilities (48%), had a Charlson comorbidity index >3 (38%) or a decubitus ulcer (37%). 21 patients (5%) developed CRE bacteremia with the same organism within 1 year. Risk factors for subsequent bacteremia included presence of a urinary catheter (odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-34.9), central venous catheter (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.7-10.6) or another indwelling device (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6-11.4), urine culture obtained as an inpatient (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.3-25.9), and being in the ICU in the week prior to urine culture (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.8). In a multivariable analysis, urinary catheter increased the risk of CRE bacteremia (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CRE bacteriuria, urinary catheters increase the risk of CRE bacteremia. Future interventions should aim to reduce inappropriate insertion and early removal of urinary catheters.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Bacteriúria , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriúria/epidemiologia , Carbapenêmicos , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Cateterismo Urinário
18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227907

RESUMO

Colistin is an important last-line antibiotic to treat highly resistant Enterobacter infections. Resistance to colistin has emerged among clinical isolates but has been associated with a significant growth defect. Here, we describe a clinical Enterobacter isolate with a deletion of mgrB, a regulator of colistin resistance, leading to high-level resistance in the absence of a growth defect. The identification of a path to resistance unrestrained by growth defects suggests colistin resistance could become more common in Enterobacter.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075113

RESUMO

We assessed viral co-infections in 155 patients with community-associated Clostridioides difficile infection in five U.S. sites during December 2012-February 2013. Eighteen patients (12%) tested positive for norovirus (n = 10), adenovirus (n = 4), rotavirus (n = 3), or sapovirus (n = 1). Co-infected patients were more likely than non-co-infected patients to have nausea or vomiting (56% vs 31%; p = 0.04), suggesting that viral co-pathogens contributed to symptoms in some patients. There were no significant differences in prior healthcare or medication exposures or in CDI complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Viroses , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clostridioides difficile/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
N Engl J Med ; 382(14): 1320-1330, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to prevent Clostridioides difficile infection continue to expand across the health care spectrum in the United States. Whether these efforts are reducing the national burden of C. difficile infection is unclear. METHODS: The Emerging Infections Program identified cases of C. difficile infection (stool specimens positive for C. difficile in a person ≥1 year of age with no positive test in the previous 8 weeks) in 10 U.S. sites. We used case and census sampling weights to estimate the national burden of C. difficile infection, first recurrences, hospitalizations, and in-hospital deaths from 2011 through 2017. Health care-associated infections were defined as those with onset in a health care facility or associated with recent admission to a health care facility; all others were classified as community-associated infections. For trend analyses, we used weighted random-intercept models with negative binomial distribution and logistic-regression models to adjust for the higher sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) as compared with other test types. RESULTS: The number of cases of C. difficile infection in the 10 U.S. sites was 15,461 in 2011 (10,177 health care-associated and 5284 community-associated cases) and 15,512 in 2017 (7973 health care-associated and 7539 community-associated cases). The estimated national burden of C. difficile infection was 476,400 cases (95% confidence interval [CI], 419,900 to 532,900) in 2011 and 462,100 cases (95% CI, 428,600 to 495,600) in 2017. With accounting for NAAT use, the adjusted estimate of the total burden of C. difficile infection decreased by 24% (95% CI, 6 to 36) from 2011 through 2017; the adjusted estimate of the national burden of health care-associated C. difficile infection decreased by 36% (95% CI, 24 to 54), whereas the adjusted estimate of the national burden of community-associated C. difficile infection was unchanged. The adjusted estimate of the burden of hospitalizations for C. difficile infection decreased by 24% (95% CI, 0 to 48), whereas the adjusted estimates of the burden of first recurrences and in-hospital deaths did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated national burden of C. difficile infection and associated hospitalizations decreased from 2011 through 2017, owing to a decline in health care-associated infections. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Vigilância da População , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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