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1.
J Travel Med ; 2022 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the global risk of rabies exposure is a complicated task requiring individual risk assessments, knowledge of rabies epidemiology, surveillance capacity, and accessibility of rabies biologics on a national and regional scale. In many parts of the world, availability of this information is limited and when available is often dispersed across multiple sources. This hinders the process of making evidence-based health and policy recommendations to prevent the introduction and spread of rabies. METHODS: CDC conducted a country-by-country qualitative assessment of risk and protective factors for rabies to develop an open-access database of core metrics consisting of the presence of Lyssaviruses (specifically canine or wildlife rabies virus variants or other bat Lyssaviruses), access to rabies immunoglobulins and vaccines, rabies surveillance capacity, and canine rabies control capacity. Using these metrics, we developed separate risk scoring systems to inform rabies prevention guidance for travelers and regulations for the importation of dogs. Both scoring systems assigned higher risk to countries with enzootic rabies (particularly canine rabies), and the risk scoring system for travelers also considered protective factors such as the accessibility of rabies biologics for postexposure prophylaxis. Cumulative scores were calculated across the assessed metrics to assign a risk value of low, moderate, or high. RESULTS: A total of 240 countries, territories, and dependencies were assessed, for travelers, 116 were identified as moderate to high risk and 124 were low or no risk; for canine rabies virus variant importation, 111 were identified as high-risk and 129 were low or no risk. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a comprehensive and easily accessible source of information for assessing the rabies risk for individual countries that included a database of rabies risk and protective factors based on enzootic status and availability of biologics, provided a resource that categorizes risk by country, and provided guidance based on these risk categories for travelers and importers of dogs into the United States.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 490-497, 2022 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cruise travel contributed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission when there were relatively few cases in the United States. By 14 March 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a No Sail Order suspending US cruise operations; the last US passenger ship docked on 16 April. METHODS: We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on cruises in US waters or carrying US citizens and used regression models to compare voyage characteristics. We used compartmental models to simulate the potential impact of 4 interventions (screening for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms; viral testing on 2 days and isolation of positive persons; reduction of passengers by 40%, crew by 20%, and reducing port visits to 1) for 7-day and 14-day voyages. RESULTS: During 19 January to 16 April 2020, 89 voyages on 70 ships had known SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks; 16 ships had recurrent outbreaks. There were 1669 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and 29 confirmed deaths. Longer voyages were associated with more cases (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.17, P < .003). Mathematical models showed that 7-day voyages had about 70% fewer cases than 14-day voyages. On 7-day voyages, the most effective interventions were reducing the number of individuals onboard (43.3% reduction in total infections) and testing passengers and crew (42% reduction in total infections). All four interventions reduced transmission by 80.1%, but no single intervention or combination eliminated transmission. Results were similar for 14-day voyages. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on cruises were common during January-April 2020. Despite all interventions modeled, cruise travel still poses a significant SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Navios , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 455-460, 2022 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Vermont Department of Health investigated an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Shigella sonnei infections in a retirement community that offered a continuum of care from independent living through skilled nursing care. The investigation identified 24 culture-confirmed cases. Isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and ceftriaxone, and had decreased susceptibility to azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. METHODS: To evaluate clinical and microbiologic response, we reviewed inpatient and outpatient medical records for treatment outcomes among the 24 patients with culture-confirmed S. sonnei infection. We defined clinical failure as diarrhea (≥3 loose stools per day) for ≥1 day after treatment finished, and microbiologic failure as a stool culture that yielded S. sonnei after treatment finished. We used broth microdilution to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and whole genome sequencing to identify resistance mechanisms. RESULTS: Isolates contained macrolide resistance genes mph(A) and erm(B) and had azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations above the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute epidemiological cutoff value of ≤16 µg/mL. Among 24 patients with culture-confirmed Shigella infection, 4 were treated with azithromycin; all had clinical treatment failure and 2 also had microbiologic treatment failure. Isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but contained a gyrA mutation; 2 patients failed treatment with ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: These azithromycin treatment failures demonstrate the importance of clinical breakpoints to aid clinicians in identifying alternative treatment options for resistant strains. Additionally, these treatment failures highlight a need for comprehensive susceptibility testing and systematic outcome studies, particularly given the emergence of multidrug-resistant Shigella among an expanding range of patient populations.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar , Shigella , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Disenteria Bacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aposentadoria , Shigella sonnei/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Vermont
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125203, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524434

RESUMO

Importance: Extensively drug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections cannot be treated with any commonly recommended antibiotics and pose an increasing public health threat. Objectives: To investigate cases of extensively drug-resistant C jejuni associated with pet store puppies and describe the epidemiologic and laboratory characteristics of these infections. Design, Setting, and Participants: In August 2017, health officials identified, via survey, patients with C jejuni infections who reported contact with puppies sold by pet stores. In conjunction with state and federal partners, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated cases of culture-confirmed C jejuni infections in US patients with an epidemiologic or molecular association with pet store puppies between January 1, 2016, and February 29, 2020. Available records from cases occurring before 2016 with genetically related isolates were also obtained. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients were interviewed about demographic characteristics, health outcomes, and dog exposure during the 7 days before illness onset. Core genome multilocus sequence typing was used to assess isolate relatedness, and genomes were screened for resistance determinants to predict antibiotic resistance. Isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and 3 or more additional antibiotic classes were considered to be extensively drug resistant. Cases before 2016 were identified by screening all sequenced isolates submitted for surveillance using core genome multilocus sequence typing. Results: A total of 168 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 37 [19.5-51.0] years; 105 of 163 female [64%]) with an epidemiologic or molecular association with pet store puppies were studied. A total of 137 cases occurred from January 1, 2016, to February 29, 2020, with 31 additional cases dating back to 2011. Overall, 117 of 121 patients (97%) reported contact with a dog in the week before symptom onset, of whom 69 of 78 (88%) with additional information reported contact with a pet store puppy; 168 isolates (88%) were extensively drug resistant. Traceback investigation did not implicate any particular breeder, transporter, distributer, store, or chain. Conclusions and Relevance: Strains of extensively drug-resistant C jejuni have been circulating since at least 2011 and are associated with illness among pet store customers, employees, and others who come into contact with pet store puppies. The results of this study suggest that practitioners should ask about puppy exposure when treating patients with Campylobacter infection, especially when they do not improve with routine antibiotics, and that the commercial dog industry should take action to help prevent the spread of extensively drug-resistant C jejuni from pet store puppies to people.


Assuntos
Zoonoses Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Animais de Estimação , Adulto , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 84-90, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most patients with Campylobacter infection do not require antibiotics; however, they are indicated in severe cases. Clinical breakpoints for many antibiotics are not yet established by the CLSI, making antibiotic selection for resistant infections challenging. During an outbreak of pet store puppy-associated XDR Campylobacter jejuni infections resistant to seven antibiotic classes, several patients required antibiotics. This study aimed to determine MICs of the outbreak strain for various antibiotics and describes the successful treatment of two patients using imipenem/cilastatin, a drug not traditionally used for Campylobacter infections. METHODS: We used whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) to determine the genetic relatedness of Campylobacter isolates collected from two human patients' stool samples with the outbreak strain. We performed extended antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 14 outbreak isolates and 6 control strains to determine MICs for 30 antibiotics (14 classes). RESULTS: Isolates from both patients were highly related to the outbreak strain by wgMLST. MICs indicated resistance of the outbreak strain to most antibiotic classes, except phenicols, glycylcyclines and carbapenems. Due to potential side effects of phenicols and safety issues precluding use of glycylcyclines such as tigecycline when alternatives agents are available, we used carbapenems to treat patients who were severely ill from the outbreak strain infections. CONCLUSION: Stewardship and clinical vigilance are warranted when deciding whether and how to treat patients with suspected C. jejuni diarrhoea with antibiotics. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for XDR Campylobacter when patients fail to improve and consider the use of carbapenems in such settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Cães , Humanos
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1662-1672, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013877

RESUMO

Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and antimicrobial-resistant strains pose a serious threat to public health. We used Bayesian hierarchical models of culture-confirmed infections during 2004-2016 from 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems to estimate changes in the national incidence of resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella infections. Extrapolating to the United States population and accounting for unreported infections, we estimated a 40% increase in the annual incidence of infections with clinically important resistance (resistance to ampicillin or ceftriaxone or nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin) during 2015-2016 (≈222,000 infections) compared with 2004-2008 (≈159,000 infections). Changes in the incidence of resistance varied by serotype. Serotypes I 4,[5],12:i:- and Enteritidis were responsible for two thirds of the increased incidence of clinically important resistance during 2015-2016. Ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible infections accounted for more than half of the increase. These estimates can help in setting targets and priorities for prevention.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Salmonella , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estados Unidos
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e448-e457, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Diamond Princess cruise ship was the site of a large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Of 437 Americans and their travel companions on the ship, 114 (26%) tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We interviewed 229 American passengers and crew after disembarkation following a ship-based quarantine to identify risk factors for infection and characterize transmission onboard the ship. RESULTS: The attack rate for passengers in single-person cabins or without infected cabinmates was 18% (58/329), compared with 63% (27/43) for those sharing a cabin with an asymptomatic infected cabinmate, and 81% (25/31) for those with a symptomatic infected cabinmate. Whole genome sequences from specimens from passengers who shared cabins clustered together. Of 66 SARS-CoV-2-positive American travelers with complete symptom information, 14 (21%) were asymptomatic while on the ship. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive Americans, 10 (9%) required intensive care, of whom 7 were ≥70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on cruise ships. High rates of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in cabinmates of individuals with asymptomatic infections suggest that triage by symptom status in shared quarters is insufficient to halt transmission. A high rate of intensive care unit admission among older individuals complicates the prospect of future cruise travel during the pandemic, given typical cruise passenger demographics. The magnitude and severe outcomes of this outbreak were major factors contributing to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's decision to halt cruise ship travel in US waters in March 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Navios , Diamante , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(10)2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719029

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of enteric bacterial illness in the United States. Traditional molecular subtyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and 7-gene multilocus sequence typing (MLST), provided limited resolution to adequately identify C. jejuni outbreaks and separate out sporadic isolates during outbreak investigations. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has emerged as a powerful tool for C. jejuni outbreak detection. In this investigation, 45 human and 11 puppy isolates obtained during a 2016-2018 outbreak linked to pet store puppies were sequenced. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) and high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (hqSNP) analysis of the sequence data separated the isolates into the same two clades containing minor within-clade differences; however, cgMLST analysis does not require selection of an appropriate reference genome, making the method preferable to hqSNP analysis for Campylobacter surveillance and cluster detection. The isolates were classified as sequence type 2109 (ST2109)-a rarely seen MLST sequence type. PFGE was performed on 38 human and 10 puppy isolates; PFGE patterns did not reliably predict clustering by cgMLST analysis. Genetic detection of antimicrobial resistance determinants predicted that all outbreak-associated isolates would be resistant to six drug classes. Traditional antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) confirmed a high correlation between genotypic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance determinations. WGS analysis linked C. jejuni isolates in humans and pet store puppies even when canine exposure information was unknown, aiding the epidemiological investigation during the outbreak. WGS data were also used to quickly identify the highly drug-resistant profile of these outbreak-associated C. jejuni isolates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genótipo , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(20): 618-622, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437343

RESUMO

Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), the bacterium that causes typhoid fever, is a growing public health threat. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi is resistant to ceftriaxone and other antibiotics used for treatment, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1). In March 2018, CDC began enhanced surveillance for ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi in response to an ongoing outbreak of XDR typhoid fever in Pakistan. CDC had previously reported the first five cases of XDR Typhi in the United States among patients who had spent time in Pakistan (2). These illnesses represented the first cases of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi documented in the United States (3). This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. Travelers to areas with endemic Typhi should receive typhoid vaccination before traveling and adhere to safe food and water precautions (4). Treatment of patients with typhoid fever should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible (5), and clinicians should consider travel history when selecting empiric therapy.


Assuntos
Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(4): ofaa113, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341933

RESUMO

In 2017, state health departments notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 4 patients with shigellosis who experienced persistent illness after treatment with oral third-generation cephalosporins. Given increasing antibiotic resistance among Shigella, these cases highlight the need to evaluate the efficacy of oral cephalosporins for shigellosis.

11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(5): 1030-1033, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310060

RESUMO

A multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Anatum strain reported in Taiwan was isolated in the United States from patients and from seafood imported from Asia. Isolates harbored 11 resistance determinants, including quinolone and inducible cephalosporin resistance genes. Most patients had traveled to Asia. These findings underscore the need for global One Health resistance surveillance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella enterica , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella enterica/genética , Alimentos Marinhos , Sorogrupo , Taiwan , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225800, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800600

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal illnesses are the most frequently diagnosed conditions among returning U.S. travelers. Although most episodes of travelers' diarrhea do not require antibiotic therapy, fluoroquinolones (a type of quinolone antibiotic) are recommended for treatment of moderate and severe travelers' diarrhea as well as many other types of severe infection. To assess associations between quinolone susceptibility and international travel, we linked data about isolate susceptibility in NARMS to cases of enteric infections reported to FoodNet. We categorized isolates as quinolone-nonsusceptible (QNS) if they were resistant or had intermediate susceptibility to ≥1 quinolone. Among 1,726 travel-associated infections reported to FoodNet with antimicrobial susceptibility data in NARMS during 2004-2014, 56% of isolates were quinolone-nonsusceptible, of which most (904/960) were Campylobacter. International travel was associated with >10-fold increased odds of infection with quinolone-nonsusceptible bacteria. Most QNS infections were associated with travel to Latin America and the Caribbean (390/743; 52%); however, the greatest risk of QNS infection was associated with travel to Africa (120 per 1,000,000 passenger journeys). Preventing acquisition and onward transmission of antimicrobial-resistant enteric infections among travelers is critical.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Enteropatias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Viagem , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/história , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias/história , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 713-717, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437141

RESUMO

In September 2018, CDC identified Salmonella enterica serotype Newport (Newport) infections that were multidrug resistant (MDR), with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin, a recommended oral treatment agent. Until 2017, decreased susceptibility to azithromycin had occurred in fewer than 0.5% of Salmonella isolates from U.S. residents. This report summarizes the investigation of a multistate MDR Salmonella outbreak conducted by CDC, state and local health departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. During June 2018-March 2019, 255 cases of infection with the outbreak strain were identified in 32 states; 43% of patients (89 of 206 with information on travel) reported recent travel to Mexico. Infections were linked to consumption of soft cheese obtained in Mexico and beef obtained in the United States. Consumers should avoid eating soft cheese that could be made from unpasteurized milk, regardless of the source of the cheese. When preparing beef, a food thermometer should be used to ensure that appropriate cooking temperatures are reached. When antibiotic treatment is needed for a patient, clinicians should choose antibiotics based on susceptibility testing wherever possible.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Queijo/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(1): 11-13, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629573

RESUMO

In February 2018, a typhoid fever outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, was reported in Pakistan. During November 2016-September 2017, 339 cases of this extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi strain were reported in Pakistan, mostly in Karachi and Hyderabad; one travel-associated case was also reported from the United Kingdom (1). More cases have been detected in Karachi and Hyderabad as surveillance efforts have been strengthened, with recent reports increasing the number of cases to 5,372 (2). In the United States, in response to the reports from Pakistan, enhanced surveillance identified 29 patients with typhoid fever who had traveled to or from Pakistan during 2016-2018, including five with XDR Typhi. Travelers to areas with endemic disease, such as South Asia, should be vaccinated against typhoid fever before traveling and follow safe food and water practices. Clinicians should be aware that most typhoid fever infections in the United States are fluoroquinolone nonsusceptible and that the XDR Typhi outbreak strain associated with travel to Pakistan is only susceptible to azithromycin and carbapenems.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(12): 2284-2291, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457533

RESUMO

Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically important third-generation cephalosporins, which are often used to treat invasive salmonellosis. In the United States, ESBLs are rarely found in Salmonella. However, in 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration found blaCTX-M-65 ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in retail chicken meat. The isolate had a rare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. To clarify the sources and potential effects on human health, we examined isolates with this pattern obtained from human surveillance and associated metadata. Using broth microdilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing, we characterized the isolates. Of 34 isolates, 29 carried the blaCTX-M-65 gene with <9 additional resistance genes on 1 plasmid. Of 19 patients with travel information available, 12 (63%) reported recent travel to South America. Genetically, isolates from travelers, nontravelers, and retail chicken meat were similar. Expanded surveillance is needed to determine domestic sources and potentially prevent spread of this ESBL-containing plasmid.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , beta-Lactamases/genética , DNA Bacteriano , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo Genético , Salmonella enterica/genética , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(37): 1032-1035, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235182

RESUMO

Campylobacter causes an estimated 1.3 million diarrheal illnesses in the United States annually (1). In August 2017, the Florida Department of Health notified CDC of six Campylobacter jejuni infections linked to company A, a national pet store chain based in Ohio. CDC examined whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data and identified six isolates from company A puppies in Florida that were highly related to an isolate from a company A customer in Ohio. This information prompted a multistate investigation by local and state health and agriculture departments and CDC to identify the outbreak source and prevent additional illness. Health officials from six states visited pet stores to collect puppy fecal samples, antibiotic records, and traceback information. Nationally, 118 persons, including 29 pet store employees, in 18 states were identified with illness onset during January 5, 2016-February 4, 2018. In total, six pet store companies were linked to the outbreak. Outbreak isolates were resistant by antibiotic susceptibility testing to all antibiotics commonly used to treat Campylobacter infections, including macrolides and quinolones. Store record reviews revealed that among 149 investigated puppies, 142 (95%) received one or more courses of antibiotics, raising concern that antibiotic use might have led to development of resistance. Public health authorities issued infection prevention recommendations to affected pet stores and recommendations for testing puppies to veterinarians. This outbreak demonstrates that puppies can be a source of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter infections in humans, warranting a closer look at antimicrobial use in the commercial dog industry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Surtos de Doenças , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
18.
mSphere ; 3(4)2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111626

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that retail food may serve as a source of Escherichia coli that causes community-acquired urinary tract infections, but the impact of this source in a community is not known. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in one community to examine the frequency of recovery of uropathogenic E. coli genotypes from retail meat samples. We analyzed E. coli isolates from consecutively collected urine samples of patients suspected to have urinary tract infections (UTIs) at a university-affiliated health service and retail meat samples from the same geographic region. We genotyped all E. coli isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and tested them for antimicrobial susceptibility. From 2016 to 2017, we cultured 233 E. coli isolates from 230 (21%) of 1,087 urine samples and 177 E. coli isolates from 120 (28%) of 427 retail meat samples. Urine samples contained 61 sequence types (STs), and meat samples had 95 STs; 12 STs (ST10, ST38, ST69, ST80, ST88, ST101, ST117, ST131, ST569, ST906, ST1844, and ST2562) were common to both. Thirty-five (81%) of 43 meat isolates among the 12 STs were from poultry. Among 94 isolates in the 12 STs, 26 (60%) of 43 retail meat isolates and 15 (29%) of 51 human isolates were pan-susceptible (P < 0.005). We found that 21% of E. coli isolates from suspected cases of UTIs belonged to STs found in poultry. Poultry may serve as a possible reservoir of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Additional studies are needed to demonstrate transmission pathways of these UPEC genotypes and their food sources.IMPORTANCE Community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately seven million women and costing approximately 11.6 billion dollars annually. In addition, antibiotic resistance among E. coli bacteria causing urinary tract infection continues to increase, which greatly complicates treatment. Identifying sources of uropathogenic E. coli and implementing prevention measures are essential. However, the reservoirs of uropathogenic E. coli have not been well defined. This study demonstrated that poultry sold in retail stores may serve as one possible source of uropathogenic E. coli This finding adds to a growing body of evidence that suggests that urinary tract infection may be a food-borne disease. More research in this area can lead to the development of preventive strategies to control this common and costly infectious disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Genótipo , Carne/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(7): 838-849, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027554

RESUMO

Invasive Salmonella infections in adults are commonly treated with fluoroquinolones, a critically important antimicrobial class. Historically, quinolone resistance was the result of chromosomal mutations, but plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has emerged and is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae worldwide. PMQR may facilitate the spread of quinolone resistance, lead to higher-level quinolone resistance, and make infections harder to treat. To better understand the epidemiology of PMQR in non-typhoidal Salmonella causing human infections in the United States, we looked at trends in quinolone resistance among isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We reviewed demographic, exposure and outcome information for patients with isolates having a PMQR-associated phenotype during 2008-2014 and tested isolates for quinolone resistance mechanisms. We found that PMQR is emerging among non-typhoidal Salmonella causing human infections in the United States and that international travel, reptile and amphibian exposure, and food are likely sources of human infection.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 56(4)2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436416

RESUMO

The incidence of drug-resistant community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) continues to increase worldwide. In 1999 to 2000, a single lineage of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) sequence type 69 (ST69) caused 51% of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant UTI in a Northern California university community. We compared the clonal distributions of UPEC and its impact on antimicrobial resistance prevalence in the same community during two periods separated by 17 years. We analyzed E. coli isolates from urine samples from patients with symptoms of UTI who visited a health service between September 2016 and May 2017 and compared them to UPEC isolates collected similarly between October 1999 and March 2000. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial drug susceptibility and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. In 1999 to 2000, strains belonging to ST95, ST127, ST73, ST69, ST131, and ST10 caused 125 (56%) of 225 UTI cases, while the same STs caused 148 (64%) of 233 UTI cases in 2016 to 2017. The frequencies of ampicillin resistance and ciprofloxacin resistance rose from 24.4% to 41.6% (P < 0.001) and from 0.9% to 5.1% (P < 0.003), respectively. The six STs accounted for 78.6% and 72.7% of these increases, respectively. Prevalence of drug-resistant UTI in this community appears to be largely influenced by a small set of dominant UPEC STs circulating in the same community 17 years apart. Further research to determine the origin and reasons for persistence of these dominant genotypes is necessary to combat antimicrobial-resistant CA-UTI.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Universidades , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , California/epidemiologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/isolamento & purificação
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