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1.
Spinal Cord ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013548

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective multi-center trial. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the complication profile associated with modest systemic hypothermia after acute cervical SCI in a prospective multi-center study. SETTING: Five trauma centers in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective, multi-center trial on the use of modest systemic hypothermia for acute cervical SCI. Patients with acute cervical SCI were assigned to receive modest systemic hypothermia (33 C) or standard of care medical treatment. Patients in the hypothermia group were cooled to 33 C and maintained at the target temperature for 48 h. Complication profile and the rate of complications within the first 6 weeks after injury were compared between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors for complications after injury. RESULTS: Fifty patients (hypothermia: 27, control: 23) were analyzed for this study. Median age was significantly lower in the hypothermia arm (39 vs 59 years, p = 0.02). Respiratory complications were the most common (hypothermia: 55.6% vs control: 52.2%, p = 0.81). The rate of deep vein thrombosis was not significantly different between the two groups (hypothermia: 14.8% vs control 17.4%, p = 0.71). The rate of complications was not statistically different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In this prospective multi-center controlled trial, preliminary data show that modest systemic hypothermia was not associated with increased risk of complications within the first 6 weeks after acute cervical SCI. TRIAL INFORMATION: The study is registered on clinicaltrials.gov NCT02991690. University of Miami IRB (Central IRB) approval No.: 20160758. Emory University IRB #IRB00093786.

2.
J Orthop Traumatol ; 23(1): 2, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989884

RESUMO

Electrical stimulation is used to elicit muscle contraction and can be utilized for neurorehabilitation following spinal cord injury when paired with voluntary motor training. This technology is now an important therapeutic intervention that results in improvement in motor function in patients with spinal cord injuries. The purpose of this review is to summarize the various forms of electrical stimulation technology that exist and their applications. Furthermore, this paper addresses the potential future of the technology.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia
3.
Global Spine J ; : 21925682211047546, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879754

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Survey. INTRODUCTION: AO Spine Research Objectives and Common Data Elements for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (RECODE-DCM) is an international initiative that aims to accelerate knowledge discovery and improve outcomes by developing a consensus framework for research. This includes defining the top research priorities, an index term and a minimum data set (core outcome set and core data elements set - core outcome set (COS)/core data elements (CDE)). OBJECTIVE: To describe how perspectives were gathered and report the detailed sampling characteristics. METHODS: A two-stage, electronic survey was used to gather and seek initial consensus. Perspectives were sought from spinal surgeons, other healthcare professionals and people with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). Participants were allocated to one of two parallel streams: (1) priority setting or (2) minimum dataset. An email campaign was developed to advertise the survey to relevant global stakeholder individuals and organisations. People with DCM were recruited using the international DCM charity Myelopathy.org and its social media channels. A network of global partners was recruited to act as project ambassadors. Data from Google Analytics, MailChimp and Calibrum helped optimise survey dissemination. RESULTS: Survey engagement was high amongst the three stakeholder groups: 208 people with DCM, 389 spinal surgeons and 157 other healthcare professionals. Individuals from 76 different countries participated; the United States, United Kingdom and Canada were the most common countries of participants. CONCLUSION: AO Spine RECODE-DCM recruited a diverse and sufficient number of participants for an international PSP and COS/CDE process. Whilst PSP and COS/CDE have been undertaken in other fields, to our knowledge, this is the first time they have been combined in one process.

4.
Global Spine J ; : 21925682211063854, 2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971524

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Narrative Review. OBJECTIVE: To (i) discuss why assessment and monitoring of disease progression is critical in Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM); (ii) outline the important features of an ideal assessment tool and (iii) discuss current and novel strategies for detecting subtle deterioration in DCM. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Degenerative cervical myelopathy is an overarching term used to describe progressive injury to the cervical spinal cord by age-related changes of the spinal axis. Based on a study by Smith et al (2020), the prevalence of DCM is approximately 2.3% and is expected to rise as the global population ages. Given the global impact of this disease, it is essential to address important knowledge gaps and prioritize areas for future investigation. As part of the AO Spine RECODE-DCM (Research Objectives and Common Data Elements for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy) project, a priority setting partnership was initiated to increase research efficiency by identifying the top ten research priorities for DCM. One of the top ten priorities for future DCM research was: What assessment tools can be used to evaluate functional impairment, disability and quality of life in people with DCM? What instruments, tools or methods can be used or developed to monitor people with DCM for disease progression or improvement either before or after surgical treatment? CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing prevalence of DCM, effective surveillance of this population will require both the implementation of a monitoring framework as well as the development of new assessment tools.

5.
Global Spine J ; : 21925682211057484, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797993

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVE: The current review aimed to describe the role of existing techniques and emerging methods of imaging and electrophysiology for the management of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), a common and often progressive condition that causes spinal cord dysfunction and significant morbidity globally. METHODS: A narrative review was conducted to summarize the existing literature and highlight future directions. RESULTS: Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well established in the literature as the key imaging tool to identify spinal cord compression, disc herniation/bulging, and inbuckling of the ligamentum flavum, thus facilitating surgical planning, while radiographs and computed tomography (CT) provide complimentary information. Electrophysiology techniques are primarily used to rule out competing diagnoses. However, signal change and measures of cord compression on conventional MRI have limited utility to characterize the degree of tissue injury, which may be helpful for diagnosis, prognostication, and repeated assessments to identify deterioration. Early translational studies of quantitative imaging and electrophysiology techniques show potential of these methods to more accurately reflect changes in spinal cord microstructure and function. CONCLUSION: Currently, clinical management of DCM relies heavily on anatomical MRI, with additional contributions from radiographs, CT, and electrophysiology. Novel quantitative assessments of microstructure, perfusion, and function have the potential to transform clinical practice, but require robust validation, automation, and standardization prior to uptake.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682902

RESUMO

Prognostic factors for clinical outcome after spinal cord (SC) injury (SCI) are limited but important in patient management and education. There is a lack of evidence regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical outcomes in SCI patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether baseline MRI features predicted the clinical course of the disease. This study is an ancillary to the prospective North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) registry. Patients were enrolled from 2005-2017. MRI within 72 h of injury and a minimum follow-up of one year were available for 459 patients. Patients with American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS) E were excluded. Patients were grouped into those with (n = 354) versus without (n = 105) SC signal change on MRI T2-weighted images. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for commonly known a priori confounders (age and baseline AIS). Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was any adverse event. Secondary outcomes were AIS at the baseline and final follow-up, length of hospital stay (LOS), and mortality. A regression model adjusted for age and baseline AIS. Patients with intrinsic SC signal change were younger (46.0 (interquartile range (IQR) 29.0 vs. 50.0 (IQR 20.5) years, p = 0.039). There were no significant differences in the other baseline variables, gender, body mass index, comorbidities, and injury location. There were more adverse events in patients with SC signal change (230 (65.0%) vs. 47 (44.8%), p < 0.001; odds ratio (OR) = 2.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.35), p = 0.002). The most common adverse event was cardiopulmonary (186 (40.5%)). Patients were less likely to be in the AIS D category with SC signal change at baseline (OR = 0.45 (95% CI 0.28-0.72), p = 0.001) and in the AIS D or E category at the final follow-up (OR = 0.36 (95% CI 0.16-0.82), p = 0.015). The length of stay was longer in patients with SC signal change (13.0 (IQR 17.0) vs. 11.0 (IQR 14.0), p = 0.049). There was no difference between the groups in mortality (11 (3.2%) vs. 4 (3.9%)). MRI SC signal change may predict adverse events and overall LOS in the SCI population. If present, patients are more likely to have a worse baseline clinical presentation (i.e., AIS) and in- or outpatient clinical outcome after one year. Patients with SC signal change may benefit from earlier, more aggressive treatment strategies and need to be educated about an unfavorable prognosis.

7.
Clin Spine Surg ; 34(10): E575-E579, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561353

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This was a survey of the surgeon members of the Lumbar Spine Research Society (LSRS). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess trends in surgical practice and patient management involving elective and emergency surgery in the early months of the coronavirus pandemic. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The novel coronavirus has radically disrupted medical care in the first half of 2020. Little data exists regarding the exact nature of its effect on spine care. METHODS: A 53-question survey was sent to the surgeon members of the LSRS. Respondents were contacted via email 3 times over a 2-week period in late April. Questions concentrated on surgical and clinical practice patterns before and after the pandemic. Other data included elective surgical schedules and volumes, as well as which emergency cases were being performed. Surgeons were asked about the status of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus testing. Circumstances for performing surgical intervention on patients with and without testing as well as patients testing positive were explored. RESULTS: A total of 43 completed surveys were returned of 174 sent to active surgeons in the LSRS (25%). Elective lumbar spine procedures decreased by 90% in the first 2 months of the pandemic, but emergency procedures did not change. Patients with "stable" lumbar disease had surgeries deferred indefinitely, even beyond 8 weeks if necessary. In-person outpatient visits became increasingly rare events, as telemedicine consultations accounted for 67% of all outpatient spine appointments. In total, 91% surgeons were under some type of confinement. Only 11% of surgeons tested for the coronavirus on all surgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Elective lumbar surgery was significantly decreased in the first few months of the coronavirus pandemic, and much of outpatient spine surgery was practiced via telemedicine. Despite these constraints, spine surgeons performed emergency surgery when indicated, even when the COVID-19 status of patients was unknown. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

8.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S33-S41, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no current recommendations for preoperative pulmonary evaluation and management of patients undergoing elective spine surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this guideline is to determine preoperative risk factors for perioperative and postoperative pulmonary adverse events and to determine the optimal preoperative evaluation and management of at-risk patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database and the Cochrane Library for studies relevant to postoperative pulmonary adverse events in patients undergoing spine surgery. Clinical studies evaluating preoperative patient risk factors and preoperative diagnostic and treatment interventions were selected for review. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 152 abstracts relevant to the PICO (patient/population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes) questions included in this chapter. The task force selected 65 articles for full-text review, and 24 were selected for inclusion in this systematic review. Twenty-three articles addressed preoperative patient risk factors. One article addressed preoperative diagnostic studies of pulmonary function. There were no studies meeting the inclusion criteria for preoperative pulmonary treatment. CONCLUSION: There is substantial evidence for multiple preoperative patient factors that predict an increased risk of a postoperative pulmonary adverse event. Individuals with these risk factors (functional dependence, advanced age [≥65 yr], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, weight loss, and obstructive sleep apnea) who are undergoing spine surgery should be counseled regarding the potential increased risk of a perioperative and postoperative pulmonary adverse events. There is insufficient evidence to support any specific preoperative diagnostic test for predicting the risk of postoperative pulmonary adverse events or any treatment intervention that reduces risk. It is suggested, however, to consider appropriate preoperative pulmonary diagnostic testing and treatment to address active pulmonary symptoms of existing or suspected disease.The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/5-preoperative-pulmonary-evaluation-optimization.

9.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S1-S8, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorders in the United States have rapidly increased, yet little is known about the relationship between preoperative opioid duration and dose and patient outcomes after spine surgery. Likewise, the utility of preoperative opioid weaning is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this evidence-based clinical practice guideline is to determine if duration and dose of preoperative opioids or preoperative opioid weaning is associated with patient-reported outcomes or adverse events after elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the National Library of Medicine/PubMed database and Embase for studies relevant to opioid use among adult patients undergoing spine surgery. Clinical studies evaluating preoperative duration, dose, and opioid weaning and outcomes were selected for review. RESULTS: A total of 41 of 845 studies met the inclusion criteria and none were Level I evidence. The use of any opioids before surgery was associated with longer postoperative opioid use, and longer duration of opioid use was associated with worse outcomes, such as higher complications, longer length of stay, higher costs, and increased utilization of resources. There is insufficient evidence to support the efficacy of opioid weaning on postoperative opioid use, improving outcome, or reducing adverse events after spine surgery. CONCLUSION: This evidence-based clinical guideline provides Grade B recommendations that preoperative opioid use and longer duration of preoperative opioid use are associated with chronic postoperative opioid use and worse outcome after spine surgery. Insufficient evidence supports the efficacy of an opioid wean before spine surgery (Grade I).The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/1-preoperative-opioid-evaluation.

10.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S19-S25, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease that commonly affects the elderly. Degenerative spinal disease that may require surgical intervention is also prevalent in this susceptible population. If undiagnosed or untreated before spine surgery, osteoporosis may result in an increased risk of postoperative adverse events. Nontreatment of osteoporosis preoperatively may be related to a poor understanding of bone physiology, a lack of standardized treatment algorithms, limited cost-effective interventions, and reluctance by spine surgeons to be the primary provider of osteoporosis management. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this evidence-based review is to develop guidelines for the preoperative assessment and treatment of osteoporosis in patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the National Library of Medicine/PubMed database and Embase for studies relevant to preoperative diagnostic studies that predict increased risk of osteoporosis-related postoperative adverse events and whether the preoperative treatment of low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with osteoporosis improves outcome. RESULTS: Out of 281 studies, 17 met the inclusion criteria and were included for systematic review. The task force affirmed a Grade B recommendation that preoperative osteoporosis testing with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (T-score < -2.5), a computed tomography scan (Hounsfield units <97.9), and serum vitamin D3 level (<20 ng/mL) predict an increased risk of osteoporosis-related adverse events after spine surgery. The task force determined a Grade B recommendation that preoperative osteoporosis treatment with teriparatide increases BMD, induces earlier and more robust fusion, and may improve select patient outcomes. There is insufficient evidence regarding preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates alone and postoperative outcome. CONCLUSION: This evidence-based clinical guideline provides a recommendation that patients with suspected osteoporosis undergo preoperative assessment and be appropriately counseled about the risk of postoperative adverse events if osteoporosis is confirmed. In addition, preoperative optimization of BMD with select treatments improves certain patient outcomes.The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/3-preoperative-osteoporosis-assessment.

11.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S26-S32, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative malnutrition has been implicated in adverse events after elective surgery, potentially impacting patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: As a potentially modifiable risk factor, we sought to determine which assessments of nutritional status were associated with specific adverse events after spine surgery. In addition, we explored if a preoperative nutritional improvement intervention may be beneficial in lowering the rates of these adverse events. METHODS: The literature search yielded 115 abstracts relevant to the PICO (patient/population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes) questions included in this chapter. The task force selected 105 articles for full text review, and 13 met criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. RESULTS: Malnutrition, assessed preoperatively by a serum albumin <3.5 g/dL or a serum prealbumin <20 mg/dL, is associated with a higher rate of surgical site infections (SSIs), other wound complications, nonunions, hospital readmissions, and other medical complications after spine surgery. A multimodal nutrition management protocol decreases albumin and electrolyte deficiencies in patients with normal preoperative nutritional status. It also improves overall complication rates but does not specifically impact SSIs. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to assess nutritional status using either serum albumin or prealbumin preoperatively in patients undergoing spine surgery.The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/4-preoperative-nutritional-assessment.

12.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S9-S18, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient factors (increased body mass index [BMI], smoking, and diabetes) may impact outcomes after spine surgery. There is a lack of consensus regarding which factors should be screened for and potentially modified preoperatively to optimize outcome. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this evidence-based clinical practice guideline is to determine if preoperative patient factors of diabetes, smoking, and increased BMI impact surgical outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature for studies relevant to spine surgery was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database and the Cochrane Library. Clinical studies evaluating the impact of diabetes or increased BMI with reoperation and/or surgical site infection (SSI) were selected for review. In addition, the impact of preoperative smoking on patients undergoing spinal fusion was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 699 articles met inclusion criteria and 64 were included in the systematic review. In patients with diabetes, a preoperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7.5 mg/dL is associated with an increased risk of reoperation or infection after spine surgery. The review noted conflicting studies regarding the relationship between increased BMI and SSI or reoperation. Preoperative smoking is associated with increased risk of reoperation (Grade B). There is insufficient evidence that cessation of smoking before spine surgery decreases the risk of reoperation. CONCLUSION: This evidence-based guideline provides a Grade B recommendation that diabetic individuals undergoing spine surgery should have a preoperative HbA1c test before surgery and should be counseled regarding the increased risk of reoperation or infection if the level is >7.5 mg/dL. There is conflicting evidence that BMI correlates with greater SSI rate or reoperation rate (Grade I). Smoking is associated with increased risk of reoperation (Grade B) in patients undergoing spinal fusion.The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/2-preoperative-surgical-risk-assessement.

13.
J Clin Neurosci ; 92: 67-74, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509265

RESUMO

Errors in communication are a major source of preventable medical errors. Neurosurgical patients frequently present to the neuro-intensive care unit (NICU) postoperatively, where handoffs occur to coordinate care within a large multidisciplinary team. A multidisciplinary working group at our institution started an initiative to improve postoperative neurosurgical handoffs using validated quality improvement methodology. Baseline handoff practices were evaluated through staff surveys and serial observations. A formalized handoff protocol was implemented using the evidence based IPASS format (Illness severity, Patient summary, Action list, Situational awareness and contingency planning, Synthesis by receiver). Cycles of objective observations and surveys were employed to track practice improvements and guide iterative process changes over one year. Surveys demonstrated improved perceptions of handoffs as organized (17.1% vs 69.7%, p < 0.001), efficient (27.0% vs. 72.7%, p < 0.001), comprehensive (17.1% vs. 66.7%, p < 0.001), and safe (18.0% vs. 66.7%, p < 0.001), noting improved teamwork (31.5% vs. 69.7%, p < 0.001). Direct observations demonstrated improved communication of airway concerns (47.1% observed vs. 92.3% observed, p < 0.001), hemodynamic concerns (70.6% vs. 97.1%, p = 0.001), intraoperative events (52.9% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), neurological examination (76.5% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), vital sign goals (70.6% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), and required postoperative studies (76.5% vs. 100%, p < 0.001). Receiving teams demonstrating improved rates of summarization (47.1% vs. 94.2%, p = 0.005) and asking questions (76.5% vs 98.1%, p = 0.004). The mean handoff time during long-term follow-up was 4.4 min (95% confidence interval = 3.9-5.0 min). Standardization of handoff practices yields improvements in communication practices for postoperative neurosurgical patients.


Assuntos
Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente , Comunicação , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Erros Médicos , Período Pós-Operatório
14.
Neurospine ; 18(2): 389-396, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of guidelines for lumbar spine fusions among spine surgeons in North America. METHODS: An anonymous survey was electronically sent to all AO Spine North America members. Survey respondents were asked to indicate their opinion surrounding the suitability of instrumented fusion in a variety of clinical scenarios. Fusion indications in accordance with North America Spine Society (NASS) guidelines for lumbar fusion were considered NASS-concordant answers. Respondents were considered to have a NASS-concordant approach if ≥ 70% (13 of 18) of their answers were NASS-concordant answers. Comparisons were performed using bivariable statistics. RESULTS: A total of 105 responses were entered with complete data available on 70. Sixty percent of the respondents (n = 42) were considered compliant with NASS guidelines. NASS-discordant responses did not differ between surgeons who stated that they include the NASS guidelines in their decision-making algorithm (5.10 ± 1.96) and those that did not (4.68 ± 2.09) (p = 0.395). The greatest number of NASS-discordant answers in the United States. was in the South (5.75 ± 2.09), with the lowest number in the Northeast (3.84 ± 1.70) (p < 0.01). For 5 survey items, rates of NASS-discordant answers were ≥ 40%, with the greatest number of NASS-discordant responses observed in relation to indications for fusion in spinal deformity (80%). Spine surgeons utilizing a NASS-concordant approach had a significant lower number of NASS-discordant answers for synovial cysts (p = 0.03), axial low back pain (p < 0.01), adjacent level disease (p < 0.01), recurrent stenosis (p < 0.01), recurrent disc herniation (p = 0.01), and foraminal stenosis (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study serves an important role in clarifying the rates of uptake of clinical practice guidelines in spine surgery as well as to identify barriers to their implementation.

15.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e382-e388, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Instrumented fusion procedures are essential in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disease to alleviate pain and improve neurological function, but they are being performed with increasing incidence and variability. We implemented a training module for neurosurgery residents that is based on evidence-based criteria for lumbar fusion surgery and measured its effectiveness in residents' decision making regarding whether patients should or should not undergo instrumented fusion. METHODS: The study design was a pretest versus posttest experiment conducted from September 2019 until July 2020 to measure improvement after formalized instruction on evidence-based guidelines. Neurosurgery residents of all training levels at our institution participated. A test was administered at the beginning of each academic year. The highest possible score was 18 points in each pretest and posttest. RESULTS: There was a general trend of test score improvement across all levels of training with a greater degree of change for participants with lower compared with higher pretest scores, indicating a possible ceiling effect. Paired t test demonstrated an overall mean score increase of 2 points (P < 0.0001), equivalent to an 11.11% increase (P < 0.0001). Stratified by training group, mean absolute change in test score was 2 (P = 0.0217), 1.67 (P = 0.0108), and 2.25 (P = 0.0173) points for junior, midlevel, and senior training groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating a targeted evidence-based learning module for lumbar spine fusion surgery can improve neurosurgery residents' clinical decision making toward a more uniform practice supported by published data.

16.
Spine J ; 21(11): 1839-1846, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: During spine surgery, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are often utilized to monitor both spinal cord function and spinal nerve root or plexus function. While there are reports evaluating the impact of anesthesia on the ability of MEPs to monitor spinal cord function, less is known about the impact of anesthesia on the ability of MEPs to monitor spinal nerve root and plexus function. PURPOSE: To compare the baseline monitorability and amplitude of MEPs during cervical and lumbar procedures between two cohorts based on the maintenance anesthetic regimen: a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) versus a regimen balanced with volatile inhalational and intravenous agents. STUDY DESIGN: Baseline MEP data from a total of 16,559 cervical and 6,196 lumbar extradural spine procedures utilizing multimodality intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) including MEPs between January 2017 and March 2020 were obtained from a multi-institutional database. Two cohorts for each region of spine surgery were delineated based on the anesthetic regimen: a TIVA cohort and a Balanced anesthesia cohort. PATIENT SAMPLE: Age 18 and older. Fellowship support for 65,000 for year 2021. OUTCOME MEASURES: Percent monitorability and amplitudes of baseline MEPs. METHODS: The baseline monitorability of each muscle MEP was evaluated by the IONM team in real-time and recorded in the patient's electronic medical record. The relation between anesthetic regimen and baseline monitorability was estimated using mixed effects logistic regression, with distinct models for cervical and lumbar procedures. Subsets of cervical and lumbar procedures from each anesthesia cohort in which all MEPs were deemed monitorable were randomly selected and the average peak-to-trough amplitude of each muscle MEP was retrospectively measured. Mixed-effects linear regression models were estimated (one each for cervical and lumbar procedures) to assess possible differences in average amplitude associated with anesthesia regimen. RESULTS: At the time of surgery, baseline MEPs were reported monitorable from all targeted muscles in 86.8% and 83.0% of cervical and lumbar procedures, respectively, for the TIVA cohort, but were reported monitorable in just 59.3% and 61.0% of cervical and lumbar procedures, respectively, in the Balanced cohort, yielding disparities of 27.5% and 22.0%, respectively. The model-adjusted monitorability disparity between cohorts for a given muscle MEP ranged from 0.2% to 16.6% but was smallest for distal intrinsic hand and foot muscle MEPs (0.2%-1.1%) and was largest for proximal muscle MEPs (deltoid: 10.8%, biceps brachii: 8.8%, triceps: 13.0%, quadriceps: 16.6%, gastrocnemius: 7.8%, and tibialis anterior: 3.7%) where the monitorability was significantly decreased in the Balanced cohort relative to the TIVA cohort (p<.0001). Relative to the TIVA cohort, the model-adjusted amplitude of an MEP in the Balanced cohort was smaller for all muscles measured, ranging from 27.5% to 78.0% smaller. Relative to the TIVA cohort, the model-adjusted amplitude of an MEP was significantly decreased (p<.01) in the Balanced cohort for the most proximal muscles (Percent smaller: deltoid: 74.3%, biceps: 78.0%, triceps: 54.9%, quadriceps: 54.8%). CONCLUSIONS: TIVA is the preferred anesthetic regimen for optimizing MEP monitoring during spine surgery. Inhalational agents significantly decrease MEP monitorability and amplitudes for most muscles, and this effect is especially pronounced for proximal limb muscles such as the deltoid, biceps, triceps, and quadriceps.

17.
Spine J ; 21(9): 1460-1472, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: High quality evidence is difficult to generate, leaving substantial knowledge gaps in the treatment of spinal conditions. Appropriate use criteria (AUC) are a means of determining appropriate recommendations when high quality evidence is lacking. PURPOSE: Define appropriate use criteria (AUC) of cervical fusion for treatment of degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Appropriate use criteria for cervical fusion were developed using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness methodology. Following development of clinical guidelines and scenario writing, a one-day workshop was held with a multidisciplinary group of 14 raters, all considered thought leaders in their respective fields, to determine final ratings for cervical fusion appropriateness for various clinical situations. OUTCOME MEASURES: Final rating for cervical fusion recommendation as either "Appropriate," "Uncertain" or "Rarely Appropriate" based on the median final rating among the raters. METHODS: Inclusion criteria for scenarios included patients aged 18 to 80 with degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. Key modifiers were defined and combined to develop a matrix of clinical scenarios. The median score among the raters was used to determine the final rating for each scenario. The final rating was compared between modifier levels. Spearman's rank correlation between each modifier and the final rating was determined. A multivariable ordinal regression model was fit to determine the adjusted odds of an "Appropriate" final rating while adjusting for radiographic diagnosis, number of levels and symptom type. Three decision trees were developed using decision tree classification models and variable importance for each tree was computed. RESULTS: Of the 263 scenarios, 47 (17.9 %) were rated as rarely appropriate, 66 (25%) as uncertain and 150 (57%) were rated as appropriate. Symptom type was the modifier most strongly correlated with the final rating (adjusted ρ2 = 0.58, p<.01). A multivariable ordinal regression adjusting for symptom type, diagnosis, and number of levels and showed high discriminative ability (C statistic = 0.90) and the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of receiving a final rating of "Appropriate" was highest for myelopathy (aOR, 7.1) and radiculopathy (aOR, 4.8). Three decision tree models showed that symptom type and radiographic diagnosis had the highest variable importance. CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate use criteria for cervical fusion in the setting of cervical degenerative disorders were developed. Symptom type was most strongly correlated with final rating. Myelopathy or radiculopathy were most strongly associated with an "Appropriate" rating, while axial pain without stenosis was most associated with "Rarely Appropriate."


Assuntos
Radiculopatia , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral , Fusão Vertebral , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Humanos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Global Spine J ; 11(1_suppl): 14S-22S, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890804

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Narrative Review. OBJECTIVES: The increasing cost of healthcare overall and for spine surgery, coupled with the growing burden of spine-related disease and rising demand have necessitated a shift in practice standards with a new emphasis on value-based care. Despite multiple attempts to reconcile the discrepancy between national recommendations for appropriate use and the patterns of use employed in clinical practice, resources continue to be overused-often in the absence of any demonstrable clinical benefit. The following discussion illustrates 10 areas for further research and quality improvement. METHODS: We present a narrative review of the literature regarding 10 features in spine surgery which are characterized by substantial disproportionate costs and minimal-if any-clear benefit. Discussion items were generated from a service-wide poll; topics mentioned with great frequency or emphasis were considered. Items are not listed in hierarchical order, nor is the list comprehensive. RESULTS: We describe the cost and clinical data for the following 10 items: Over-referral, Over-imaging & Overdiagnosis; Advanced Imaging for Low Back Pain; Advanced imaging for C-Spine Clearance; Advanced Imaging for Other Spinal Trauma; Neuromonitoring for Cervical Spine; Neuromonitoring for Lumbar Spine/Single-Level Surgery; Bracing & Spinal Orthotics; Biologics; Robotic Assistance; Unnecessary perioperative testing. CONCLUSIONS: In the pursuit of value in spine surgery we must define what quality is, and what costs we are willing to pay for each theoretical unit of quality. We illustrate 10 areas for future research and quality improvement initiatives, which are at present overpriced and underbeneficial.

19.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61(9): 1232-1242, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908635

RESUMO

Riluzole, a benzothiazole sodium channel blocker that received US Food and Drug Administration approval to attenuate neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in 1995, was found to be safe and potentially efficacious in a spinal cord injury (SCI) population, as evident in a phase I clinical trial. The acute and progressive nature of traumatic SCI and the complexity of secondary injury processes can alter the pharmacokinetics of therapeutics. A 1-compartment with first-order elimination population pharmacokinetic model for riluzole incorporating time-dependent clearance and volume of distribution was developed from combined data of the phase 1 and the ongoing phase 2/3 trials. This change in therapeutic exposure may lead to a biased estimate of the exposure-response relationship when evaluating therapeutic effects. With the developed model, a rational, optimal dosing scheme can be designed with time-dependent modification that preserves the required therapeutic exposure of riluzole.

20.
Clin J Sport Med ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment of traumatic brain injury in collision athletes, particularly those participating in American football. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases for publications between 1990 and 2019. The following search phrases were used: "concussion," "professional athletes," "collision athletes," "mild traumatic brain injury," "severe traumatic brain injury," "management of concussion," "management of severe traumatic brain injury," and "chronic traumatic encephalopathy." Publications that did not present epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, radiological evaluation, or management were omitted. Classic articles as per senior author recommendations were retrieved through reference review. RESULTS: The results of the literature review yielded 147 references: 21 articles discussing epidemiology, 16 discussing clinical presentation, 34 discussing etiology and pathophysiology, 10 discussing radiological evaluation, 34 articles for on-field management, and 32 articles for medical and surgical management. CONCLUSION: Traumatic brain injuries are frequent in professional collision athletes, and more severe injuries can have devastating and lasting consequences. Although sport-related concussions are well studied in professional American football, there is limited literature on the epidemiology and management of severe traumatic brain injuries. This article reviews the epidemiology, as well as the current practices in sideline evaluation, acute management, and surgical treatment of concussions and severe traumatic brain injury in professional collision athletes. Return-to-play decisions should be based on individual patient symptoms and recovery.

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