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1.
Chem Sci ; 12(37): 12383-12390, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603668

RESUMO

K-ion batteries (KIBs) are promising for large-scale electrical energy storage owing to the abundant resources and the electrochemical specificity of potassium. Among the positive electrode materials for KIBs, vanadium-based polyanionic materials are interesting because of their high working voltage and good structural stability which dictates the cycle life. In this study, a potassium vanadium oxide phosphate, K6(VO)2(V2O3)2(PO4)4(P2O7), has been investigated as a 4 V class positive electrode material for non-aqueous KIBs. The material is synthesized through pyrolysis of a single metal-organic molecular precursor, K2[(VOHPO4)2(C2O4)] at 500 °C in air. The material demonstrates a reversible extraction/insertion of 2.7 mol of potassium from/into the structure at a discharge voltage of ∼4.03 V vs. K. Operando and ex situ powder X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the material undergoes reversible K extraction/insertion during charge/discharge via a two-phase reaction mechanism. Despite the extraction/insertion of large potassium ions, the material demonstrates an insignificant volume change of ∼1.2% during charge/discharge resulting in excellent cycling stability without capacity degradation over 100 cycles in a highly concentrated electrolyte cell. Robustness of the polyanionic framework is proved from identical XRD patterns of the pristine and cycled electrodes (after 100 cycles).

2.
Trop Biomed ; 38(2): 192-195, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172710

RESUMO

The rarity of acute psychosis in typhoid fever can result in delayed and misdiagnosis of the condition. We report a case of a 20-year-old man who presented with fever and acute psychotic symptoms. This was associated with headache, dizziness, and body weakness. There were no other significant symptoms. Neurological examination revealed reduced muscle tone of bilateral lower limbs but otherwise unremarkable. The computed tomography (CT) scan of his brain showed no abnormality. Blood specimens for microbiological culture grew Salmonella Typhi. This isolate was susceptible to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. He was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for one week and responded well. He was discharged with oral ciprofloxacin for another week. The repeated blood and stool for bacterial culture yielded no growth of Salmonella Typhi.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Febre Tifoide , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/microbiologia , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148533, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175596

RESUMO

Effluent produced during the electroplating process can contain high concentrations of heavy metals that can enter the environment and induce toxicity to aquatic organisms. Relatively high concentrations of zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg) have been detected in treated electroplating industrial effluent (TEPIE), though the cytotoxic potential of these compounds has not been well assessed in fish gills. A novel cell line, Danio rerio gill (DrG), were exposed to TEPIE and concentrations of Zn, Hg, and Zn + Hg previously measured in treated effluent to evaluate the use of the DrG cell line following exposure to environmental pollutants. Several cytotoxic assays were employed to assess the effect of TEPIE, Zn, and Hg on this cell line. The percent cell viability was significantly reduced in a concentration-dependent manner following exposure to TEPIE, Zn, Hg, and Zn + Hg (p < 0.05) for 24 h, with additional morphological changes observed in exposure treatments relative to controls. Additionally, there was a significant induction of DNA damage detected in all exposure treatments determined through comet assay tail length. An increase in intracellular ROS generation was also observed in cells exposed to TEPIE, Zn, Hg, and Zn + Hg, corresponding to dose-dependent increases in apoptosis. Our study confirmed that TEPIE and the metals present in it induced cytotoxicity in the DrG cell line, demonstrating its usefulness as a model to explore relationships between pollutants and fish gills.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Galvanoplastia , Brânquias/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Zinco/análise
5.
J Fish Dis ; 44(7): 987-992, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631045

RESUMO

Infectious myonecrosis (IMN) is an important shrimp viral disease caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Based on previous reports, an attempt was made to propagate IMNV in apparently healthy C6/36 subclone of Aedes albopictus cell line. The confirmatory assays such as RT-PCR, real-time PCR and bioassay revealed that C6/36 cells were found to be susceptible to IMNV and these cells could be used easily for isolation and propagation of IMNV. The results of real-time PCR assay showed that a lower CT value of 22.25 in IMNV-infected cells was obtained on 10 day post-infection (d p.i.), whereas the higher CT value of 35.21 was obtained in IMNV-infected cells on 2 d p.i. There is no significant difference between CT values of IMNV production in vitro using C6/36 cell line and in vivo using shrimp. The IMNV propagated in C6/36 cells is capable of infecting shrimp and caused 100% mortality in shrimp. Clinical signs observed in shrimp injected with IMNV propagated in C6/36 cell line were found to be similar to naturally infected shrimp.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Culicidae
6.
Med J Malaysia ; 76(1): 103-106, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510119

RESUMO

Pulmonary hydatid cyst (PHC) in pregnancy is a very rare pathology. We report here a case of ruptured PHC during pregnancy in a 26-year old Syrian (refugee) woman who presented with complaints of productive cough with metallic taste and dyspnoea. PHC was suspected due to her clinical and radiological findings. Interestingly, the sputum examination confirmed the diagnosis as numerous protoscoleces were present. Serology for Echinococcus infection revealed positive at high titre. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment by providing care improves the patient outcome. Parasitological examination of the respiratory specimen in suspected ruptured PHC is desirable as a valuable detection tool.


Assuntos
Equinococose Pulmonar , Refugiados , Adulto , Tosse , Equinococose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose Pulmonar/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Gravidez , Síria
7.
J Fish Dis ; 44(5): 573-584, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169393

RESUMO

Prophenoloxidase (proPO) is very important to protect the invertebrates from microbial infections. Our previous studies revealed that proPO was up-regulated in WSSV-injected Macrobrachium rosenbergii and is responsible for protecting M. rosenbergii from WSSV. In order to prove this mechanism, an attempt was made in the present study to silence the proPO gene in freshwater prawn by injection of dsRNA-proPO followed by WSSV challenge. Two partial fragments of proPO with the size of 251 and 331 bp were used to synthesize dsRNA using LITMUS38i vector and E. coli. The bacterially synthesized dsRNA-proPO was used to silence proPO gene to determine its involvement in developing resistance in prawn against WSSV. In proPO gene-silenced prawn, 100% mortality was observed after WSSV challenge whereas no mortality was observed in prawn injected with WSSV alone. The WSSV infection in gene-silenced prawn was confirmed by PCR, and its propagation was quantified by ELISA and real-time PCR at different time intervals. Real-time PCR assay revealed a significant reduction in the expression of proPO gene in WSSV-challenged proPO-silenced prawn when compared to normal prawn. Level of proPO was reduced significantly in the haemolymph of proPO-silenced prawn when compared to prawn injected with PBS.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Catecol Oxidase/genética , Precursores Enzimáticos/genética , Inativação Gênica , Palaemonidae/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Precursores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/enzimologia , Palaemonidae/genética
8.
Curr Aging Sci ; 14(1): 62-75, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite decades of research, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease remain a leading cause of disability worldwide, due to the insufficient reduction of disease burden by available medications. Recently, the benefits of dietary supplements like co-enzyme Q10 in neurodegenerative diseases have been reported. ; Aim: The protective effects of supplemental co-enzyme Q10 (CQ10) and possible additive benefits of CQ 10/Levodopa-Carbidopa (LD) in Chlorpromazine (CPZ)-induced Parkinsonism-like changes in mice were investigated. ; Methods: Male mice were assigned to ten groups of 30 mice each. Groups included: Vehicle control (fed Standard Diet (SD), and given intraperitoneal {ip} plus oral saline), LD group (fed SD, and given ip saline plus oral LD), two groups fed CQ10-supplemented diet (at 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed), and given ip plus oral saline, CPZ group (fed SD, and given ip CPZ plus oral saline), CPZ/LD group (fed SD, and given ip CPZ plus oral LD), two groups fed CQ10-supplemented diet (at 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed) and given ip CPZ plus oral saline, and another two groups fed CQ10-supplemented diet (at 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed) and given ip CPZ plus oral LD. The total duration of study was 21 days, and treatments were administered daily. Bodyweight and food intake were measured weekly, while neurobehavioural and biochemical tests were assessed at the end of the experimental period. ; Results: CQ10-supplementation was protective against CPZ-induced parkinsonism-like changes including, reduction in mortality, the reversal of retardation of open-field behaviours and reduction of catalepsy, increase in dopamine levels and decreased oxidative stress. CQ10 also showed significant improvements in these parameters when co-administered with LD. CQ10 (in groups administered CPZ/CQ10 60) showed greater benefit over LD on anxiety-related behaviours and also had additive benefits on working-memory. ; Conclusion: Dietary CQ10-supplementation was associated with demonstrable benefits in CPZinduced Parkinsonism-like changes in mice.

9.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129135, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302195

RESUMO

The surface of the g-C3N4 was altered by impregnating W6+ ions that transformed to homogeneously coated oxide layer by a calcination process. An enhanced absorption and the suppressed de-excitation in the emission spectra, with the increasing W6+ loading, exposed the supporting role of the coated layer in extending the spectral response as well as the prolonged life span of excitons. The same was further supported by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The XRD and XPS analysis revealed the coated layer as highly crystalline pure phase monoclinic WO3 with the majority of impregnated tungsten ions in 6+ oxidation state respectively, whereas the FESEM and HRTEM analysis substantiated the uniformity of the coated layer with the interlayer spacing of the 0.369 nm. Additionally, the probable formation of individual WO3 nanoparticles or clusters was ruled out. The as-synthesized impregnated photocatalysts, in comparison to pure g-C3N4, were subjected to natural sunlight exposure for the photocatalytic removal of chlorophenol derivatives (2-CP, 3-CP, 4-CP, 2,3-DCP, 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP and PCP) that revealed the 5 wt% coating as the optimum level for significant removal. The progress of the photocatalytic process was monitored by periodic HPLC analysis whereas ion chromatography (IC) was used for the estimation of released ions. The mineralization capability of the as-synthesized W6+ coated catalysts was measured by the time scale TOC measurements. As the formation of intermediates was indicated in HPLC analysis, selected samples were subjected to GC-MS analysis for the identification of the nature of intermediates. The variable degree of removal of chlorophenol derivatives signified the role of the position and orientation of Cl group. The kinetics of the removal process was evaluated with the calculation of rate constants. The results extracted from the analytical tools and the associated band edge potentials were correlated to speculate the probable mechanism as well as the identification of major reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in the removal process.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis , Catálise , Clorofenóis/análise , Óxidos , Luz Solar , Tungstênio
10.
Folia Biol (Praha) ; 66(3): 91-103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069188

RESUMO

The most recent genome-editing system called CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat system with associated protein 9-nuclease) was employed to delete four non-essential genes (i.e., Caeco1, Caidh1, Carom2, and Cataf10) individually to establish their gene functionality annotations in pathogen Candida albicans. The biological roles of these genes were investigated with respect to the cell wall integrity and biogenesis, calcium/calcineurin pathways, susceptibility of mutants towards temperature, drugs and salts. All the mutants showed increased vulnerability compared to the wild-type background strain towards the cell wall-perturbing agents, (antifungal) drugs and salts. All the mutants also exhibited repressed and defective hyphal growth and smaller colony size than control CA14. The cell cycle of all the mutants decreased enormously except for those with Carom2 deletion. The budding index and budding size also increased for all mutants with altered bud shape. The disposition of the mutants towards cell wall-perturbing enzymes disclosed lower survival and more rapid cell wall lysis events than in wild types. The pathogenicity and virulence of the mutants was checked by adhesion assay, and strains lacking rom2 and eco1 were found to possess the least adhesion capacity, which is synonymous to their decreased pathogenicity and virulence.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/fisiologia , Genes Fúngicos , Acetiltransferases/deficiência , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/fisiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cálcio/fisiologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Cátions/farmacologia , Adesão Celular , Ciclo Celular , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitinases/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Glucana Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase/farmacologia , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/deficiência , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/fisiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Reprodução Assexuada , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA/deficiência , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA/genética , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA/fisiologia , Virulência/genética
11.
Heart Views ; 21(2): 88-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014301

RESUMO

In 1992, the Brugada brothers published a patient series of aborted sudden death, who were successfully resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation (VF). These patients had a characteristic coved ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads on their 12-lead electrocardiogram with no apparent structural heart abnormality. This disease was referred to as "right bundle branch block, persistent ST-segment elevation, and sudden death syndrome." The term Brugada syndrome (BrS) was first coined for this new arrhythmogenic entity in 1996. BrS is more prevalent in Southeast Asian ethnic groups and was considered a familial disease due to the presence of syncope and/or sudden deaths in several members of the same family, however, the genetic alteration was only noted in 1998. The genetic characterization of BrS has proven to be challenging. The most common and well-established BrS genotype involves loss-of-function mutations in the SCN5A gene, but only represents between 15% and 30% of the diagnosed patients. Patients with BrS can present with a range of symptoms which can include syncope, seizures, and nocturnal agonal breathing due to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or VF. If these arrhythmias are sustained, sudden cardiac death may result. Despite the significant progress on the understanding of BrS over the last two decades, there remain a number of uncertainties and challenges; we present an update review on the subject.

12.
J Mol Model ; 26(10): 264, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914310

RESUMO

White spot disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) incurs a huge loss to the shrimp farming industry. Since no effective therapeutic measures are available, early detection and prevention of the disease are indispensable. Towards this goal, we previously identified a 12-mer phage displayed peptide (designated as pep28) with high affinity for VP28, the structural protein of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The peptide pep28 was successfully used as a biorecognition probe in the lateral flow assay developed for rapid, on-site detection of WSSV. To unravel the structural determinants for the selective binding between VP28 and pep28, we used bioinformatics, structural modeling, protein-protein docking, and binding-free energy studies. We performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of pep28-pIII model totaling 300 ns timescale. The most representative pep28-pIII structure from the simulation was used for docking with the crystal structure of VP28. Our results reveal that pep28 binds in a surface groove of the monomeric VP28 ß-barrel and makes several hydrogen bonds and non-polar interactions. Ensemble-based binding-free energy studies reveal that the binding is dominated by non-polar interactions. Our studies provide molecular level insights into the binding mechanism of pep28 with VP28, which explain why the peptide is selective and can assist in modifying pep28 for its practical use, both as a biorecognition probe and a therapeutic.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Multimerização Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 397: 122835, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446141

RESUMO

Owing to the promising photocatalytic performance, the sheet-like WO3 was modified by depositing nanostructured Co3O4 at the surface. The appearance of the varying dual absorption edges in the optical analysis exposed the composite nature of the synthesized materials. The structural analysis revealed the deposition of Co3O4 particles at the surface without altering the lattice of WO3 however, during the processing the cracking of disc was also evidenced. The FESEM and HRTEM analysis corroborated the uniform surface dispersion of Co3O4 nanoparticles. The co-existence of 2+ and 3+ oxidation states of Co in the deposited Co3O4 was examined by XPS analysis. The efficient trapping of excitons by Co3O4 surface entities was witnessed in the emission measurements whereas the same was authenticated by the photo-electrochemical chronopotentiometry. The Co3O4 loaded sheets exhibited substantially enhanced activity for the removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as compared to pure WO3 in the complete spectrum and visible region of natural sunlight exposure. The progress of the degradation process was monitored by HPLC whereas the degradation products were identified by GC-MS. The measurement and identification of the ion released during the photocatalytic process facilitated the estimation of the probable route and role of reactive oxygen species involved in the removal process. Although, the careful analysis of the findings from the analytical tools revealed the major involvement of hydroxyl radicals however, the role of superoxide anions was also exposed. An alternative mechanism of the generation of the superoxide radical involving the 2+ and 3+ oxidation states of Co was also proposed. The effect of the pH and the added concentration of H2O2 on the ease of removal process was also investigated.

14.
Chem Rev ; 120(14): 6358-6466, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939297

RESUMO

Li-ion batteries (LIBs), commercialized in 1991, have the highest energy density among practical secondary batteries and are widely utilized in electronics, electric vehicles, and even stationary energy storage systems. Along with the expansion of their demand and application, concern about the resources of Li and Co is growing. Therefore, secondary batteries composed of earth-abundant elements are desired to complement LIBs. In recent years, K-ion batteries (KIBs) have attracted significant attention as potential alternatives to LIBs. Previous studies have developed positive and negative electrode materials for KIBs and demonstrated several unique advantages of KIBs over LIBs and Na-ion batteries (NIBs). Thus, besides being free from any scarce/toxic elements, the low standard electrode potentials of K/K+ electrodes lead to high operation voltages competitive to those observed in LIBs. Moreover, K+ ions exhibit faster ionic diffusion in electrolytes due to weaker interaction with solvents and anions than that of Li+ ions; this is essential to realize high-power KIBs. This review comprehensively covers the studies on electrochemical materials for KIBs, including electrode and electrolyte materials and a discussion on recent achievements and remaining/emerging issues. The review also includes insights into electrode reactions and solid-state ionics and nonaqueous solution chemistry as well as perspectives on the research-based development of KIBs compared to those of LIBs and NIBs.

15.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 104: 103564, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816330

RESUMO

Since the 1990s White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has severely affected shrimp aquaculture worldwide causing a global pandemic of White Spot Disease (WSD) in penaeid culture. However, not all decapod species that can be infected by WSSV show the same susceptibility to the virus, thus raising interesting questions regarding the potential genetic traits that might confer resistance to WSSV. In order to shed light into the genetic markers of WSSV resistance, we employed a dual approach: i) we initially analysed the transcriptomes derived from the hepatopancreas of two species, the susceptible white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the refractory fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, both infected with WSSV. We found a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) belonging to the immune system (mostly anti-microbial peptides and haemolymph clotting components) that were generally up-regulated in M. rosenbergii and down-regulated in L. vannamei. Further, in both species we identified many up-regulated DEGs that were related to metabolism (suggesting a metabolic shift during the infection) and, interestingly, in L. vannamei only, we found several DEGs that were related to moult and suggested an inhibition of the moult cycle in this species following WSSV infection. ii) we then identified a limited number of genetic markers putatively linked with WSD tolerance by employing an ecological genomics approach in which we compared published reports with our own RNA-seq datasets for different decapod species infected with WSSV. Using this second comparative approach, we found nine candidate genes which are consistently down-regulated in susceptible species and up-regulated in refractory species and which have a role in immune response. Together our data offer novel insights into gene expression differences that can be found in susceptible and refractory decapod species infected with WSSV and provide a valuable resource towards our understanding of the potential genetic basis of tolerance to WSSV.


Assuntos
Hepatopâncreas/fisiologia , Palaemonidae/fisiologia , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Imunidade Inata/genética , Palaemonidae/virologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Transcriptoma
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 742-748, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001482

RESUMO

Abstract Citrus fruit production occupies a place of considerable importance in the economy of the world including Pakistan. Tristeza disease caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) exists in various forms that may or may not cause symptoms in the plants. The bioactive compounds and antioxidants are naturally present in plants and provide a defense mechanism that is generally accelerated in response to a stress. The objective of the present study was to target and analyze the citrus plants that were CTV positive to observe the changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of citrus (Sweet Oranges only). It was observed that in response to CTV infection, both the non-enzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoid, ascorbic acid, phenolic acid) and enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities showed an increasing trend overall. The profiling of antioxidants in response to a viral infection may help in the discovery of new biomarkers that can be used as a monitoring tool in disease management.


Resumo As frutas cítricas ocupam um lugar de considerável importância na economia do Paquistão, assim como o resto do mundo. A doença da tristeza causada pelo Vírus da Tristeza dos Citros (CTV) existe em várias formas que podem ou não apresentar sintomas nas plantas. Os compostos bioativos e antioxidantes estão naturalmente presentes nas plantas e fornecem um mecanismo de defesa que é geralmente acelerado em resposta a um estresse. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as alterações causadas pelo CTV nos antioxidantes enzimáticos e não enzimáticos de laranjas doces. Foi observado que, em resposta ao ataque de CTV, os antioxidantes não enzimáticos como flavonoides totais, ácido ascórbico, ácido fenólico e antioxidantes enzimáticos, como as atividades de catalase, superóxido dismutase e peroxidase, geralmente mostram uma tendência crescente. O perfil de antioxidantes em resposta a um ataque viral pode ajudar na descoberta de novos biomarcadores que podem ser usados ​​como uma ferramenta de monitoramento no gerenciamento de doenças.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Closterovirus/fisiologia , Citrus sinensis/enzimologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/classificação , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Catalase/análise , Peroxidase/análise
17.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(6): 1167-1175, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332917

RESUMO

Coastal salt marsh plants employ various combinations of morphological and physiological adaptations to survive under saline conditions. Little information is available on salinity tolerance mechanisms of Halopeplis perfoliata, a C3 stem succulent halophyte. We investigated the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant defence mechanisms of H. perfoliata under saline conditions (0, 150, 300 and 600 mM NaCl) in an open greenhouse. Optimal shoot succulence, projected shoot area and relative growth rate were obtained in the low (150 mm NaCl) salinity treatment, while growth was inhibited at the highest salinity (600 mm NaCl). The CO2 compensation point and carbon isotope composition of biomass confirmed C3 photosynthesis. Increases in salinity did not affect the photosynthetic pigment content or maximum quantum efficiency of PSII of H. perfoliata. Assimilation of CO2 (A) also remained unaffected by salinity. A modest effect on some gas exchange and photochemistry parameters was observed at 600 mm NaCl. With increasing salinity, there was a continual increase in respiration, suggesting utilisation of energy to cope with saline conditions. Under 300 and 600 mm NaCl, there was an increase in H2 O2 and MDA with a concomitant rise in AsA, GR content and CAT activity. Hence, H. perfoliata appears to be an obligate halophyte that can grow up to seawater salinities by modulating photosynthetic gas exchange, photochemistry and the antioxidant defence systems.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Amaranthaceae/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo
18.
Arch Virol ; 164(8): 2061-2082, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131427

RESUMO

White spot disease, caused by infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is a serious panzootic affecting prawn aquaculture. The disease has spread rapidly around the prawn-culturing regions of the world through a number of previously identified mechanisms. The ability to distinguish and trace strains of WSSV is of great benefit to identify, and then limit, the translocation routes of the disease. Here, we describe a novel genotyping method using 34 short tandem repeat regions of the viral genome concurrently. This technique is highly sensitive to strain differences when compared to previous methods. The efficacy of the described method is demonstrated by testing WSSV isolates from around the globe, showing regional genotypic differences. The differences in the genotypes were used to create a global minimum spanning network, and in most cases the observed relationships were substantiated with verification of transboundary movement. This novel panel of STR markers will provide a valuable epidemiological tool for white spot disease. We have applied this to an outbreak of the disease in Queensland, Australia, that occurred in 2016. While the results indicate that the source of this outbreak currently remains cryptic, the analyses have provided valuable insights with which to further study the origins of the strains involved.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/genética , Animais , Aquicultura , Austrália , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Penaeidae/virologia
19.
Braz J Biol ; 79(4): 742-748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017183

RESUMO

Citrus fruit production occupies a place of considerable importance in the economy of the world including Pakistan. Tristeza disease caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) exists in various forms that may or may not cause symptoms in the plants. The bioactive compounds and antioxidants are naturally present in plants and provide a defense mechanism that is generally accelerated in response to a stress. The objective of the present study was to target and analyze the citrus plants that were CTV positive to observe the changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of citrus (Sweet Oranges only). It was observed that in response to CTV infection, both the non-enzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoid, ascorbic acid, phenolic acid) and enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities showed an increasing trend overall. The profiling of antioxidants in response to a viral infection may help in the discovery of new biomarkers that can be used as a monitoring tool in disease management.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Citrus sinensis , Closterovirus/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/classificação , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Catalase/análise , Citrus sinensis/química , Citrus sinensis/enzimologia , Flavonoides/análise , Peroxidase/análise , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/virologia
20.
J Saudi Heart Assoc ; 31(2): 64-68, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618482

RESUMO

Obstructed "total anomalous pulmonary venous connection" mostly presents with respiratory distress secondary to pulmonary congestion. We report two very sick patients who were referred to our cardiac center for intervention to relieve vertical vein (VV) obstruction. Due to hemodynamic instability and associated morbidity, the decision in our combined meeting was to go for interventional cardiac catheterization.

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