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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 115-120, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid screening for tuberculosis (TB) disease at intake into immigrant detention facilities allows for early detection and treatment. Detention facilities with United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Health Service Corps (IHSC) medical staffing utilize chest radiography and symptom screening as the primary screening for pulmonary TB (PTB) disease. This analysis describes the demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of individuals identified with TB disease at these facilities. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis to describe the population of immigrant detainees identified via chest radiography with PTB disease between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 at facilities with IHSC medical staffing. We collected demographic variables, clinical presentation, diagnostic testing results, and microbiological findings. We generated descriptive statistics and examined univariate and multivariate associations between the variables collected and symptomatic status. RESULTS: We identified 327 patients with confirmed PTB disease (incidence rate, 92.8 per 100 000); the majority of patients were asymptomatic (79.2%) at diagnosis. Adjusting for all other variables in the model, the presence of cavitary lesions, acid-fast bacillus smear positivity, and multilobar presentation were significantly associated with symptomatic status. Among all patients identified with TB disease who had a tuberculin skin test (TST) result recorded, 27.2% were both asymptomatic and TST negative, including those with smear-positive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic PTB disease is a significant clinical entity among immigrant detainees and placement in a congregate setting calls for aggressive screening to prevent transmission. Early identification, isolation, and treatment of TB disease benefit not only the health of the patient, but also the surrounding community.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Doenças Assintomáticas , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 713-717, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437141

RESUMO

In September 2018, CDC identified Salmonella enterica serotype Newport (Newport) infections that were multidrug resistant (MDR), with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin, a recommended oral treatment agent. Until 2017, decreased susceptibility to azithromycin had occurred in fewer than 0.5% of Salmonella isolates from U.S. residents. This report summarizes the investigation of a multistate MDR Salmonella outbreak conducted by CDC, state and local health departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. During June 2018-March 2019, 255 cases of infection with the outbreak strain were identified in 32 states; 43% of patients (89 of 206 with information on travel) reported recent travel to Mexico. Infections were linked to consumption of soft cheese obtained in Mexico and beef obtained in the United States. Consumers should avoid eating soft cheese that could be made from unpasteurized milk, regardless of the source of the cheese. When preparing beef, a food thermometer should be used to ensure that appropriate cooking temperatures are reached. When antibiotic treatment is needed for a patient, clinicians should choose antibiotics based on susceptibility testing wherever possible.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Queijo/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Correct Health Care ; 24(1): 84-95, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945148

RESUMO

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for detaining unauthorized aliens during immigration proceedings. During 2014 to 2015, adult ICE detainees at a California facility were invited to complete a survey concerning self-reported varicella history and risk factors. Participants underwent serological testing for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IgG; susceptible individuals were offered varicella vaccination. Among 400 detainees with available serology results, 48 (12%) were susceptible to varicella. Self-reported varicella history was negatively associated with susceptibility (adjusted odds ratio = 0.16; 95% confidence interval [0.07, 0.35]). Among 196 detainees reporting a positive history, 95% had VZV IgG levels suggestive of varicella immunity. Among 44 susceptible detainees offered vaccination, 86% accepted. Given relatively high varicella susceptibility, targeted screening and vaccination among ICE detainees lacking a positive history might reduce varicella transmission risks.


Assuntos
Imigrantes Indocumentados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/etnologia , Adulto , California , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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