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1.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(3)2016 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27706648

RESUMO

In contrast to the Mendelian inheritance model, parental alleles can contribute unequally to gene expression, which may result in phenotypic variance among individuals and bias in the predicted additive effect of molecular markers associated with production traits. Given the need to understand the effects of allelic variation and parent-of-origin effects on the expression of genes with a commercial interest in cattle, we analyzed the expression of KCNJ11 (potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11), which was previously described as a functional candidate gene for meat tenderness. Allele-specific and parent-of-origin-dependent expression of this gene were assessed in bovine muscle using the rs379610823 single nucleotide polymorphism as a reference. Biallelic expression was observed; however, the T allele was expressed at significantly higher levels than the C allele. Furthermore, increased expression of KCNJ11 was found in animals harboring the maternal T allele. This study is the first to describe the differential allelic expression of bovine KCNJ11. Our findings are important for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the pattern of KCNJ11 expression and its potential impact on the phenotypic variation of meat tenderness in Nelore beef cattle. This reinforces the need for further investigation of allelic- and parent-of-origin expression deviation in genetic markers eligible for the selection of target traits.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Padrões de Herança , Carne/análise , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Genom Data ; 7: 26-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26981354

RESUMO

Studying the multitude of molecular networks and pathways that are potentially involved in a complex trait such as fertility requires an equally complex and broad strategy. Here, we used Next-Generation Sequencing for the characterization of the transcriptional signature of the bovine endometrial tissue. Periovulatory endocrine environments were manipulated to generate two distinctly different fertility phenotypes. Cycling, non-lactating, multiparous Nelore cows were manipulated to ovulate larger (> 13 mm; LF group; high fertility phenotype) or smaller (< 12 mm; SF group) follicles. As a result, greater proestrus estrogen concentrations, corpora lutea and early diestrus progesterone concentrations were also observed in LF group in comparison to SF group. Endometrial cell proliferation was estimated by the protein marker MKI67 on tissues collected 4 (D4) and 7 (D7) days after induction of ovulation. Total RNA extracts from D7 were sequenced and compared according to the transcriptional profile of each experimental group (LF versus SF). Functional enrichment analysis revealed that LF and SF endometria were asynchronous in regards to their phenotype manifestation. Major findings indicated an LF endometrium that was switching phenotypes earlier than the SF one. More specifically, a proliferating SF endometrium was observed on D7, whereas the LF tissue, which expressed a proliferative phenotype earlier at D4, seemed to have already shifted towards a biosynthetically and metabolically active endometrium on D7. Data on MKI67 support the transcriptomic results. RNA-Seq-derived transcriptional profile of the endometrial tissue indicated a temporal effect of the periovulatory endocrine environment, suggesting that the moment of the endometrial exposure to the ovarian steroids, E2 and P4, regulates the timing of phenotype manifestation. Gene expression profiling revealed molecules that may be targeted to elucidate ovarian steroid-dependent mechanisms that regulate endometrial tissue receptivity. Data was deposited in the SRA database from NCBI (SRA Experiment SRP051330) and are associated with the Bio-Project (PRJNA270391). An overview of the gene expression data has been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and is accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE65450. Further assessment of the data in combination with other data sets exploring the transcriptional profile of the endometrial tissue during early diestrus may potentially identify novel molecular mechanisms and/or markers of the uterine receptivity.

3.
Anim Genet ; 47(4): 491-4, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27028139

RESUMO

The myogenic differentiation 1 gene (MYOD1) has a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation and composition through its regulation of the expression of several muscle-specific genes. We first used a general linear mixed model approach to evaluate the association of MYOD1 expression levels on individual beef tenderness phenotypes. MYOD1mRNA levels measured by quantitative polymerase chain reactions in 136 Nelore steers were significantly associated (P ≤ 0.01) with Warner-Bratzler shear force, measured on the longissimus dorsi muscle after 7 and 14 days of beef aging. Transcript abundance for the muscle regulatory gene MYOD1 was lower in animals with more tender beef. We also performed a co-expression network analysis using whole transcriptome sequence data generated from 30 samples of longissimus muscle tissue to identify genes that are potentially regulated by MYOD1. The effect of MYOD1 gene expression on beef tenderness may emerge from its function as an activator of muscle-specific gene transcription such as for the serum response factor (C-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor) gene (SRF), which determines muscle tissue development, composition, growth and maturation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteína MyoD/genética , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Composição Corporal , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
4.
Biol Reprod ; 93(2): 52, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26178716

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize the endometrial transcriptome and functional pathways overrepresented in the endometrium of cows treated to ovulate larger (≥13 mm) versus smaller (≤12 mm) follicles. Nelore cows were presynchronized prior to receiving cloprostenol (large follicle [LF] group) or not (small follicle [SF] group), along with a progesterone (P4) device on Day (D) -10. Devices were withdrawn and cloprostenol administered 42-60 h (LF) or 30-36 h (SF) before GnRH agonist treatment (D0). Tissues were collected on D4 (experiment [Exp.] 1; n = 24) or D7 (Exp. 2; n = 60). Endometrial transcriptome was obtained by RNA-Seq, whereas proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Overall, LF cows developed larger follicles and corpora lutea, and produced greater amounts of estradiol (D-1, Exp. 1, SF: 0.7 ± 0.2; LF: 2.4 ± 0.2 pg/ml; D-1, Exp. 2, SF: 0.5 ± 0.1; LF: 2.3 ± 0.6 pg/ml) and P4 (D4, Exp. 1, SF: 0.8 ± 0.1; LF: 1.4 ± 0.2 ng/ml; D7, Exp. 2, SF: 2.5 ± 0.4; LF: 3.7 ± 0.4 ng/ml). Functional enrichment indicated that biosynthetic and metabolic processes were enriched in LF endometrium, whereas SF endometrium transcriptome was biased toward cell proliferation. Data also suggested reorganization of the extracellular matrix toward a proliferation-permissive phenotype in SF endometrium. LF endometrium showed an earlier onset of proliferative activity, whereas SF endometrium expressed a delayed increase in glandular epithelium proliferation. In conclusion, the periovulatory endocrine milieu regulates bovine endometrial transcriptome and seems to determine the transition from a proliferation-permissive to a biosynthetic and metabolically active endometrial phenotype, which may be associated with the preparation of an optimally receptive uterine environment.


Assuntos
Diestro/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Caspase 3/fisiologia , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células , Cloprostenol/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional , Endométrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Luteolíticos/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/ultraestrutura , Gravidez
5.
Anim Genet ; 46(2): 141-7, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25643900

RESUMO

Abdominal fat content is an economically important trait in commercially bred chickens. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to fat deposition have been detected, the resolution for these regions is low and functional variants are still unknown. The current study was conducted aiming at increasing resolution for a region previously shown to have a QTL associated with fat deposition, to detect novel variants from this region and to annotate those variants to delineate potentially functional ones as candidates for future studies. To achieve this, 18 chickens from a parental generation used in a reciprocal cross between broiler and layer lines were sequenced using the Illumina next-generation platform with an initial coverage of 18X/chicken. The discovery of genetic variants was performed in a QTL region located on chromosome 3 between microsatellite markers LEI0161 and ADL0371 (33,595,706-42,632,651 bp). A total of 136,054 unique SNPs and 15,496 unique INDELs were detected in this region, and after quality filtering, 123,985 SNPs and 11,298 INDELs were retained. Of these variants, 386 SNPs and 15 INDELs were located in coding regions of genes related to important metabolic pathways. Loss-of-function variants were identified in several genes, and six of those, namely LOC771163, EGLN1, GNPAT, FAM120B, THBS2 and GGPS1, were related to fat deposition. Therefore, these loss-of-function variants are candidate mutations for conducting further studies on this important trait in chickens.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal , Adiposidade/genética , Galinhas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico/veterinária , Mutação INDEL , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Anim Genet ; 46(2): 158-63, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25690762

RESUMO

Genetic improvement is important for the poultry industry, contributing to increased efficiency of meat production and quality. Because breast muscle is the most valuable part of the chicken carcass, knowledge of polymorphisms influencing this trait can help breeding programs. Therefore, the complete genome of 18 chickens from two different experimental lines (broiler and layer) from EMBRAPA was sequenced, and SNPs and INDELs were detected in a QTL region for breast muscle deposition on chicken chromosome 2 between microsatellite markers MCW0185 and MCW0264 (105,849-112,649 kb). Initially, 94,674 unique SNPs and 10,448 unique INDELs were identified in the target region. After quality filtration, 77% of the SNPs (85,765) and 60% of the INDELs (7828) were retained. The studied region contains 66 genes, and functional annotation of the filtered variants identified 517 SNPs and three INDELs in exonic regions. Of these, 357 SNPs were classified as synonymous, 153 as non-synonymous, three as stopgain, four INDELs as frameshift and three INDELs as non-frameshift. These exonic mutations were identified in 37 of the 66 genes from the target region, three of which are related to muscle development (DTNA, RB1CC1 and MOS). Fifteen non-tolerated SNPs were detected in several genes (MEP1B, PRKDC, NSMAF, TRAPPC8, SDR16C5, CHD7, ST18 and RB1CC1). These loss-of-function and exonic variants present in genes related to muscle development can be considered candidate variants for further studies in chickens. Further association studies should be performed with these candidate mutations as should validation in commercial populations to allow a better explanation of QTL effects.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Mutação INDEL , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Cruzamento , Carne , Repetições de Microssatélites
7.
Genet Mol Res ; 12(4): 6611-8, 2013 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24391007

RESUMO

In order to better understand vitamin D3 in cattle metabolism, we quantified 1alpha-HYD and 24-HYD gene expression. In the kidneys of 35 male Nellore cattle, these were divided into a control group and two treatment groups (2 x 10(6) international units of vitamin D3 administered for 2 or 8 consecutive days pre-slaughter). Vitamin D3 supplementation resulted in a significant increase in 1alpha-HYD gene expression; however, significantly increased 24-HYD gene expression was only detected in cattle that had 8 days of supplementation. The finding of upregulation of 24-HYD due to vitamin D supplementation is in line with the expected rise in 24,25-di-hydroxy-vitamin D3 synthesis observed when plasma vitamin D3 concentrations are high, stimulating excretion by the organism. On the other hand, upregulation of 1alpha-HYD was unexpected, since vitamin D3 supplementation has been reported to impact these two genes in opposite directions. We conclude that vitamin D3 metabolism in these animals is more complex than previously reported.


Assuntos
25-Hidroxivitamina D3 1-alfa-Hidroxilase/biossíntese , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Rim/metabolismo , Esteroide Hidroxilases/biossíntese , 25-Hidroxivitamina D3 1-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exposição Ambiental , Expressão Gênica , Gliceraldeído 3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (NADP+)/biossíntese , Masculino , Carne , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Proteínas Ribossômicas/biossíntese , Esteroide Hidroxilases/genética , Luz Solar , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase
8.
Genet Mol Res ; 10(2): 1220-6, 2011 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21732286

RESUMO

Investigation of molecular marker effects on production traits is essential to define marker assisted selection strategies in beef cattle. We looked for a possible association of molecular markers and backfat thickness (BFT) and rib eye area (REA) in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and MA (offspring of Charolais bulls and 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Zebu cows) animals raised exclusively on pasture. Traits were measured on 987 individuals from seven herds from two Brazilian States (São Paulo and Goiás), in March and April from 2005 to 2007, when animals were, on average, 19 months of age. Five microsatellite markers lying in QTL regions for BFT and REA (BMS490 and ETH10 on chromosome 5, INRA133 and ILSTS090 on chromosome 6, and BMS2142 on chromosome 19) were genotyped and association analyses were performed under an animal model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. After correction for multiple tests, a significant effect of microsatellite BMS490 on REA was observed, suggesting that at least one QTL affecting carcass traits in this region of the BTA5. No significant effect on BFT was observed for these markers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
Genet Mol Res ; 9(4): 1997-2003, 2010 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20957603

RESUMO

Canchim is a composite cattle breed developed in Brazil for beef production. One of the breeding objectives is to increase fat deposition. QTLs for fat thickness and/or marbling have been reported on BTA4 and BTA14. The IGFBP3 and DDEF1 genes, mapped to BTA4 and BTA14, respectively, affect adipogenesis. We looked for SNPs in the IGFBP3 and DDEF1 genes that could be associated with backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle. For SNP identification, sires with the highest accuracy were ranked according to expected breeding value for fat thickness; the 12 extremes (six sires with the highest and six with the lowest expected breeding value for the trait) were chosen. Six regions of the IGFBP3 and 14 regions of the DDEF1 were sequenced using the Sanger method. Nine SNPs were identified in IGFBP3 and 76 in the DDEF1. After an initial analysis, two SNPs were selected to be genotyped for the whole population; these were DDEF1g.279401A>G and IGFBP3c.4394T>C(Trp>Arg). We found a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) of allele substitution on backfat thickness; however, the IGFBP3 SNP did not significantly affect this trait.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Bovinos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas
10.
Dev Biol (Basel) ; 132: 225-230, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18817306

RESUMO

Genetic differences in susceptibility to ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) are considerable in bovines. Here, mapping, association and gene expression approaches were employed to further advance our understanding of the molecular basis of tick resistance. A B. taurus x B. indicus F2 population was developed by Embrapa and 382 individuals were measured for parasitic load. Scanning of all chromosomes is in progress. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tick load were mapped to chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 23 out of the 20 chromosomes scanned and were dependent on the season in which the phenotype was scored. In the candidate gene approach, females from the genetic groups Nelore (NE--184), Canchim x Nelore (CN--153), Aberdeen Angus x Nelore (AN--123) and Simmental x Nelore (SN--120) were evaluated under natural infestation. Microsatellite markers close to the genes for interleukin 2 (IL2), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) were analysed. Tick counts were associated with the marker for interleukin 4 (P < 0.05) in three genetic groups. Differences in cytokine mRNA levels of naive versus infested Nelore calves as well as between resistant versus susceptible cows from NE, CN and AN genetic groups were also investigated. Comparison of cytokines from infested and naïve animals showed downregulation of IL2. When resistant cows were compared to susceptible animals, IL8 was downregulated. These results reinforce the multiloci nature of tick resistance and the need to consider QTL and environment interactions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Bovinos/parasitologia , Carrapatos , Animais
11.
Anim Genet ; 38(5): 453-9, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17894560

RESUMO

Differences in domestication and selection processes have contributed to considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds. Of particular interest in tropical and subtropical production environments are those genetic differences between subspecies that underlie the phenotypic extremes in tolerance and susceptibility to parasite infection. In general, B. taurus cattle are more susceptible to ectoparasites than B. indicus cattle in tropical environments, and much of this difference is under genetic control. To identify genomic regions involved in tick resistance, we developed a B. taurus x B. indicus F(2) experimental population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to the Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick. About 300 individuals were measured for parasite load in two seasons (rainy and dry) and genotyped for 23 microsatellite markers covering chromosomes 5, 7 and 14. We mapped a suggestive chromosome-wide QTL for tick load in the rainy season (P < 0.05) on chromosome 5. For the dry season, suggestive (P < 0.10) chromosome-wide QTL were mapped on chromosomes 7 and 14. The additive effect of the QTL on chromosome 14 corresponds to 3.18% of the total observed phenotypic variance. Our QTL-mapping study has identified different genomic regions controlling tick resistance; these QTL were dependent upon the season in which the ticks were counted, suggesting that the QTL in question may depend on environmental factors.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Rhipicephalus/imunologia , Infestações por Carrapato/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
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