Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 80
Filtrar
1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2554-2559, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545783

RESUMO

Novel outbreak-associated food vehicles (i.e., foods not implicated in past outbreaks) can emerge as a result of evolving pathogens and changing consumption trends. To identify these foods, we examined data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System and found 14,216 reported outbreaks with information on implicated foods. We compared foods implicated in outbreaks during 2007-2016 with those implicated in outbreaks during 1973-2006. We identified 28 novel food vehicles, of which the most common types were fish, nuts, fruits, and vegetables; one third were imported. Compared with other outbreaks, those associated with novel food vehicles were more likely to involve illnesses in multiple states and food recalls and were larger in terms of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Two thirds of novel foods did not require cooking after purchase. Prevention efforts targeting novel foods cannot rely solely on consumer education but require industry preventive measures.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Vigilância da População , Animais , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576892

RESUMO

Treatment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (O157) diarrhea with antimicrobials might alter the risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). However, full characterization of which antimicrobials might affect risk is lacking, particularly among adults. To inform clinical management, we conducted a case-control study of residents of the FoodNet surveillance areas with O157 diarrhea during a 4-year period to assess antimicrobial class-specific associations with HUS among persons with O157 diarrhea. We collected data from medical records and patient interviews. We measured associations between treatment with agents in specific antimicrobial classes during the first week of diarrhea and development of HUS, adjusting for age and illness severity. We enrolled 1308 patients; 102 (7.8%) developed confirmed HUS. Antimicrobial treatment varied by age: <5 years (12.6%), 5-14 (11.5%), 15-39 (45.4%), ≥40 (53.4%). Persons treated with a ß-lactam had higher odds of developing HUS (OR 2.80, CI 1.14-6.89). None of the few persons treated with a macrolide developed HUS, but the protective association was not statistically significant. Exposure to "any antimicrobial" was not associated with increased odds of HUS. Our findings confirm the risk of ß-lactams among children with O157 diarrhea and extends it to adults. We observed a high frequency of inappropriate antimicrobial treatment among adults. Our data suggest that antimicrobial classes differ in the magnitude of risk for persons with O157 diarrhea.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(12): 841-858, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529512

RESUMO

Estimates of the overall human health impact of agents transmitted commonly through food complement surveillance and help guide food safety interventions and regulatory initiatives. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize the methods and reporting practices used in studies that estimate the total number of illnesses caused by these agents. We identified and included 43 studies published from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2019, by searching PubMed and screening selected articles for other relevant publications. Selected articles presented original estimates of the number of illnesses caused by ≥1 agent transmitted commonly through food. The number of agents (species or subspecies for pathogens) included in each study ranged from 1 to 31 (median: 4.5; mean: 9.2). Of the 40 agents assessed across the 43 studies, the most common agent was Salmonella (36; 84% of studies), followed by Campylobacter (33; 77%), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (25; 58%), and norovirus (20; 47%). Investigators used a variety of data sources and methods that could be grouped into four distinct estimation approaches-direct, surveillance data scaled-up, syndrome or population scaled-down, and inferred. Based on our review, we propose four recommendations to improve the interpretability, comparability, and reproducibility of studies that estimate the number of illnesses caused by agents transmitted commonly through food. These include providing an assessment of statistical and nonstatistical uncertainty, providing a ranking of estimates by agent, including uncertainties; describing the rationale used to select agents and data sources; and publishing raw data and models, along with clear, detailed methods. These recommendations could lead to better decision-making about food safety policies. Although these recommendations have been made in the context of illness estimation for agents transmitted commonly through food, they also apply to estimates of other health outcomes and conditions.

5.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361964

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause illnesses ranging from mild diarrhea to ischemic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS); serogroup O157 is the most common cause. We describe the epidemiology and transmission routes for U.S. STEC outbreaks during 2010-2017. Health departments reported 466 STEC outbreaks affecting 4769 persons; 459 outbreaks had a serogroup identified (330 O157, 124 non-O157, 5 both). Among these, 361 (77%) had a known transmission route: 200 foodborne (44% of O157 outbreaks, 41% of non-O157 outbreaks), 87 person-to-person (16%, 24%), 49 animal contact (11%, 9%), 20 water (4%, 5%), and 5 environmental contamination (2%, 0%). The most common food category implicated was vegetable row crops. The distribution of O157 and non-O157 outbreaks varied by age, sex, and severity. A significantly higher percentage of STEC O157 than non-O157 outbreaks were transmitted by beef (p = 0.02). STEC O157 outbreaks also had significantly higher rates of hospitalization and HUS (p < 0.001).

6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e190, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275497

RESUMO

About 800 foodborne disease outbreaks are reported in the United States annually. Few are associated with food recalls. We compared 226 outbreaks associated with food recalls with those not associated with recalls during 2006-2016. Recall-associated outbreaks had, on average, more illnesses per outbreak and higher proportions of hospitalisations and deaths than non-recall-associated outbreaks. The top confirmed aetiology for recall-associated outbreaks was Salmonella. Pasteurised and unpasteurised dairy products, beef and molluscs were the most frequently implicated foods. The most common pathogen-food pairs for outbreaks with recalls were Escherichia coli-beef and norovirus-molluscs; the top pairs for non-recall-associated outbreaks were scombrotoxin-fish and ciguatoxin-fish. For outbreaks with recalls, 48% of the recalls occurred after the outbreak, 27% during the outbreak, 3% before the outbreak, and 22% were inconclusive or had unknown recall timing. Fifty per cent of recall-associated outbreaks were multistate, compared with 2% of non-recall-associated outbreaks. The differences between recall-associated outbreaks and non-recall-associated outbreaks help define the types of outbreaks and food vehicles that are likely to have a recall. Improved outbreak vehicle identification and traceability of rarely recalled foods could lead to more recalls of these products, resulting in fewer illnesses and deaths.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Estados Unidos
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1662-1672, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013877

RESUMO

Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and antimicrobial-resistant strains pose a serious threat to public health. We used Bayesian hierarchical models of culture-confirmed infections during 2004-2016 from 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems to estimate changes in the national incidence of resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella infections. Extrapolating to the United States population and accounting for unreported infections, we estimated a 40% increase in the annual incidence of infections with clinically important resistance (resistance to ampicillin or ceftriaxone or nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin) during 2015-2016 (≈222,000 infections) compared with 2004-2008 (≈159,000 infections). Changes in the incidence of resistance varied by serotype. Serotypes I 4,[5],12:i:- and Enteritidis were responsible for two thirds of the increased incidence of clinically important resistance during 2015-2016. Ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible infections accounted for more than half of the increase. These estimates can help in setting targets and priorities for prevention.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Salmonella , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estados Unidos
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 182-195, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350907

RESUMO

Illnesses transmitted by food and water cause a major disease burden in the United States despite advancements in food safety, water treatment, and sanitation. We report estimates from a structured expert judgment study using 48 experts who applied Cooke's classical model of the proportion of disease attributable to 5 major transmission pathways (foodborne, waterborne, person-to-person, animal contact, and environmental) and 6 subpathways (food handler-related, under foodborne; recreational, drinking, and nonrecreational/nondrinking, under waterborne; and presumed person-to-person-associated and presumed animal contact-associated, under environmental). Estimates for 33 pathogens were elicited, including bacteria such as Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Legionella spp., and Pseudomonas spp.; protozoa such as Acanthamoeba spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Naegleria fowleri; and viruses such as norovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus. The results highlight the importance of multiple pathways in the transmission of the included pathogens and can be used to guide prioritization of public health interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Julgamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Água
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 214-222, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350919

RESUMO

Foodborne illness source attribution is foundational to a risk-based food safety system. We describe a method for attributing US foodborne illnesses caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter to 17 food categories using statistical modeling of outbreak data. This method adjusts for epidemiologic factors associated with outbreak size, down-weights older outbreaks, and estimates credibility intervals. On the basis of 952 reported outbreaks and 32,802 illnesses during 1998-2012, we attribute 77% of foodborne Salmonella illnesses to 7 food categories (seeded vegetables, eggs, chicken, other produce, pork, beef, and fruits), 82% of E. coli O157 illnesses to beef and vegetable row crops, 81% of L. monocytogenes illnesses to fruits and dairy, and 74% of Campylobacter illnesses to dairy and chicken. However, because Campylobacter outbreaks probably overrepresent dairy as a source of nonoutbreak campylobacteriosis, we caution against using these Campylobacter attribution estimates without further adjustment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(17): 509-514, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352955

RESUMO

To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric illnesses, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food at 10 U.S. sites.* This report summarizes preliminary 2019 data and describes changes in incidence compared with that during 2016-2018. The incidence of enteric infections caused by these eight pathogens reported by FoodNet sites in 2019 continued to increase or remained unchanged, indicating progress in controlling major foodborne pathogens in the United States has stalled. Campylobacter and Salmonella caused the largest proportion of illnesses; trends in incidence varied by Salmonella serotype. Widespread adoption of whole genome sequencing (WGS) of bacteria has improved the ability to identify outbreaks, emerging strains, and sources of pathogens. To maximize the potential of WGS to link illnesses to particular sources, testing of isolates by clinical and public health laboratories is needed. Reductions in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium suggest that targeted interventions (e.g., vaccinating chickens and other food animals) might decrease human infections. Reducing contamination during food production, processing, and preparation will require more widespread implementation of known prevention measures and of new strategies that target particular pathogens and serotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(9): 530-532, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091947

RESUMO

Many enteric pathogens disproportionately infect children. Hospital discharge data can provide information on severe infections, including cost. However, the diagnosis must be recorded on the discharge record and coded accurately. We estimated the rate of underascertainment in hospital discharge data among children with culture-confirmed Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157 infections using linked laboratory and hospital discharge data from an integrated health care organization. We reviewed the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions, Clinical Modification (ICD-9/10-CM) diagnosis codes on each patient's discharge record. We determined the percentage of patients who had a pathogen-specific diagnosis code (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, or E. coli O157) or nonspecific gastroenteritis code. We included the first admission or positive test and calculated the number of days between specimen submission (outpatient ≤7 days before admission or inpatient) and hospital discharge. Of 65 hospitalized children with culture-confirmed Campylobacter (n = 30), Salmonella (n = 24), or E. coli O157 (n = 11) infections, 55% had that pathogen-specific diagnosis code listed on the discharge record (79% Salmonella, 54% E. coli O157, 37% Campylobacter). The discharge records of the 35 children with a specimen submitted for culture ≥3 days before discharge were 16 times more likely to have a pathogen-specific diagnosis than the records of the 30 children with a specimen submitted <3 days before discharge (83% vs. 23%; odds ratio 15.9, 95% confidence interval: 4.7-53.8). Overall, 34% of records of children with culture-confirmed infection had ≥1 nonspecific gastroenteritis code (Campylobacter 43%, Salmonella 29%, E. coli O157 18%), including 59% of those for children without a pathogen-specific diagnosis (Campylobacter 63%; Salmonella 60%; E. coli O157 40%). This study showed that hospital discharge data under-ascertain enteric illnesses in children even when the infections are culture confirmed, especially for infections that usually have a short length of stay.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Alta do Paciente , Campylobacter , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli O157 , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Salmonella
12.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(1): 23-28, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509036

RESUMO

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is sometimes preceded by Campylobacter infection. We estimated the cumulative incidence of Campylobacter-associated GBS in the United States using a retrospective cohort design. We identified a cohort of patients with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis code of "intestinal infection due to Campylobacter" (008.43) using MarketScan Research Databases for 2004-2013. Campylobacter patients with an encounter for "acute infective polyneuritis" (AIP; ICD-9-CM 357.0) were identified. Patients with an inpatient encounter having AIP as the principal diagnosis were considered probable GBS cases. Patients with probable GBS ≤8 weeks after the Campylobacter encounter were considered probable Campylobacter-associated GBS cases. For comparison, we repeated this analysis for patients with "other Salmonella infections" (ICD-9-CM: 003). Among 9315 Campylobacter patients, 16 met the case definition for probable GBS. Two were hospitalized with probable GBS ≤8 weeks after the encounter listing a Campylobacter diagnosis (9 and 54 days) and were considered probable cases of Campylobacter-associated GBS; this results in an estimated cumulative incidence of 21.5 per 100,000 Campylobacter patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-86.6), or 5% of all estimated GBS cases. The remaining 14 patients were diagnosed with probable GBS on the same encounter (n = 12) or 1-3 days (n = 2), before the encounter listing the Campylobacter diagnosis. Including these cases increased the cumulative incidence to 172 per 100,000 Campylobacter cases (95% CI: 101.7-285.5), 41% of estimated GBS cases. This study, using a method not previously applied to United States data, supports other data that Campylobacter is an important contributor to GBS, accounting for at least 5% and possibly as many as 41% of all GBS cases. These data can be used to inform estimates of the burden of Campylobacter infections, including economic cost.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Campylobacter/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(10): 1649-1656, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is an important sequela of Campylobacter infection. Our goal is to estimate the incidence of Campylobacter-associated PI-IBS in the United States. METHODS: Data from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014, were obtained from the MarketScan Research Commercial Claims and Encounters Database. We identified patients with an encounter that included an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for "intestinal infection due to Campylobacter" (008.43) and individually matched them (on age group, sex, and length of enrollment) to a group of persons without a diagnosed Campylobacter infection (non-cases). The primary outcome of interest was a new diagnosis of IBS (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 564.1). RESULTS: Our final matched cohort included 4,143 cases and 20,491 non-cases. At 1 year, the incidence rate of IBS was 33.1 and 5.9 per 1,000 among cases and non-cases, respectively, with an unadjusted risk ratio of 5.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-7.3). After adjusting for healthcare utilization, the Cox proportional hazard ratio was 4.6 (95% CI: 3.5-6.1). Excluding those who received an IBS diagnosis within 90 days, the 1-year incidence rate of IBS was 16.7 and 3.9 per 1,000 among cases and non-cases, respectively, with an unadjusted risk ratio of 4.3 (95% CI: 3.0-6.2). DISCUSSION: Persons with a Campylobacter infection have a much higher risk of developing IBS compared with those not diagnosed with Campylobacter infection. The burden of Campylobacter-associated PI-IBS should be considered when assessing the overall impact of Campylobacter infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(16): 369-373, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022166

RESUMO

Foodborne diseases represent a major health problem in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors cases of laboratory-diagnosed infection caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites.* This report summarizes preliminary 2018 data and changes since 2015. During 2018, FoodNet identified 25,606 infections, 5,893 hospitalizations, and 120 deaths. The incidence of most infections is increasing, including those caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella, which might be partially attributable to the increased use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs). The incidence of Cyclospora infections increased markedly compared with 2015-2017, in part related to large outbreaks associated with produce (1). More targeted prevention measures are needed on produce farms, food animal farms, and in meat and poultry processing establishments to make food safer and decrease human illness.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(11): 324-328, 2018 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565841

RESUMO

Despite ongoing food safety measures in the United States, foodborne illness continues to be a substantial health burden. The 10 U.S. sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)* monitor cases of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food. This report summarizes preliminary 2017 data and describes changes in incidence since 2006. In 2017, FoodNet reported 24,484 infections, 5,677 hospitalizations, and 122 deaths. Compared with 2014-2016, the 2017 incidence of infections with Campylobacter, Listeria, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Yersinia, Vibrio, and Cyclospora increased. The increased incidences of pathogens for which testing was previously limited might have resulted from the increased use and sensitivity of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), which can improve incidence estimates (1). Compared with 2006-2008, the 2017 incidence of infections with Salmonella serotypes Typhimurium and Heidelberg decreased, and the incidence of serotypes Javiana, Infantis, and Thompson increased. New regulatory requirements that include enhanced testing of poultry products for Salmonella† might have contributed to the decreases. The incidence of STEC O157 infections during 2017 also decreased compared with 2006-2008, which parallels reductions in isolations from ground beef.§ The declines in two Salmonella serotypes and STEC O157 infections provide supportive evidence that targeted control measures are effective. The marked increases in infections caused by some Salmonella serotypes provide an opportunity to investigate food and nonfood sources of infection and to design specific interventions.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Helicobacter ; 23(3): e12482, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29537130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infections in the world, and studies in Alaska Native people, as well as other Indigenous peoples, have shown a high prevalence of this gastric infection. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection by urea breath test (UBT) and anti- H. pylori IgG among Alaskans living in four regions of the state and to identify factors associated with infection. METHODS: A convenience sample of persons > 6 months old living in five rural and one urban Alaskan community were recruited from 1996 to 1997. Participants were asked about factors possibly associated with infection. Sera were collected and tested for anti- H. pylori IgG antibodies; a UBT was administered to participants > 5 years old. RESULTS: We recruited 710 people of whom 571 (80%) were Alaska Native and 467 (66%) were from rural communities. Rural residents were more likely to be Alaska Native compared with urban residents (P < .001). Of the 710 people, 699 (98%) had a serum sample analyzed, and 634 (97%) persons > 5 years old had a UBT performed. H. pylori prevalence was 69% by UBT and 68% by anti- H. pylori IgG. Among those with a result for both tests, there was 94% concordance. Factors associated with H. pylori positivity were Alaska Native racial status, age ≥ 20 years, rural region of residence, living in a crowded home, and drinking water that was not piped or delivered. CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori prevalence is high in Alaska, especially in Alaska Native persons and rural residents. Concordance between UBT and serology was also high in this group. Two socioeconomic factors, crowding and drinking water that was not piped or delivered, were found to be associated with H. pylori positivity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Testes Respiratórios , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Ureia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alaska/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(13)2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154748

RESUMO

Response to sudden epidemic infectious disease emergencies can demand intensive and specialized training, as demonstrated in 2014 when Ebola virus disease (EVD) rapidly spread throughout West Africa. The medical community quickly became overwhelmed because of limited staff, supplies, and Ebola treatment units (ETUs). Because a mechanism to rapidly increase trained healthcare workers was needed, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented an introductory EVD safety training course to prepare US healthcare workers to work in West Africa ETUs. The goal was to teach principles and practices of safely providing patient care and was delivered through lectures, small-group breakout sessions, and practical exercises. During September 2014-March 2015, a total of 570 participants were trained during 16 course sessions. This course quickly increased the number of clinicians who could provide care in West Africa ETUs, showing the feasibility of rapidly developing and implementing training in response to a public health emergency.


Assuntos
Educação , Pessoal de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Saúde Pública/educação , Alabama/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(9)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820133

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin is a cattle-adapted bacterium that typically causes bloodstream infections in humans. To summarize demographic, clinical, and antimicrobial drug resistance characteristics of human infections with this organism in the United States, we analyzed data for 1968-2013 from 5 US surveillance systems. During this period, the incidence rate for infection with Salmonella Dublin increased more than that for infection with other Salmonella. Data from 1 system (FoodNet) showed that a higher percentage of persons with Salmonella Dublin infection were hospitalized and died during 2005-2013 (78% hospitalized, 4.2% died) than during 1996-2004 (68% hospitalized, 2.7% died). Susceptibility data showed that a higher percentage of isolates were resistant to >7 classes of antimicrobial drugs during 2005-2013 (50.8%) than during 1996-2004 (2.4%).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/mortalidade , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/mortalidade , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella enterica/fisiologia , Sorogrupo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 14(10): 545-557, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792800

RESUMO

Drug-resistant bacterial infections pose a serious and growing public health threat globally. In this review, we describe the role of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in providing data that help address the resistance problem and show how such a program can have broad positive impacts on public health. NARMS was formed two decades ago to help assess the consequences to human health arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal production in the United States. A collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the United States Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, NARMS uses an integrated "One Health" approach to monitor antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meat, and food animals. NARMS has adapted to changing needs and threats by expanding surveillance catchment areas, examining new isolate sources, adding bacteria, adjusting sampling schemes, and modifying antimicrobial agents tested. NARMS data are not only essential for ensuring that antimicrobial drugs approved for food animals are used in ways that are safe for human health but they also help address broader food safety priorities. NARMS surveillance, applied research studies, and outbreak isolate testing provide data on the emergence of drug-resistant enteric bacteria; genetic mechanisms underlying resistance; movement of bacterial populations among humans, food, and food animals; and sources and outcomes of resistant and susceptible infections. These data can be used to guide and evaluate the impact of science-based policies, regulatory actions, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives, and other public health efforts aimed at preserving drug effectiveness, improving patient outcomes, and preventing infections. Many improvements have been made to NARMS over time and the program will continue to adapt to address emerging resistance threats, changes in clinical diagnostic practices, and new technologies, such as whole genome sequencing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Animais , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Agriculture , United States Food and Drug Administration
20.
Am J Public Health ; 107(7): 1150-1156, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present the first update on the epidemiology of US foodborne correctional institution outbreaks in 20 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to describe correctional institution outbreaks from 1998 to 2014 and compare them with other foodborne outbreaks. RESULTS: Two hundred foodborne outbreaks in correctional institutions were reported, resulting in 20 625 illnesses, 204 hospitalizations, and 5 deaths. Median number of outbreak-associated illnesses per 100 000 population per year was 45 (range = 11-141) compared with 7 (range = 4-10) for other outbreaks. These outbreaks accounted for 6% (20 625 of 358 330) of outbreak-associated foodborne illnesses. Thirty-seven states reported at least 1 outbreak in a correctional institution. Clostridium perfringens (28%; 36 of 128) was the most frequently reported single etiology. The most frequently reported contributing factor was food remaining at room temperature (37%; 28 of 76). CONCLUSIONS: Incarcerated persons suffer a disproportionate number of outbreak-associated foodborne illnesses. Better food safety oversight and regulation in correctional food services could decrease outbreaks. Public Health Implications. Public health officials, correctional officials, and food suppliers can work together for food safety. Clearer jurisdiction over regulation of correctional food services is needed.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Prisões/organização & administração , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Prisões/tendências , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA