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1.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 651232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869287

RESUMO

We report on the fabrication and characterisation of graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) biosensors for the detection of Clusterin, a prominent protein biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrate using photolithographic patterning and metal lift-off techniques with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. Raman Spectroscopy was performed on the devices to determine the quality of the graphene. The GFETs were annealed to improve their performance before the channels were functionalized by immobilising the graphene surface with linker molecules and anti-Clusterin antibodies. Concentration of linker molecules was also independently verified by absorption spectroscopy using the highly collimated micro-beam light of Diamond B23 beamline. The detection was achieved through the binding reaction between the antibody and varying concentrations of Clusterin antigen from 1 to 100 pg/mL, as well as specificity tests using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFETs were characterized using direct current (DC) 4-probe electrical resistance (4-PER) measurements, which demonstrated a limit of detection of the biosensors to be ∼ 300 fg/mL (4 fM). Comparison with back-gated Dirac voltage shifts with varying concentration of Clusterin show 4-PER measurements to be more accurate, at present, and point to a requirement for further optimisation of the fabrication processes for our next generation of GFET sensors. Thus, we have successfully fabricated a promising set of GFET biosensors for the detection of Clusterin protein biomarker. The developed GFET biosensors are entirely generic and also have the potential to be applied to a variety of other disease detection applications such as Parkinson's, cancer, and cardiovascular.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 8(1)2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316718

RESUMO

We report on the development of label-free chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene field effect transistor (GFET) immunosensors for the sensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrate using photolithography with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. GFET channels were functionalised with a linker molecule to an immobile anti-hCG antibody on the surface of graphene. The binding reaction of the antibody with varying concentration levels of hCG antigen demonstrated the limit of detection of the GFET sensors to be below 1 pg/mL using four-probe electrical measurements. We also show that annealing can significantly improve the carrier transport properties of GFETs and shift the Dirac point (Fermi level) with reduced p-doping in back-gated measurements. The developed GFET biosensors are generic and could find applications in a broad range of medical diagnostics in addition to cancer, such as neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's ) and cardiovascular disorders.

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