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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 53(2): 62-4, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12705486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and complications of percutaneous gastrostomy catheter placementunder flouro guidance for long-term enteral feeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 1998 to May 2002, 23 patients who had percutaneous gastrostomy catheter placement were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical indications for catheter placement included patients with neurologic disease, head and neck malignancy, and pulmonary disease patients. Placement of 12 - 14 Fr gastrostomy catheter was then accomplished with the Seldinger technique. The technical success, procedural complications were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty seven procedures, including revisions, were performed. The success rate for catheter placement was 100%. Revision was necessary in 7 (30%) instances in 7 patients. There was one (3.8%) major and 4 (14.8%) minor complications. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopically directed percutaneous placement of gastrostomy catheters is a safe and effective procedure.


Assuntos
Gastrostomia/métodos , Radiografia Intervencionista , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Gastrostomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 51(9): 308-12, 2001 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11715902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bilary stenting with endoprosthesis is a palliative procedure to relieve malignant biliary obstruction. Percutaneous transhepatic technique has been employed whenever endoscopic technique was not possible or had failed. SETTING: Angiography/intervention suite, department of radiology, Aga Khan University hospital, Karachi. METHODS: We present retrospective analysis of 17 patients with malignant jaundice who were treated with percutaneous techniques after the endoscopic route had failed. RESULTS: The success rate was 94% with placement of single plastic stent in 14 patients, double stents in 3 patients and self-expandable stent in one patient. The overall complication rate was 41% including sepsis, liver abscess, biloma formation, biliary leakage and stent occlusion. There was one procedure related death due to severe sepsis. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting is an alternative procedure to relieve malignant biliary obstruction with high complication rate and should be reserved for selected patients in whom endoscopic route has failed.


Assuntos
Colestase Extra-Hepática/terapia , Stents , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colestase Extra-Hepática/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 40(10): 243-5, 1990 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2123262

RESUMO

Blood glucose concentrations were measured in 104 children aged 6 months- 10 years (mean 3.1 years) undergoing inpatient anaesthesia. The mean fasting period was 10.87 +/- 2.68 hours. Mean preanaesthetic and 1/2 hour post-anaesthetic blood glucose levels were 4.8 +/- 0.8 and 6.1 +/- 1.9 mmoles/L respectively. Pre- anaesthetic low blood glucose level (2.7-3.3 mmoles/L) could only be detected in 3.8% cases. Post-anaesthetic increase in blood glucose level was the same as reported in adults.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
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