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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339413

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242635, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278477

RESUMO

Abstract Indian crested porcupine is the largest rodent pest that damages a wide variety of crops, vegetables, and tree species which ultimately causes huge economic loss in Pakistan, which is an agricultural country. It prefers to live in hilly terrain but common in temperate and tropical forests, shrublands, and grasslands. This study focused on the identification and assessment of crops damaged along with the main precautionary measures used by the local farmers. The data was collected from twenty-four villages of two union councils i.e. Chamhad and Slahad of district Abbottabad. Two types of data (primary and secondary) were collected from the study area. Primary data was collected for identification and estimation calculation of total crop damaged through direct field observation by taking random quadrates in each village of the study area. The damage in the crop was assessed by randomly selecting a quadrate of 1x1 m2 for the wheat, pearl millet, and Sorghum fields. While 4x4 m2 quadrates were taken for maize and vegetables. At least three quadrate samples were taken from each field including one quadrate taken from the center of the field area. In union council Chamhad, damage to maize (11.31%) and wheat (0.73%) by the Indian crested porcupine while in union council Salhad, damage of maize (6.95%) and wheat (1.6%) was observed. In the entire study area, overall damage to maize crop (8.01%) and wheat (0.88%) was calculated. Based on information obtained from the farmers, the Indian porcupine inflicted damage to potato, tomato, cauliflower, chili pepper, turnip, radish, pea, and onion, etc. Secondary data obtained through a questionnaire survey to explore the human porcupine conflict and precautionary measures used by the farmers and landowners. Open and close-ended questionnaires (159) highlighted the presence of Indian crested porcupine in the study area and 96% of the respondents have seen porcupine directly. Many types of precautionary measures were used by the farmers such as fencing, night stay, night firing, and dogs to decrease the crop damage, respondents (63.91%) use guns for hunting. however, due to the largely agricultural area and nocturnal behavior of Indian crested porcupine majority of the respondents (51.57%) did not use any precautionary measure. Biological control of Indian porcupine is recommended in the study area. Farmers should be encouraged and provide incentives and killing through current should be banned while proper hunting license should be issued to overcome overhunting. Scientific studies are required to control the reproduction of porcupine specifically in the more damaged areas.


Resumo O porco-espinho indiano é a maior praga de roedores que danifica uma grande variedade de culturas, vegetais e espécies de árvores, o que acaba por causar enormes perdas econômicas no Paquistão, que é um país agrícola. Prefere viver em terrenos montanhosos, mas comuns em florestas temperadas e tropicais, arbustos e pastagens. Este estudo concentrou-se na identificação e avaliação das lavouras danificadas, juntamente com as principais medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores locais. Os dados foram coletados de 24 aldeias de dois conselhos sindicais, ou seja, Chamhad e Slahad, do distrito de Abbottabad. Dois tipos de dados (primário e secundário) foram coletados da área de estudo. Foram coletados dados primários para identificação e cálculo de estimativa do total da cultura danificada por meio da observação direta do campo, tomando quadrantes aleatórios em cada aldeia da área de estudo. O dano na cultura foi avaliado pela seleção aleatória de um quadrante de 1x1 m2 para os campos de trigo, milheto pérola e sorgo, enquanto quadrantes de 4x4 m2 foram tomados para milho e legumes. Pelo menos três amostras de quadrante foram colhidas de cada campo, incluindo um quadrante retirado do centro da área do campo. No Conselho Sindical de Chamhad, houve danos ao milho (11,31%) e ao trigo (0,73%) pelo porco-espinho indiano, enquanto no Conselho Sindical de Salhad, danos ao milho (6,95%) e ao trigo (1,6%) foram observados. Em toda a área do estudo, danos gerais à cultura do milho (8,01%) e ao trigo (0,88%) foram calculados. Com base em informações obtidas dos agricultores, o porco-espinho indiano infligiu danos à batata, tomate, couve-flor, pimenta, nabo, rabanete, ervilha, cebola, etc. Dados secundários foram obtidos por meio de um questionário para explorar o conflito suíno humano e as medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores e proprietários de terras. Questionários abertos e fechados (159) destacaram a presença de porco-espinho indiano na área de estudo e 96% dos entrevistados viram o porco-espinho diretamente. Muitos tipos de medidas de precaução foram utilizados pelos agricultores, como esgrima, estadia noturna, fogo noturno e cães para diminuir os danos na lavoura. Dos entrevistados, 63,91% usaram armas para caçar. No entanto, devido à área ser em grande parte agrícola e ao comportamento noturno da maioria dos porcos-espinhos indianos, 51,57% não usaram nenhuma medida de precaução. O controle biológico do porco-espinho indiano é recomendado na área de estudo. Os agricultores devem ser encorajados e fornecer incentivos, e o uso da corrente para matar os animais deve ser banido, assim como deve ser emitida a licença de caça adequada para superar a caça excessiva. Estudos científicos são necessários para controlar a reprodução de porco-espinho, especificamente nas áreas mais danificadas.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242334, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278515

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


RESUMO Fatores de micro-hábitat associados ao hábitat do veado (Muntiacus vaginalis) foram examinados e comparados entre as estações de verão e inverno. As características do hábitat e o hábitat preferido foram medidos, localizando sinais diretos e indiretos. Para quantificar a utilização do hábitat de cervos-latidos, cada local de estudo selecionado foi amostrado para a diversidade floral de 2015 a 2017. Quadrats foram implantados ao longo de linhas de transecto para determinar a distribuição sazonal., Veados-latidos não foram distribuídos uniformemente pelos tipos de vegetação na área de estudo; ocorreram com mais frequência na floresta de folhas largas do que na floresta de pinheiros Chir, em uma faixa de elevação de 550-850 m, em vegetação densa, em encostas íngremes. O hábitat mais preferido incluía árvores e arbustos com 30% e 69% de cobertura, respectivamente. O veado-latido evitou uma cobertura de árvores mais espessa, possivelmente porque impede o movimento e a fuga de predadores. Nenhuma diferença significativa (χ2 = 6,37; df = 3; p = 0,19) na cobertura vegetal sazonal foi registrada.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242636, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285595

RESUMO

Abstract Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Resumo Guindastes são a grande e atraente criatura da natureza com um pescoço longo, pernas e vida útil. Adultos de ambos os sexos são os mesmos com padrões de cores semelhantes. Guindastes Demoiselle passam a maior parte da vida em gramíneas secas. Também se encontram ao redor do córrego, rios, lagos rasos, pântanos naturais e depressões. Para avaliar o estado atual do uso do hábitat e as principais ameaças, um estudo foi realizado no distrito de Tehsil Domel, em Bannu. Foram utilizados o método transect e testes de qualidade da água (temperatura, pH, contaminação da bactéria E. coli). Para determinar as principais ameaçasfoi utilizado o método de questionário. Todos os dados foram analisados por meio da versão SPSS 21. Com base na distribuição, foram selecionados quatro locais de estudo e quatro amostras de água de cada local de estudo. A maioria dos locais estava moderada a altamente degradada, exceto no ponto de encontro dos rios Kashoo e Kurram, que teve baixa degradação com pastagem de gado e atividades humanas. Os testes de qualidade da água mostraram variação de pH de 7-9, temperatura 6,5-8,5 e contaminação de E. coli em todas as amostras. A pesquisa do questionário revelou que a caça, a degradação do hábitat e a poluição são as principais ameaças. Efetiva conservação e gestão a longo prazo na área de estudo são necessárias para se concentrar na proteção de um hábitat livre de distúrbios.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762571

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762553

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762069

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236496, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249245

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243811, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249262

RESUMO

Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Resumo Um estudo etnobotânico foi realizado para documentar as plantas medicinais indígenas e seu uso por pessoas experientes e idosas em Razzar e Gadoon, no vale de Swabi e no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, no Paquistão, durante 2016 a 2019. Várias visitas sistemáticas de campo e pesquisas por questionário foram realizadas em locais selecionados da área de estudo para coletar informações relevantes da comunidade local. O método de avaliação rápida foi adotado para a coleta de dados por meio de entrevistas com a população local, com conhecimento suficiente do uso de plantas medicinais para o tratamento de diferentes enfermidades. A fórmula UV (UV) foi aplicada para calcular a importância relativa das espécies de plantas medicinais em cada local da área de estudo. No presente estudo, 221 plantas medicinais pertencentes a 105 famílias foram relatadas por 580 entrevistados (385 homens, 138 mulheres e 57 curandeiros locais) da região de Swabi e Hazara. As principais fontes de medicamentos fitoterápicos foram folhas (21%), seguidas de frutas (21%), sementes (17%), plantas inteiras (14%), raízes (9%), cascas (9%), flores (7%) e goma (2%). Mentha spicata L. e Berberis lycium Royle foram relatados com maior UV (UV), ou seja, 0,92 e 0,68 em Razzar tehsil e vale Gadoon de Swabi, enquanto Mentha longifolia L. e Geranium wallichianum D. foram relatados com maior UV, isto é, 0,65 e 0,88 no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a região de Swabi e Hazara é rica em espécies de plantas medicinais e conhecimentos tradicionais associados. Além disso, etnomedicamentos têm desempenhado um papel significativo no sistema de saúde indígena da área de estudo. No entanto, arrancar a planta inteira para etnomedicina é uma grande ameaça à conservação da diversidade de plantas medicinais na área de estudo.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495157

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , RNA Ribossômico 16S
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468510

RESUMO

Climatic factors play an essential role in the growth of tree ring width. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between climatic variables and tree-ring growth characteristics of Pinus sibirica in Altai mountains, northwestern China. This study being is first of its kind on climate growth analysis of Pinus sibirica in northwestern China. The study showed great potential to understand the species growing under the specific climatic conditions. Total of 70 tree cores collected from three sites in the sampling area, out of which 63 tree cores considered for this study. The effect of climatic variables which was studied include precipitation, temperature and PDSI. Our results showed that Tree Ring Width chronology has a significantly positive correlation with the late winter (March) temperature and significant negative correlation with the July temperatures. A significant correlation was observed with the late summer precipitation whereas no significant relation found with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. These significant correlations with temperature and precipitation suggested that this tree species had the potential for the reconstruction of the past climate in the area.


Assuntos
Pinus , China , Secas , Temperatura , Árvores
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468532

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the phylogenetic similarities among the muntjac (Muntiacus spp.). The phylogenetic similarities among seven major muntjac species were studied by comparing the nucleotide sequence of 16s rRNA and cytochrome b genome. Nucleotide sequences, retrieved from NCBI databases were aligned by using DNASTAR software. A phylogenetic tree was created for the selected species of muntjac by using the maximum likelihood method on MEGA7 software. The results of nucleotide sequences (16s rRNA) showed phylogenetic similarities between, the M. truongsonensis and M. rooseveltorum had the highest (99.2%) while the lowest similarities (96.8%) found between M. crinifrons and M. putaoensi. While the results of nucleotide sequences (Cty b) showed the highest similarity (100%) between M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis and the lowest s (91.5%) among M. putaoensis and M. crinifrons. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species (16s rRNA gene) shows the main two clusters, the one including M. putaoensis, M. truongsonensis, M. rooseveltorum, and M. muntjak, and the second one including M. crinifrons and M. vuquangensis. The M. reevesi exists separately in the phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species using cytochrome b genes shows that the M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis are clustered in the same group.


Assuntos
Citocromos b , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citocromos b/genética , Cervo Muntjac/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMO

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346960

RESUMO

Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076167

RESUMO

An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Idoso , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão , Fitoterapia
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133564

RESUMO

Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


Assuntos
Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano
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