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1.
Child Abuse Negl ; 152: 106772, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful interprofessional collaborations have been identified as a potential solution to mitigate problems associated with negative outcomes for clients involved with the child welfare system. The barriers to collaborative relationships need to be better understood and effectively addressed. OBJECTIVE: To understand the characteristics, barriers, and facilitators of collaborations between different types of providers and child welfare workers, as well as their impacts. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Mental health professionals, foster and kinship parents, legal professionals, and other providers responded to an online survey distributed in a Northeastern State of the United States of America. METHOD: Participants (n = 208) completed the Quality of Collaboration with Child Welfare survey. Qualitative responses were analyzed by three coders using three levels of axial coding with constant comparison. RESULTS: Participants identified different aspects of communication, relationships, and follow-through as key elements of successful collaborations, as well as the items most likely to interfere with their formation. Providers differed somewhat in how concerned they were with various aspects of collaborations in accordance with their professional roles. Barriers to successful collaborations included both individual and systemic factors which often resulted in negative outcomes. Overall, more negative experiences were offered than positive ones. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are needed to improve communication, promote positive relationships, and address systemic barriers to enhance collaboration and, in turn, improve outcomes for child welfare-involved clients.

2.
J Child Sex Abus ; 32(8): 979-996, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37975619

RESUMO

This exploratory study investigated group differences and pre-post changes in knowledge, beliefs, and behavior by mandatory reporters and Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) survivor status for a CSA prevention training designed for the general public. Of the 8,114 study participants, 32% identified as having experienced CSA, and 77% indicated they were mandatory reporters for child abuse and neglect. Mandatory reporters had higher baseline knowledge about CSA than those who were not mandatory reporters and reported more CSA preventative behaviors. Mandatory reporters continued to have higher levels of knowledge following the training. Survivors of CSA also had higher baseline knowledge about CSA and preventative behavior scores than individuals who are not survivors of CSA. Unlike mandatory reporters, they experienced fewer increases in knowledge. At posttest, there was no evidence of a difference in knowledge between CSA survivors and non-CSA survivors. For items related to beliefs, mandatory reporters had higher baseline scores than other participants. However, they had smaller gains, so mandatory reporters and non-mandatory reporters had more similar beliefs related to CSA after the training. There were few differences between CSA survivors and non-survivors on baseline beliefs related to CSA, though CSA survivors reported greater increases in beliefs that CSA prevention is their responsibility and in the idea that they know what to do to prevent CSA. These results have significant results for the development and evaluation of trauma-informed prevention programming.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual , Sobreviventes
3.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 91(12): 683-693, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38032620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Test whether a group-delivered dissonance-based transdiagnostic eating disorder treatment, Body Project Treatment (BPT), produces greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms and higher abstinence from eating disorder behaviors and remittance from eating disorder diagnoses than group-delivered transdiagnostic interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). METHOD: Women with a range of eating disorders (N = 73) were randomized to 8-week group-implemented BPT or IPT and completed surveys and masked diagnostic interviews at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Participants randomized to BPT versus IPT showed significantly greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms (d = -.75), pursuit of the thin ideal (d = -.87), anxiety symptoms (d = -.76), and social impairment (d = -.59) through 6-month follow-up. By end of treatment, participants randomized to the BPT versus IPT did not significantly differ on abstinence from binge eating and purging (49% vs. 40%, respectively) or remittance from eating disorder diagnoses (54% vs. 40%, respectively). Participants randomized to BPT versus IPT did not differ significantly in average session attendance (5.8 vs. 6.9, respectively) or average homework assignments completed (4.6 vs. 5.6, respectively). The within-condition reductions in eating disorder symptoms for BPT did not significantly differ when implemented in person versus via synchronous video telepsychiatry (d = -1.39 vs. -1.09, respectively), though these effects should be considered preliminary because of the small cell sizes. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that BPT produces greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms, pursuit of the thin ideal, anxiety symptoms, and social impairment than IPT is encouraging because it provides some assurance that the effects are present equating for the effects of expectancies, demand characteristics, and nonspecific factors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Psicoterapia Interpessoal , Psiquiatria , Telemedicina , Humanos , Feminino , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia
4.
Nature ; 622(7984): 767-774, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37794191

RESUMO

Since taking flight, insects have undergone repeated evolutionary transitions between two seemingly distinct flight modes1-3. Some insects neurally activate their muscles synchronously with each wingstroke. However, many insects have achieved wingbeat frequencies beyond the speed limit of typical neuromuscular systems by evolving flight muscles that are asynchronous with neural activation and activate in response to mechanical stretch2-8. These modes reflect the two fundamental ways of generating rhythmic movement: time-periodic forcing versus emergent oscillations from self-excitation8-10. How repeated evolutionary transitions have occurred and what governs the switching between these distinct modes remain unknown. Here we find that, despite widespread asynchronous actuation in insects across the phylogeny3,6, asynchrony probably evolved only once at the order level, with many reversions to the ancestral, synchronous mode. A synchronous moth species, evolved from an asynchronous ancestor, still preserves the stretch-activated muscle physiology. Numerical and robophysical analyses of a unified biophysical framework reveal that rather than a dichotomy, these two modes are two regimes of the same dynamics. Insects can transition between flight modes across a bridge in physiological parameter space. Finally, we integrate these two actuation modes into an insect-scale robot11-13 that enables transitions between modes and unlocks a new self-excited wingstroke strategy for engineered flight. Together, this framework accounts for repeated transitions in insect flight evolution and shows how flight modes can flip with changes in physiological parameters.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Voo Animal , Insetos , Músculos , Animais , Fenômenos Biofísicos/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/fisiologia , Músculos/inervação , Músculos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Asas de Animais/inervação , Asas de Animais/fisiologia
5.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 50(6): 912-925, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37515696

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: College students face increased risk for a variety of mental health problems but experience barriers to treatment access. Prevention programs, including those implemented by peer educators, may decrease treatment needs and increase service access. We examined the implementation of an evidence-based eating disorder prevention program, Body Project, delivered by college peer educators at 63 colleges/universities, comparing three levels of implementation support: (1) Train-the-Trainer (TTT) training; (2) TTT plus a technical assistance workshop (TTT + TA); and (3) TTT + TA with one year of quality assurance calls (TTT + TA + QA). The present study tested the degree to which indicators proposed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) were associated with core implementation outcomes. METHOD: We tested whether indices of CFIR domains (i.e., perceived intervention characteristics, outer and inner setting factors, provider characteristics, and implementation process) were correlated with three implementation outcomes (program reach, fidelity, effectiveness) during a 1-year implementation period. RESULTS: Greater program reach was associated with implementation process, specifically the completion of more implementation activities (ß = 0.46). Greater program fidelity was associated with higher positive (ß = 0.44) and lower negative (ß = - 0.43) perceptions of the Body Project characteristics, and greater reported general support for evidence-based practices (ß = 0.41). Greater effectiveness was associated with lower negative perceptions of Body Project characteristics (d = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS: Several implementation determinants proposed by the CFIR model predicted outcomes, especially intervention fidelity. Across the outcomes of interest, implementation determinants related to peer educator and supervisor perceived characteristics of the specific intervention and general attitudes towards evidence-based practices emerged as robust predictors to inform future work investigating ongoing implementation and sustainability of programs in university settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Estudantes , Humanos , Universidades , Grupo Associado , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle
6.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 104(7): 1026-1034, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37142177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine program satisfaction and preliminary efficacy of Traumatic Brain Injury Positive Strategies (TIPS), a web-based training for parenting strategies after child brain injury. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with parallel assignment to TIPS intervention or usual-care control (TAU). The three testing time-points were pretest, posttest within 30 days of assignment, and 3-month follow-up. Reported in accordance with CONSORT extensions to randomized feasibility and pilot trials SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-three volunteers recruited nationally who were 18 years of age or older, U.S. residents, English speaking and reading, had access to high-speed internet, and were living with and caring for a child who was hospitalized overnight with a brain injury (ages 3-18 years, able to follow simple commands; N=83). INTERVENTIONS: Eight interactive behavioral training modules on parent strategies. The usual-care control was an informational website. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proximal outcomes were User Satisfaction, Usefulness, Usability, Feature Preference, Strategy Utilization and Effectiveness, and Learning and Self-Efficacy for TIPS program participants. The primary outcomes were: Strategy Knowledge, Application, and Strategy-Application Confidence; Family Impact Module of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL); and Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale. The secondary outcomes were TIPS vs TCore PedsQL and Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) RESULTS: Pre- and posttest assessments were completed by 76 of 83 caregivers; 74 completed their 3-month follow-up. Linear growth models indicated that relative to TAU, TIPS yielded greater increases in Strategy Knowledge over the 3-month study (d=.61). Other comparisons did not reach significance. Outcomes were not moderated by child age, SES, or disability severity measured by Cognitive Function Module of PedsQL. All TIPS participants were satisfied with the program. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 10 outcomes tested, only TBI knowledge significantly improved relative to TAU.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos Piloto , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Pais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia
7.
Psychol Med ; 53(15): 7214-7221, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37039122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study tested whether the dissonance-based Body Project eating disorder prevention program reduced onset of subthreshold/threshold anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD) over long-term follow-up. METHODS: Data were combined from three prevention trials that targeted young women at high-risk for eating disorders (N = 1092; M age = 19.3). Participants were randomized to Body Project groups led by peer educators or expressive writing/educational controls and completed masked diagnostic interviews over 2- to 4-year follow-ups. Logistic regressions tested whether onset of each eating disorder over follow-up differed between Body Project and control participants. RESULTS: Peer-led Body Project groups produced a 46% reduction in onset of subthreshold/threshold BN and a 62% reduction in onset of PD relative to controls over follow-up. Rates of onset of subthreshold/threshold AN and BED did not significantly differ between peer-led Body Project participants and control participants. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the dissemination of the peer-led Body Project for reducing future onset of BN and PD. This study and recent research suggest that thin-ideal internalization, the risk factor for eating disorders targeted in the Body Project, may be more relevant for predicting onset of BN and PD compared to AN and BED. Findings support the development of a version of the Body Project aimed to reduce risk factors that have predicted future onset of all four types of eating disorders (e.g. overvaluation of weight/shape, fear of weight gain), which may more effectively prevent all eating disorder types.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Bulimia Nervosa/prevenção & controle , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/prevenção & controle , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(18): e2220404120, 2023 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37094121

RESUMO

Blinking, the transient occlusion of the eye by one or more membranes, serves several functions including wetting, protecting, and cleaning the eye. This behavior is seen in nearly all living tetrapods and absent in other extant sarcopterygian lineages suggesting that it might have arisen during the water-to-land transition. Unfortunately, our understanding of the origin of blinking has been limited by a lack of known anatomical correlates of the behavior in the fossil record and a paucity of comparative functional studies. To understand how and why blinking originates, we leverage mudskippers (Oxudercinae), a clade of amphibious fishes that have convergently evolved blinking. Using microcomputed tomography and histology, we analyzed two mudskipper species, Periophthalmus barbarus and Periophthalmodon septemradiatus, and compared them to the fully aquatic round goby, Neogobius melanostomus. Study of gross anatomy and epithelial microstructure shows that mudskippers have not evolved novel musculature or glands to blink. Behavioral analyses show the blinks of mudskippers are functionally convergent with those of tetrapods: P. barbarus blinks more often under high-evaporation conditions to wet the eye, a blink reflex protects the eye from physical insult, and a single blink can fully clean the cornea of particulates. Thus, eye retraction in concert with a passive occlusal membrane can achieve functions associated with life on land. Osteological correlates of eye retraction are present in the earliest limbed vertebrates, suggesting blinking capability. In both mudskippers and tetrapods, therefore, the origin of this multifunctional innovation is likely explained by selection for increasingly terrestrial lifestyles.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Perciformes , Animais , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Peixes/anatomia & histologia
9.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 91(4): 208-220, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36892885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: College students are at particularly high risk for mental health problems, such as eating disorders, which are associated with functional impairment, distress, and morbidity, but barriers limit implementation of evidence-based interventions at colleges. We evaluated the effectiveness and implementation quality of a peer educator (PE) delivered eating disorder prevention program (the Body Project [BP]), which has a broad evidence-based using a train-the-trainer (TTT) approach and experimentally evaluated three levels of implementation support. METHOD: We recruited 63 colleges with peer educator programs and randomly assigned them to (a) receive a 2-day TTT training in which peer educators were trained to implement the Body Project and supervisors were taught how to train future peer educators (TTT), (b) TTT training plus a technical assistance (TA) workshop (TTT + TA), or (c) TTT plus the TA workshop and quality assurance (QA) consultations over 1-year (TTT + TA + QA). Colleges recruited undergraduates (N = 1,387, 98% female, 55% White) to complete Body Project groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences across condition for attendance, adherence, competence, and reach, though nonsignificant trends suggested some benefit of TTT + TA + QA relative to TTT for adherence and competence (ds = .40 and .30). Adding TA and QA to TTT was associated with significantly larger reductions in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the Body Project can be effectively implemented at colleges using peer educators and a TTT approach and that adding TA and QA resulted in significantly larger improvements in outcomes for group participants, and marginally higher adherence and competence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Estudantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 91(2): 60-70, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36821334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify implementation factors, including intervention, facilitator, participant, and college factors, that were associated with larger reductions in eating disorder symptoms for undergraduates who completed a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program delivered by peer educators in an implementation support trial. The goal was to determine how to maximize the effects of this prevention program in future implementation efforts. METHOD: We recruited 63 universities with peer educator programs and randomly assigned them to three levels of implementation support for delivery of an evidence-based eating disorder prevention program (the Body Project). The present report investigated whether several intervention, facilitator, participant, and college characteristics were associated with the magnitude of reductions in eating disorder symptoms among 1,387 undergraduates who completed the Body Project. RESULTS: Significantly greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms were found for the four-session versus two-session version of the Body Project (d = -.36), when Body Project groups were delivered virtually versus in-person (d = -.22), when observation-based supervision was provided to peer educators during intervention implementation versus when it was not (d = -.15), and for larger versus smaller universities (d = -.24). Although effects were small, the additive effect was medium (d = -.50). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that if the goal is to optimize the effects of the Body Project, peer educator programs at universities should implement the full four-session version of the prevention program that contains all of the dissonance-inducing activities and home exercises, implement this prevention program virtually, and provide supervision to facilitators implementing this prevention program. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Universidades , Grupo Associado , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Imagem Corporal
11.
Psychol Med ; 53(6): 2252-2262, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings from brain imaging studies with small samples can show limited reproducibility. Thus, we tested whether the evidence that a transdiagnostic eating disorder treatment reduces responsivity of brain valuation regions to thin models and high-calorie binge foods, the intervention targets, from a smaller earlier trial emerged when we recruited additional participants. METHODS: Women with DSM-5 eating disorders (N = 138) were randomized to the dissonance-based body project treatment (BPT) or a waitlist control condition and completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans assessing neural response to thin models and high-calorie foods at pretest and posttest. RESULTS: BPT v. control participants showed significantly greater reductions in responsivity of regions implicated in reward valuation (caudate) and attentional motivation (precuneus) to thin v. average-weight models, echoing findings from the smaller sample. Data from this larger sample also provided novel evidence that BPT v. control participants showed greater reductions in responsivity of regions implicated in reward valuation (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) and food craving (hippocampus) to high-calorie binge foods v. low-calorie foods, as well as significantly greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms, abstinence from binge eating and purging behaviors, palatability ratings for high calorie foods, monetary value for high-calorie binge foods, and significantly greater increases in attractiveness ratings of average weight models. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this larger sample provide evidence that BPT reduces valuation of the thin ideal and high-calorie binge foods, the intervention targets, per objective brain imaging data, and produces clinically meaningful reductions in eating pathology.


Assuntos
Beleza , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa
12.
Psychol Med ; 53(11): 4962-4976, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an etiologically and clinically heterogeneous condition. Accumulating evidence suggests that persons with lifetime histories of comorbid AUD and non-alcohol substance use disorder (DRUG) constitute an important subgroup of AUD. This study evaluated the distinctiveness of the comorbid AUD/DRUG behavioral phenotype in a community sample with respect to risk factors, AUD course features, and outcome variables assessed at age 30. Contrast groups included persons with histories of AUD only, DRUG only, and neither AUD nor DRUG. METHODS: This research utilized a prospective study design with an age-based cohort (n = 732). Participants completed four comprehensive diagnostic evaluations during the high-risk periods of adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood. RESULTS: The comorbid AUD/DRUG group was distinguished from the AUD only group by risk factors, AUD course features, and outcomes. Group differences in outcomes were also explained by overall substance use disorder (SUD) severity. Persons with AUD/DRUG comorbidity were indistinguishable from those with DRUG only histories with respect to risk factors and outcomes but demonstrated greater overall SUD severity. Persons with AUD only were indistinguishable from those with neither AUD nor DRUG histories in risk factor endorsements and were mostly similar in outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Findings collectively suggest that young adults with histories of AUD only and those with comorbid AUD/DRUG are drawn from dissimilar populations. Similarities between the AUD only group with those absent AUD or DRUG histories are likely related to the former group's developmentally limited AUD course accompanied by relatively few or short-lived alcohol-related problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Fenótipo
13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 228(4): 453.e1-453.e10, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common complications of childbirth, and is experienced by approximately 17% of pregnant women and 13% of postpartum women. An estimated 85% of these women go untreated-an alarming statistic given the serious consequences for the mother, her child, other family members, and society. Professional societies (the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and American Academy of Pediatrics) have recommended improvements in screening and treatment. Meta-analyses indicate that cognitive behavioral therapy eHealth interventions are efficacious for depression, generally, and for perinatal depression, specifically. Earlier controlled trials have established the effectiveness and acceptability of MomMoodBooster (including an Australian version, MumMoodBooster), an eHealth program for ameliorating postpartum depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a perinatal version of MomMoodBooster encompassing both prenatal and postpartum content in a healthcare delivery setting already providing universal screening and referral of at-risk patients as part of routine care. STUDY DESIGN: A practical effectiveness study randomly assigned 95 pregnant and 96 postpartum women screened as depressed and satisfying eligibility criteria to experimental groups: the healthcare organization's perinatal depression care program (routine-care group) and routine care+MomMoodBooster2 program (eHealth group). Eligibility criteria included: pregnant or <1 year postpartum, ≥18 years of age, no active suicidal ideation, access to broadband internet via desktop/laptop, tablet, or smartphone, and English language proficiency. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat analyses of group effects used fixed-effects growth models to assess 12-week posttest change in outcomes. Results showed that both groups had significantly decreased depression severity, anxiety, stress, and automatic thoughts, and increased behavioral activation and self-efficacy. Relative to the routine-care group, the eHealth group displayed significantly greater decreases in depression severity and stress. These group comparisons were not moderated by depression severity (screening or baseline), anxiety, stress, or pregnant/postpartum status. Almost all (93%; n=89) women in the eHealth group visited their program, of whom 99% visited program sessions (M sessions visited=4.3±2.0; M total session duration=73.0±70.2 minutes; 49% viewed all 6 sessions). Among confirmed eHealth program users who provided ratings, 96% (79/82) rated their program as easy to use, 83% rated it helpful, and 93% (76/82) indicated that they would recommend it. CONCLUSION: Results support the effectiveness of using MomMoodBooster2 as a treatment option for perinatal women with depression, especially when combined with universal depression screening and referral. Consequently, the eHealth program shows promise as a tool to increase the reach of treatment delivery and to potentially reduce the number of untreated perinatal women with depression.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Telemedicina , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/terapia , Austrália , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Mães
14.
Behav Res Ther ; 158: 104183, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058135

RESUMO

Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie foods has predicted future weight gain, suggesting that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory region response to such foods might reduce overeating. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test whether a multi-faceted food response and attention training protocol with personalized high- and low-calorie food images would reduce body fat and valuation and reward region response to high-calorie foods compared to a placebo control training protocol with non-food images in an effort to replicate findings from two past trials. Participants were community-recruited adults with overweight/obesity (N = 179; M age = 27.7 ± 7.0) who completed assessments at pretest, posttest, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups. Participants randomized to the food response inhibition and attention training showed significantly greater increases in palatability ratings of low-calorie foods than controls (d = 0.27) at posttest, but did not show body fat loss, reductions in palatability ratings and monetary valuation, or reward region response, to high-calorie foods. The lack of expected effects appears to be related to weaker learning compared to the learning in past trials, potentially because we used more heterogenous high-calorie and low-calorie food images in the present training.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Obesidade , Adulto , Atenção , Alimentos , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biol Lett ; 18(5): 20220063, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611583

RESUMO

Flying insects have elastic materials within their exoskeletons that could reduce the energetic cost of flight if their wingbeat frequency is matched to a mechanical resonance frequency. Flapping at resonance may be essential across flying insects because of the power demands of small-scale flapping flight. However, building up large-amplitude resonant wingbeats over many wingstrokes may be detrimental for control if the total mechanical energy in the spring-wing system exceeds the per-cycle work capacity of the flight musculature. While the mechanics of the insect flight apparatus can behave as a resonant system, the question of whether insects flap their wings at their resonant frequency remains unanswered. Using previous measurements of body stiffness in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, we develop a mechanical model of spring-wing resonance with aerodynamic damping and characterize the hawkmoth's resonant frequency. We find that the hawkmoth's wingbeat frequency is approximately 80% above resonance and remains so when accounting for uncertainty in model parameters. In this regime, hawkmoths may still benefit from elastic energy exchange while enabling control of aerodynamic forces via frequency modulation. We conclude that, while insects use resonant mechanics, tuning wingbeats to a simple resonance peak is not a necessary feature for all centimetre-scale flapping flyers.


Assuntos
Manduca , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Voo Animal , Insetos , Modelos Biológicos , Asas de Animais
16.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(2): 239-247, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of factors that predict alcohol use disorder (AUD) recurrence or the subsequent switching to a different substance use disorder (SUD) after initial AUD recovery is especially crucial for preventive efforts that seek to alter life courses dominated by problematic substance use. This study evaluated whether the proportions (or densities) of first-degree relatives with AUD and non-alcohol substance use disorder (NASUD) histories predicted AUD recurrence or a new NASUD onset in a family member (i.e., proband) following initial AUD episode recovery. METHOD: This research is based on a prospective and multigenerational data set collected as part of the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP). The initial proband cohort was selected randomly from nine high schools in western Oregon. The sample for this research consisted of OADP probands with histories of AUD who recovered from their first AUD episode by age 30 (n = 244). Lifetime SUD histories were also assessed for first-degree adult relatives of probands (n = 790). RESULTS: In unadjusted and partially adjusted analyses, family densities of AUD predicted AUD recurrence among probands, and family densities of NASUDs predicted the onset of a new NASUD following first-episode AUD recovery. In fully adjusted analyses, the effect for AUD family histories on proband AUD recurrence remained, whereas the effect for family NASUD histories on new NASUD emergence was not maintained. CONCLUSIONS: Family SUD histories have predictive relevance for the course of AUD following initial recovery as well as some specificity for the type of SUD recurrence subsequently experienced.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Família , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e17185, 2021 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has confirmed that symptoms of postnatal depression (PND) can be ameliorated through internet-delivered psychological interventions. Advantages of internet-delivered treatment include anonymity, convenience, and catering to women who are unable to access face-to-face (FTF) treatments. To date, no research has examined the efficacy of such interventions compared directly with FTF treatments in women clinically diagnosed with PND. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the efficacy of one of the first web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions (internet CBT+coach calls) for PND (MumMoodBooster [MMB]) with FTF-CBT in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: In this study, 116 postnatal women with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major or minor depression were randomized to MMB (39/116, 33.6%), FTF-CBT (39/116, 33.6%), or a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control condition (38/116, 32.8%). Diagnostic status was determined at baseline and at 21-week follow-up using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was evaluated using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the revised Beck Depression Inventory at baseline, 12-week follow-up (after treatment), and 21-week follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 116 participants, 107 (92.2%) had a diagnosis of major depression at baseline. Rates of remission from a major or minor depressive episode at 21 weeks in both the FTF-CBT and MMB groups were superior to that of the TAU group (56.6% and 47.7% less likely to be depressed, respectively) and they were not significantly different from each other. Although remission rates differed between TAU and FTF-CBT, growth models showed that, in terms of symptom reduction across time, the FTF-CBT treatment was not significantly better than TAU. By comparison, MMB was statistically superior to both TAU and FTF-CBT in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress from baseline to the 21-week follow-up (large and moderate effect sizes). Thus, after 21 weeks, the average symptom scores for depression and anxiety of women receiving MMB were approximately half those of women in both the TAU and FTF-CBT groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this RCT, MMB was at least as effective as FTF-CBT in achieving remission from a diagnosed PND episode. MMB was superior to TAU and FTF-CBT in encouraging and maintaining reduction of symptom severity over the 21-week follow-up for depressed postnatal women. These findings replicate results of prior studies on MMB that showed clinically significant improvements in depressive symptoms, and they provide direct empirical support that internet-delivered treatment for depressed postnatal women is a viable alternative to FTF treatment. The generalizability of the results needs to be examined in future research, as RCTs of internet-based versus FTF treatments necessarily involve a subset of people who are willing to undertake either modality of treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12613000881730; https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=364683&isReview=true.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão Pós-Parto , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet
18.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(10): 793-804, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that the efficacy of a dissonance-based obesity/eating disorder prevention program, Project Health, could be enhanced by implementing it in single-sex groups and adding food response inhibition and attention training. METHOD: Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, young adults (N = 261; Mage = 19.3, 79% female; 64% White) were randomized to (a) single-sex or (b) mixed-sex groups that completed food response inhibition and attention training or (c) single-sex or (d) mixed-sex groups that completed generic response inhibition and attention training with nonfood images. Preregistered primary outcomes (body fat, Body Mass Index [BMI]), eating disorder symptoms and other outcomes were assessed at pretest and posttest. RESULTS: For one preregistered primary outcome, body fat loss, there was a significant interaction between the two manipulated factors (d = -.28), as well as significant main effects for sex composition of groups (d = -.18) and food response inhibition and attention training (d = -0.17), with the largest body fat loss occurring for single-sex groups implemented with food response inhibition and attention training. Although the two manipulated factors did not significantly affect the other outcomes (including BMI, the other preregistered primary outcome), there was a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms across the conditions (within participant d = -.78), converging with prior evidence that Project Health produced larger reductions in symptoms than educational control participants. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that implementing Project Health in single-sex groups with food response inhibition and attention training produced the largest body fat loss effects, as well as significant reductions in eating disorder symptoms, suggesting that efforts to disseminate this prevention program are warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
19.
Behav Res Ther ; 144: 103932, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280585

RESUMO

Investigate baseline factors that prospectively predict persistence versus non-persistence of behavioral and cognitive eating disorder symptoms because knowledge of maintenance factors, which is limited, could inform the design of more effective eating disorder treatments. Data from 4 prevention trials that targeted young women with body image concerns (N = 1952; M age 19.7, SD 5.7) and collected interview-assessed data on behavioral and cognitive symptoms over 1-year follow-up were combined to address this aim. Greater binge eating severity predicted binge eating persistence. Greater dieting, binge eating frequency and severity, weight/shape overvaluation, and feeling fat predicted compensatory behavior persistence. Lower BMI predicted low BMI persistence. Greater thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect, binge eating frequency, binge eating severity, compensatory behaviors, weight/shape overvaluation, fear of fatness or weight gain, and feeling fat predicted weight/shape overvaluation persistence. Greater thin-ideal internalization, dieting, compensatory behaviors, weight/shape overvaluation, fear of fatness or weight gain, and feeling fat predicted persistence of fear of fatness or weight gain. Results provide support for intervention targets of several extant eating disorder treatments and identified novel maintenance factors not commonly targeted in treatments (e.g., negative affect). Results also imply that certain features of eating disorders predict symptom persistence.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Peso Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Adolesc ; 90: 79-90, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many underserved adolescents, defined as those with inequitable access to educational resources, face limited access to interventions that develop their college and career know-how. In our study, we implemented and evaluated a pilot college and career readiness curriculum intervention called Paths to the Future for All (P2F4A). P2F4A takes a developmental approach to college and career development, weaving together the procedural know-how of college and career planning with a broader focus on building social-emotional skills that support positive trajectories towards the future. We evaluated pre-post changes in adolescents' career-related and social-emotional outcomes alongside views of their personal growth. METHODS: We used a purposeful sample of five schools in the Western region of the United States and recruited a sample of adolescents (N = 61; Mage = 16.3 years; 57.4% female) who experienced challenging academic and life circumstances to participate in P2F4A. We conducted pre-post surveys as well as focus groups and interviews with adolescents. RESULTS: We detected significant (p < .05) pre-post gains in adolescents' knowledge of P2F4A curricular content and selected coping skills, such as relaxing and solving family problems. Our focus groups and interviews revealed that P2F4A helped adolescents build stronger interpersonal relationships with peers and the content was directly applicable to real life. CONCLUSION: Our new findings suggest that college and career readiness curriculum interventions-if appropriately developed for and targeted to underserved adolescents-have strong potential to build underserved adolescents' foundational skills that they can apply towards realizing their future college and career aspirations.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Universidades , Adolescente , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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