Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 89
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249229, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339374

RESUMO

Abstract Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.


Resumo Os pássaros são indicadores muito valiosos da riqueza de espécies e padrões endêmicos em um determinado ecossistema, o que acaba ajudando o cientista a medir a degradação ambiental. O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o conhecimento humano e a atitude em relação às aves urbanas na cidade de Faisalabad, Paquistão. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro meses consecutivos: novembro de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020. A população de pássaros foi observada em oito cidades residenciais da cidade de Faisalabad, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário. Faisalabad tem uma população razoavelmente grande de pássaros, e os dados atuais mostram que há uma diferença significativa entre as aves favoritas de áreas residenciais e instituições. O pombo recebeu mais semelhanças na população de pássaros entre os residentes de áreas residenciais, enquanto o myna recebeu menos. A ave mais popular nas instituições de Faisalabad era o pardal, enquanto a ave menos popular era o myna comum. A porcentagem de adaptação de pássaros em áreas residenciais e institucionais de Faisalabad foi a mais alta para papagaios e pardais, respectivamente. As pessoas em áreas residenciais e instituições, por outro lado, se adaptaram menos ao myna comum. Conclui-se que pessoas da área de estudo como pássaros e alimentos oferecidos e alta população de pássaros estão presentes na área de estudo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238673, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153461

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762554

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762066

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669801

RESUMO

Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Humanos , Paquistão
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706025

RESUMO

Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Meios de Cultura , Brotos de Planta
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468526

RESUMO

Military conflicts have been significant obstacles in detecting and treating infectious disease diseases due to the diminished public health infrastructure, resulting in malaria endemicity. A variety of violent and destructive incidents were experienced by FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). It was a struggle to pursue an epidemiological analysis due to continuing conflict and Talibanization. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai agencies from May 2017 to May 2018. For Giemsa staining, full blood EDTA blood samples have been collected from symptomatic participants. Malaria-positive microscopy isolates were spotted on filter papers for future Plasmodial molecular detection by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) of small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes specific primers. Since reconfirming the nPCR, a malariometric study of 762 patients found 679 positive malaria cases. Plasmodium vivax was 523 (77%), Plasmodium falciparum 121 (18%), 35 (5%) were with mixed-species infection (P. vivax plus P. falciparum), and 83 were declared negative by PCR. Among the five agencies of FATA, Khyber agency has the highest malaria incidence (19%) with followed by P. vivax (19%) and P. falciparum (4.1%). In contrast, Kurram has about (14%), including (10.8%) P. vivax and (2.7%) P. falciparum cases, the lowest malaria epidemiology. Surprisingly, no significant differences in the distribution of mixed-species infection among all five agencies. P. falciparum and P. vivax were two prevalent FATA malaria species in Pakistan's war-torn area. To overcome this rising incidence of malaria, this study recommends that initiating malaria awareness campaigns in school should be supported by public health agencies and malaria-related education locally, targeting children and parents alike.


Assuntos
Plasmodium , Criança , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431916

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
11.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 186-192, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605907

RESUMO

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) paves the way for many health problems ranging from discomforts of continuous wetness and irritation to social isolation and depression in women. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of UI in women aged 40 and older as well as its risk factors and also its effect on quality of life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 286 women included in the sample. Subjects were selected randomly. The data were collected using a questionnaire, which was prepared by the researchers, and the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using number, percentage, mean, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression analysis in the SPSS program. Results: It was found that 86 (30.1%) of the women experienced the symptom of UI. The women had mostly the mixed UI. The correlations between UI and age, educational level, status of employment, the presence of chronic diseases, chronic constipation, difficult birth history, and state of menopause were significant. Total mean score of the women with UI for the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire was 73.62 ± 24.36 and the most affected domain of the quality of life field was social embarrassment. Conclusions: In the present study, it was found that UI was prevalent in Turkish women and impaired their quality of life. The results can help to provide education and counseling services to women in a society-sensitive manner.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Incontinência Urinária , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
12.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 32(1): 51-70, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401979

RESUMO

A Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay was used to screen the FDA-approved compound library against the MERS-CoV helicase, an essential enzyme for virus replication within the host cell. Five compounds inhibited the helicase activity with submicromolar potencies (IC50, 0.73-1.65 µM) and ten compounds inhibited the enzyme with micromolar potencies (IC50, 19.6-502 µM). The molecular operating environment (MOE) was used to dock the identified inhibitors on the MERS-CoV helicase nucleotide binding. Strong inhibitors docked well in the nucleotide-binding site and established interactions with some of the essential residues. There was a reasonable correlation between the observed IC50 values and the MOE docking scores of the strong inhibitors (r 2 = 0.74), indicating the ability of the in silico docking model to predict the binding of strong inhibitors. In silico docking could be a useful complementary tool used with the FRET-based assay to predict new MERS-CoV helicase inhibitors. The identified inhibitors could potentially be used in the clinical development of new antiviral treatment for MERS-CoV and other coronavirus related diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Helicases/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(5): 526-534, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377499

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to develop a novel disinfectant from various essential oils containing active components with antimicrobial activity. The mixture of oregano, cinnamon and clove oils (1 : 1 : 1) with 10% oil concentration (SOM) was used as potential disinfectant on various areas and showed the highest antimicrobial activity among oil combinations tested. SOM reduced the numbers of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB; 2·27 log CFU per 25 cm2 ) and Escherichia coli (4·60 log CFU per 25 cm2 ) under the detection limits. Application of SOM (1, 2, 3, 4 and 6%) into incubators reduced TMAB and mould-yeast counts of incubator air by 82·9 and 100% respectively. SOM application (3%) into ambient air also reduced its TMAB and mould-yeast counts by 92 and 84·6% respectively. While ethanol is commonly used for the disinfection of environments, equipment and surfaces, SOM is an important alternative that may also be used for the disinfection of various surfaces as well as air.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Origanum/química , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101008, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors for mortality in adult patients with candidemia by investigating the causative agents, underlying conditions and predisposing factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data including causative Candida species, predisposing factors, and underlying conditions of candidemia patients between the years 2015-2017 were collected and the impact of these factors on mortality was evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups as died (died patients within 30 days of the onset of candidemia) and survived and risk factors were evaluated for each group. RESULTS: We found 163 adult candidemia cases during the study period. Overall 30-day mortality was 40.5%. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequent causative agent (49.1%). C. parapsilosis candidemia was more common in the survived group compared with the died group (n: 49 (61.3%) vs. n: 31 (38.8%), P=0.888). Mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with dialysis (n: 27 (69.2%) vs. n: 12 (30.8%), P<0.00) and concurrent bacteremia (n: 20 (57.1%) vs. n: 15 (42.9%), P=0.024). Survival rates were significantly higher in patients with follow-up blood cultures (n: 75 (65.8%) vs. n: 39 (34.2%), P=0.013). The most important source of candidemia was catheter (49.7%), and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent (58%). The catheter was removed in 96.3% of these patients and the mortality rate was 38.5%. All of the patients received antifungal therapy and there was no significant difference between the effects of antifungals on mortality (n: 65 (39.9%) vs. 98 (60.1%), P=0.607). CONCLUSIONS: Dialysis and concurrent bacteremia are strong predictors of mortality in 30 days within patients with candidemia, whereas follow-up blood cultures have a protective role with lower mortality rates. In our study, the most important source of candidemia was catheter, and C. parapsilosis was the most common causative agent. The catheter was removed in almost all patients and the mortality rate was almost one third among these patients.


Assuntos
Candidemia/etiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida parapsilosis/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Turquia/epidemiologia
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109712, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654867

RESUMO

Mycotoxicosis is the second most important problem faced by the Pakistan poultry industry, after high feed prices. The present experimental study was designed to investigate the toxicopathological effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in commercial broiler chicks and its amelioration with locally produced mycotoxin binder. Total of 125 broiler chicks was divided into five equal groups (A-E). Group A served as negative control, group B (300 µg AFB1/kg feed) as positive control, group C (300 µg AFB1/kg + Local Mycotoxin Binder (LMB), 1 g/kg feed), group D (300 µg AFB1/kg + 2 g LMB/kg feed), and group E (300 µg AFB1/kg + Commercial Mycotoxin Binder (CMB), 2 g/kg of feed). Parameters studied included mortality, feed intake, bodyweights, absolute and relative organ weights, and gross and microscopic lesions in visceral organs. Clinical signs including alertness, fecal consistency, and feather shine were significantly lower in group B compared with control group A. The feed intake of 2 g/kg LMB treated group was significantly higher than that of the positive control group B. Also mean bodyweights of group D birds was higher than that of group B birds indicating an ameliorative effect of LMB. Histopathological results showed that moldy feed produced necrotic changes in the liver and kidneys in group B birds. However, in group D and E birds, the hepatic and renal parenchyma was normal, showing a protective effect of LMB. In the present study, a higher dose of LMB (2 g/kg) in group D showed higher bodyweights and feed intake. In group D, birds hepatic and renal parenchyma was also normal. The results suggested that local mycotoxin binder ameliorated the toxicopathological effects of AFB1 in mortality, feed intake, bodyweights, organ weights and, gross and microscopic lesions in visceral organs. These ameliorative effects of LMB were dose-dependent. The results of the present study concluded that AFB1 intoxication leads to decrease in bodyweights, feed intake in dose-related manner. The mortality was also dose-dependent. Gross and microscopic changes in the aflatoxin groups were more pronounced, however, all these deleterious effects were ameliorated in higher dose of LMB (group D) and CMB (group E). In group C, these deleterious effects were partially ameliorated. Local mycotoxin binder is an economical solution for aflatoxicosis problem, making poultry production more cost-effective.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Aflatoxina B1/química , Animais , Bentonita/administração & dosagem , Bentonita/química , Galinhas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Tamanho do Órgão , Paquistão , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química
17.
Biotech Histochem ; 94(5): 366-373, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982354

RESUMO

We investigated the effectiveness of crocin for preventing oxidative damage in experimentally produced periodontitis. We used three groups of 10 female Wistar rats divided into: control (C); experimental periodontitis (EP), experimental periodontitis + crocin (Cr-EP). Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were measured. We examined histopathology and inflammatory cell infiltration in gingiva and periodontal ligament. MDA and TOS levels, and SOD and CAT activities increased significantly in rats with induced periodontitis compared to the control group, while GSH and TAS levels were decreased significantly compared to the control group. Histopathologic examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltration in gingiva epithelium and subepithelial connective tissue in the EP group. Histological damage was reduced significantly after crocin treatment compared to the EP group. Crocin supplementation may help reduce oxidative damage to periodontal tissues.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligamento Periodontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Gengiva/metabolismo , Gengiva/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal/patologia , Periodontite/metabolismo , Periodontite/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(4): 249-255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023046

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to determine the protective effect of melatonin and agomelatine on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats by electrocardiographic, scintigraphic and biochemical methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine male Wistar rats were randomly separated into seven groups; control (CON), doxorubicin (DOX), melatonin (MEL), agomelatine (AGO), melatonin+doxorubicin (MEL+DOX), agomelatine+doxorubicin (AGO+DOX) and melatonin+ agomelatine+ doxorubicin (MEL+AGO+DOX) groups. Cardiotoxicity was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of DOX (18 mg/kg daily for three days). Rats receiving MEL and AGO treatment in the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity group received MEL and AGO (40 mg/kg/day, i.p., for seven days). They were injected with doxorubicin (18 mg/kg, i.p.) on days 5, 6, and 7. The rats were given MEL and AGO as substance control (40 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 7 days). On day 8 of the experiment, animals were evaluated by means of electrocardiography (ECG) and 99mtechnetium pyrophosphate (99mTc PYP) scintigraphy and their biochemical parameters [blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac troponin T (cTnT)] were examined. RESULTS: DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rats is characterized by conduction abnormalities in the ECG pattern (including decreased P wave and QRS complex duration, increased QT and RR intervals, and ST-segment elevation), increased serum BUN, CK, and cTnT parameters and increased 99mTc PYP uptake (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with MEL, AGO, or MEL+AGO effectively alleviated DOX-induced ECG abnormalities close to normal (p < 0.001). Moreover, serum biochemical evidence and 99mTc PYP uptake values demonstrated that pretreatment with MEL, AGO, or MEL+AGO has the same protective effect against the abnormalities produced in the heart by DOX (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MEL and AGO have a potential protective effect on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. At the same time, this study suggests that 99mTc PYP is a non-invasive method suitable for early determination of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (Tab. 3, Fig. 5, Ref. 41).


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Cardiotoxicidade , Doxorrubicina , Melatonina , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Miocárdio , Cintilografia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(2): 113-118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the possible protective effects of melatonin and agomelatine on an animal model of adriamycin nephrotoxicity by 99mTc DMSA renal scintigraphy and biochemical methods. METHODS: Ten weeks old 49 male Wistar rats were randomly separated into seven groups; namely control (CON), adriamycin (ADR), melatonin (MEL), agomelatine (AGO), melatonin + adriamycin (MEL+ADR), agomelatine + adriamycin (AGO+ADR) and melatonin + agomelatine + adriamycin (MEL+AGO+ADR) groups. Nephrotoxicity was induced by a three-dose of 18 mg/kg adriamycin, i.p. at a 24 h interval on the 5th, 6th and 7th days. A dose of melatonin and agomelatine (40 mg/kg/i.p, the same doses) were injected for 7 days before and after the injected of ADR (18 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. On the 8th day of the experiment, all animals were evaluated and scintigraphic and biochemical parameters were assessed, respectively. RESULTS: ADR significantly increased blood urea nitrogen (1040 %) and plasma creatinine (1020 %), and decreased 99mTc DMSA uptake levels (59 %) compared to the control (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with MEL, AGO, MEL+AGO mitigated these abnormalities produced by ADR in the kidney (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: 99mTc DMSA for the early determination of ADR-induced nephrotoxicity had an important role. Also, a significant correlation was found between biochemical and scintigraphy parameters. Adriamycin caused significant damages to kidneys that were reduced with MEL and AGO (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 39).


Assuntos
Acetamidas , Injúria Renal Aguda , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Doxorrubicina , Melatonina , Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais , Cintilografia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Biotech Histochem ; 93(8): 623-631, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273072

RESUMO

Owing to its lipophilic property, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is rapidly absorbed by both the liver and brain. We investigated the protective effects of crocin against brain damage caused by CCl4. Fifty rats were divided into five groups of ten: control, corn oil, crocin, CCl4 and CCl4 + crocin. CCl4 administration decreased glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels, and catalase (CAT) activity, while significant increases were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The cerebral cortex nuclear lamina developed a spongy appearance, neuronal degeneration was observed in the hippocampus, and heterochromatic and pyknotic neurons with increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia were observed in the hippocampus after CCl4 treatment. Because crocin exhibits strong antioxidant properties, crocin treatment increased GSH and TAS levels and CAT activities, and decreased MDA and TOS levels and SOD activity; significant improvements also were observed in histologic architecture. We found that crocin administration nearly eliminated CCl4 induced brain damage by preventing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Encéfalo , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Padrões de Referência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA