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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256817, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364511

RESUMO

The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices


O objetivo básico deste estudo foi determinar a diversidade ictiofaunística do rio Panjkora nos distritos de Lower e Upper de Dir, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de peixes foram coletadas com redes de arrasto de março a setembro de 2020. Foram coletados 724 espécimes, classificados em 5 famílias, 14 gêneros e 18 espécies. Os resultados gerais revelaram que a maioria da ictiofauna do rio Panjkora contém 8 espécies da família Cyprinidae (56,49%), seguidas por 4 espécies de Nemacheilidae (24,44%), 2 espécies de Channidae (10,63%) e Sisoridae (7,04%) e 1 espécie de Mastacembelidae (1,38%). Entre todas as espécies de peixes, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16,57%) foi altamente predominante, seguida por Carassius auratus (11,87%) e Racoma labiata (9,66%), e elas foram relatadas como altamente abundantes, especialmente nos meses de abril, maio e junho. As espécies menos abundantes foram Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii e Mastacembelus armatus, que constituíram 2,48%, 2,20% e 1,38%, respectivamente, do total de peixes amostrados. O índice de diversidade de Simpson (1-D = 0,919), o índice recíproco de Simpson (1/D = 12,3876) e o índice de Shannon (H = 2,68) indicaram que o rio Panjkora contém um grupo bastante rico e diversificado de espécies de peixes. Os microplásticos mais altos foram observados no local 7 em comparação com outra área de estudo. Medidas de conservação devem ser tomadas como prioridade máxima para proteger e conservar o ambiente marinho e o patrimônio natural de novas perdas e extinção e para parar ou minimizar as perdas ocorridas por práticas de pesca irresponsáveis.


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Rios , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes , Microplásticos , Paquistão
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254161, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364527

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the most critical environmental parameters regarding fish physiology, modifying food intake and growth performance in many fish species. The present study has investigated the effects of different salinity levels on growth performance, feeding and survival of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer juveniles. Asian seabass juveniles were reared at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4), and 42 (T5) ppt salinity. Approximately eight hundred thirty fish individuals with an average weight of 1.24±0.52 g were randomly distributed (166 fish/Tank) in 5 concrete tanks (each tank 30×6×4 ft, volume 19,122 L) for forty days. Juveniles were initially fed 42% crude protein-containing diets at a rate of 6% of their body weight per day. The results showed that salinity level had a significant effect on the weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR), total biomass and health indices (p<0.05). The highest WG (39.11±1.49 g), ADWG (1.00±0.12 g), SGR (8.74±0.03% d-1) and lowest FCR (0.96±0.20) were observed with T3 treatment, which was significantly higher compared to other treatment groups (p<0.05). Among the health indices, the highest hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index were found with T3 treatment, significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found among the treatments in terms of survival rate (p>0.05), but the maximum survival rate (98.89±0.0%) was observed in the T3 and T2 treatments. The maximum level of crude proteins (19.99±1.4%) was found in the whole-body biochemical composition of Asian seabass juveniles in the T3 treatment group. The second-order polynomial regression showed that 20 ppt salinity is optimum for the best growth of Asian seabass. Thus, the present study recommends 20 to 36 ppt salinity for the commercial farming of Asian seabass under a closed aquaculture system.


A salinidade é um dos parâmetros ambientais mais críticos em relação à fisiologia dos peixes, modificando a ingestão de alimentos e o desempenho de crescimento em muitas espécies. O presente estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes níveis de salinidade no desempenho de crescimento, alimentação e sobrevivência de jovens espécies de robalos asiáticos Lates calcarifer, as quais foram criadas sob salinidade 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4) e 42 (T5) ppt. Aproximadamente 830 indivíduos de peixes com peso médio de 1,24 ± 0,52 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (166 peixes / tanque) em cinco tanques de concreto (cada tanque tinha 30 × 6 × 4 pés (9,1 x 1,8 x 1,2 metros), com volume de 19,12 litros) por 40 dias. Os peixes foram inicialmente alimentados com uma dieta contendo 42% de proteína bruta a uma taxa de 6% do seu peso corporal por dia. Os resultados mostraram que o nível de salinidade teve um efeito significativo no ganho de peso (GP), ganho de peso médio diário (GPMD), taxa de crescimento específico (TCE), taxa de conversão alimentar (TCA), taxa de sobrevivência (TS), biomassa total e índices de saúde (p < 0,05). O maior GP (39,11 ± 1,49 g), GPMD (1,00 ± 0,12 g), TCE (8,74 ± 0,03% d-1) e o menor TCA (0,96 ± 0,20) foram observados com o tratamento T3, que foi significativamente superior em comparação com os outros tratamentos (p < 0,05). Entre os índices de saúde, os maiores índices hepatossomáticos e viscerossomáticos foram encontrados no tratamento T3, significativamente superior do que os demais grupos (p < 0,05). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos quanto à TS (p > 0,05), mas a TS máxima (98,89 ± 0,0%) foi observada nos tratamentos T3 e T2. O nível máximo de proteína bruta (19,99 ± 1,4%) foi encontrado na composição bioquímica dos corpos dos jovens robalos asiáticos no grupo T3. A regressão polinomial de segunda ordem mostrou que a salinidade de 20 ppt é ótima para o melhor crescimento do robalo asiático. Assim, o presente estudo recomenda salinidade de 20 a 36 ppt para o cultivo comercial de robalo asiático em sistema de aquicultura fechado.


Assuntos
Animais , Aquicultura , Salinidade , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrevivência
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469349

RESUMO

Abstract The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r0.70; p 0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


Resumo O presente estudo examina as correlações entre 15 caracteres morfométricos e 10 caracteres merísticos e comprimento total (CT) de machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados de Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833), coletados do porto de Karachi, West Wharf, na costa de Karachi. As análises estatísticas das relações de regressão linear mostraram, principalmente, correlações fortes (r 0,70; p 0,05) entre o CT e a maioria dos caracteres morfométricos em machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados, exceto a altura da nadadeira peitoral e o comprimento da base da nadadeira pélvica, enquanto os caracteres merísticos foram constantes, indicando correlações fracas ou negativas (r 0,50; p > 0,05) com o CT. Portanto, de acordo com nossos resultados, existe uma relação direta entre o CT dos peixes e todos os caracteres morfométricos, que foram considerados os melhores indicadores de crescimento do padrão alométrico positivo em peixes. Além disso, a análise do teste t de duas amostras revelou (teste t; p > 0,05) que nenhum dimorfismo sexual foi relatado em A. vari. Assim, o presente estudo pode ser valioso na classificação sistemática, dimorfismo sexual e manejo dessa espécie na costa de Karachi.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469375

RESUMO

Abstract Salinity is one of the most critical environmental parameters regarding fish physiology, modifying food intake and growth performance in many fish species. The present study has investigated the effects of different salinity levels on growth performance, feeding and survival of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer juveniles. Asian seabass juveniles were reared at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4), and 42 (T5) ppt salinity. Approximately eight hundred thirty fish individuals with an average weight of 1.24±0.52 g were randomly distributed (166 fish/Tank) in 5 concrete tanks (each tank 30×6×4 ft, volume 19,122 L) for forty days. Juveniles were initially fed 42% crude protein-containing diets at a rate of 6% of their body weight per day. The results showed that salinity level had a significant effect on the weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR), total biomass and health indices (p 0.05). The highest WG (39.11±1.49 g), ADWG (1.00±0.12 g), SGR (8.74±0.03% d-1) and lowest FCR (0.96±0.20) were observed with T3 treatment, which was significantly higher compared to other treatment groups (p 0.05). Among the health indices, the highest hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index were found with T3 treatment, significantly higher than the other groups (p 0.05). No significant differences were found among the treatments in terms of survival rate (p>0.05), but the maximum survival rate (98.89±0.0%) was observed in the T3 and T2 treatments. The maximum level of crude proteins (19.99±1.4%) was found in the whole-body biochemical composition of Asian seabass juveniles in the T3 treatment group. The second-order polynomial regression showed that 20 ppt salinity is optimum for the best growth of Asian seabass. Thus, the present study recommends 20 to 36 ppt salinity for the commercial farming of Asian seabass under a closed aquaculture system.


Resumo A salinidade é um dos parâmetros ambientais mais críticos em relação à fisiologia dos peixes, modificando a ingestão de alimentos e o desempenho de crescimento em muitas espécies. O presente estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes níveis de salinidade no desempenho de crescimento, alimentação e sobrevivência de jovens espécies de robalos asiáticos Lates calcarifer, as quais foram criadas sob salinidade 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4) e 42 (T5) ppt. Aproximadamente 830 indivíduos de peixes com peso médio de 1,24 ± 0,52 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (166 peixes / tanque) em cinco tanques de concreto (cada tanque tinha 30 × 6 × 4 pés (9,1 x 1,8 x 1,2 metros), com volume de 19,12 litros) por 40 dias. Os peixes foram inicialmente alimentados com uma dieta contendo 42% de proteína bruta a uma taxa de 6% do seu peso corporal por dia. Os resultados mostraram que o nível de salinidade teve um efeito significativo no ganho de peso (GP), ganho de peso médio diário (GPMD), taxa de crescimento específico (TCE), taxa de conversão alimentar (TCA), taxa de sobrevivência (TS), biomassa total e índices de saúde (p 0,05). O maior GP (39,11 ± 1,49 g), GPMD (1,00 ± 0,12 g), TCE (8,74 ± 0,03% d-1) e o menor TCA (0,96 ± 0,20) foram observados com o tratamento T3, que foi significativamente superior em comparação com os outros tratamentos (p 0,05). Entre os índices de saúde, os maiores índices hepatossomáticos e viscerossomáticos foram encontrados no tratamento T3, significativamente superior do que os demais grupos (p 0,05). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos quanto à TS (p > 0,05), mas a TS máxima (98,89 ± 0,0%) foi observada nos tratamentos T3 e T2. O nível máximo de proteína bruta (19,99 ± 1,4%) foi encontrado na composição bioquímica dos corpos dos jovens robalos asiáticos no grupo T3. A regressão polinomial de segunda ordem mostrou que a salinidade de 20 ppt é ótima para o melhor crescimento do robalo asiático. Assim, o presente estudo recomenda salinidade de 20 a 36 ppt para o cultivo comercial de robalo asiático em sistema de aquicultura fechado.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469403

RESUMO

Abstract The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpsons diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpsons Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannons index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices


Resumo O objetivo básico deste estudo foi determinar a diversidade ictiofaunística do rio Panjkora nos distritos de Lower e Upper de Dir, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de peixes foram coletadas com redes de arrasto de março a setembro de 2020. Foram coletados 724 espécimes, classificados em 5 famílias, 14 gêneros e 18 espécies. Os resultados gerais revelaram que a maioria da ictiofauna do rio Panjkora contém 8 espécies da família Cyprinidae (56,49%), seguidas por 4 espécies de Nemacheilidae (24,44%), 2 espécies de Channidae (10,63%) e Sisoridae (7,04%) e 1 espécie de Mastacembelidae (1,38%). Entre todas as espécies de peixes, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16,57%) foi altamente predominante, seguida por Carassius auratus (11,87%) e Racoma labiata (9,66%), e elas foram relatadas como altamente abundantes, especialmente nos meses de abril, maio e junho. As espécies menos abundantes foram Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii e Mastacembelus armatus, que constituíram 2,48%, 2,20% e 1,38%, respectivamente, do total de peixes amostrados. O índice de diversidade de Simpson (1-D = 0,919), o índice recíproco de Simpson (1/D = 12,3876) e o índice de Shannon (H = 2,68) indicaram que o rio Panjkora contém um grupo bastante rico e diversificado de espécies de peixes. Os microplásticos mais altos foram observados no local 7 em comparação com outra área de estudo. Medidas de conservação devem ser tomadas como prioridade máxima para proteger e conservar o ambiente marinho e o patrimônio natural de novas perdas e extinção e para parar ou minimizar as perdas ocorridas por práticas de pesca irresponsáveis.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257023, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360225

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


O presente estudo examina as correlações entre 15 caracteres morfométricos e 10 caracteres merísticos e comprimento total (CT) de machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados de Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833), coletados do porto de Karachi, West Wharf, na costa de Karachi. As análises estatísticas das relações de regressão linear mostraram, principalmente, correlações fortes (r ≥ 0,70; p < 0,05) entre o CT e a maioria dos caracteres morfométricos em machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados, exceto a altura da nadadeira peitoral e o comprimento da base da nadadeira pélvica, enquanto os caracteres merísticos foram constantes, indicando correlações fracas ou negativas (r ≤ 0,50; p > 0,05) com o CT. Portanto, de acordo com nossos resultados, existe uma relação direta entre o CT dos peixes e todos os caracteres morfométricos, que foram considerados os melhores indicadores de crescimento do padrão alométrico positivo em peixes. Além disso, a análise do teste t de duas amostras revelou (teste t; p > 0,05) que nenhum dimorfismo sexual foi relatado em A. vari.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Arábia
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e259039, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37466508

RESUMO

Morphometric measurement and roosting ecology of Pteropus medius were aimed to find out in Mansehra district of KP, Pakistan. Total 3149 numbers of bats were found in eight biological spots visited; Baffa Doraha, Darband, Dadar, Jallu, Hazara University, Garhi Habibullah Chattar Plain and Jabori, in total 299 numbers of different species of trees including; Morus alba, Pinus raxburghi, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Morus nigra, Grevillea robusta, Brousonetia papyrifera, Platanus orientalis, Ailanthus altissima, Hevea brasiliensis and Populus nigra. Morphometric features were measured and found vary according to sex of the bats. The average wing span, wing`s length from tip of wing to neck, from thumb to tip of wing and the body`s length from head and claws were recorded to be 102.98 cm, 49.07cm, 28.7 cm and 22.78 cm respectively in males while 93.67 cm, 44.83cm, 24.78cm and 22.78 cm respectively in female bats. Mean circumference of the body including wings and without wing were measured as 22.78 cm and 17.29 cm in males and that of female were 20.07 cm and 16.9 cm. Average length of thumb 3.64 cm, ear`s length 3.1 cm, snout 5.62cm, eye length were 1.07 cm for both sexes and length between the feet in extended position were16.3 cm. Generally different measurement of males bodies were found to be greater than female such as mean body surface area, mass, volume and pressure were found to be 2691.79 cm2, 855.7gm,1236.4 ml and 295.77 dyne/ c m 3 for male and 2576.46 cm2, 852.71gm,1207 ml and 290.2 dyne/ c m 3 respectively for female. While weight and density for both males and females bats were same with mean of 8.59 newton and 0.701 g/m3. Findings of current reports can add valued information in literature about bats, which can be used for species identification and conservation.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão , Asas de Animais
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e272524, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37283392

RESUMO

The presence of microplastics in aquatic environments has raised concerns about their abundance and potential hazards to aquatic organisms. This review provides insight into the problem that may be of alarm for freshwater fish. Plastic pollution is not confined to marine ecosystems; freshwater also comprises plastic bits, as the most of plastic fragments enter oceans via rivers. Microplastics (MPs) can be consumed by fish and accumulated due to their size and poor biodegradability. Furthermore, it has the potential to enter the food chain and cause health problems. Evidence of MPs s ingestion has been reported in >150 fish species from both freshwater and marine systems. However, microplastic quantification and toxicity in freshwater ecosystems have been underestimated, ignored, and not reported as much as compared to the marine ecosystem. However, their abundance, influence, and toxicity in freshwater biota are not less than in marine ecosystems. The interaction of MPs with freshwater fish, as well as the risk of human consumption, remains a mystery. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of MPs on freshwater fish is still very limited. This study detailed the status of the toxicity of MPs in freshwater fish. This review will add to our understanding of the ecotoxicology of microplastics on freshwater fish and give subsequent research directions.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Água Doce
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e269504, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36790296

RESUMO

A recent examination of Philometra nematodes from mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal, 1775) from the Karachi coast, Kemari was done in the years 2021-2022. The present study reported three new species of genus Philometra (Costa, 1845) (Nematoda: Philometridae) Philometra kolachii, Philometra lutjani and Philometra kemarii. A total of 140 fish samples were examined, and 76 were infected. The intensity of infected fish was 54.28%. In Pakistan, literature on Philometrid nematodes is limited, therefore, this research would be helpful for the documentation and enhancement of nematods in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Dracunculoidea , Doenças dos Peixes , Perciformes , Animais , Paquistão , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes
10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e263540, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629637

RESUMO

This study was investigated to assess the effects of different traditional and commercial aqua feed on proximate composition, growth performance and survival rate of Labeo rohita reared in the composite semi-intensive culture system. The aqua feeds of various companies (AMG, Supreme, Aqua, Star Floating, Hi-Pro and Punjab feed) used as commercial feed. Farm made feeds were maize gluten and rice polish. For confidentiality, these feeds were randomly given code labels T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 and T8 which were only known to investigating staffs. There were two replicates for each treatment. In this experiment, higher growth rate was observed in T3 as compared to other treatments. Lesser weight gain was observed in the T1 ( 270.30 ± 0.5 ). The maximum body length ( 19.25 ± 2.19) was found in T3. Similarly, the minimum body length (5.97 ± 2.94) was seen in T2. FCR ratio (2.36 ± 0.01 ) was recorded in T3. Simultaneously, FCR (1.86 ± 0.002 ) was also recorded in T4 that is the perfect ratio for farmers. Higher SGR was noted in T3 (1.62 ± 0.05 ). Overall, T4 showed lesser SGR (1.05 ± 0.001 ). T4 showed the higher crude protein ( 28.66 ± 0.24 % ). In the body composition higher level of fat content was recorded in T3 ( 5.46 ± 0.33 %). These outcomes also proved that the rise in the dietary protein level and lipid content can improve the fish's body crude fats and protein level. Thus, based on growth performance, survival and proximate composition. It is concluded that T3 and T4 may be recommended for commercial culture of L. rohita.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Dieta , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469018

RESUMO

The present investigation was aimed to examine the concentrations of trace metals including e.g copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from nursery pond of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Bannu Hatchery of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the period from April 2018 to January 2019. The temperature and pH of each water sample were measured for the whole study duration. The concentration of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in collected water samples were measured in mg/liter by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The blank and standard solutions for device calibration Standard solutions i.e., 2.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 6.0 were used to measure the concentration of these metals in water samples to verify the measurements. The data was statistically analyzed on descriptive statistics (estimation of proportions and standard deviation) used to summarize mean concentration. The results obtained of both temperature and pH of water samples were found in ranged 10 to 36 0C and 7.0 to 8.44; whereas the size of fry stages was ranged from 4.0 to 56.0 mm in total length. The results of investigated metals found in pond water samples are in order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu, respectively. As optimum temperature and pH for grass carp were mostly between 15 0C and 30 0C and pH 6.5 to 8.0. It was concluded from obtained results that temperature, pH, and trace metals were found appropriate for the growth of Ctenopharyngodon idella from fry to fingerling stages, but the highest amount of zinc can cause its mortality. It is a preliminary study on grass carp culturing in Bannu fish hatchery so, it would provide useful information for model fish seed production unit in a hatchery.


A presente investigação teve como objetivo examinar as concentrações de metais traço, incluindo cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) em amostras de água coletadas de viveiro de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella) em Incubatório de Bannu de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa durante o período de abril de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. A temperatura e o pH de cada amostra de água foram medidos durante todo o período do estudo. A concentração de cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) nas amostras de água coletadas foi medida em mg / litro usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. As soluções em branco e padrão para as soluções padrão de calibração do dispositivo, ou seja, 2,0 mg, 4,0 mg e 6,0, foram usadas para medir a concentração desses metais em amostras de água para verificar as medições. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente em estatística descritiva (estimativa de proporções e desvio padrão) usada para resumir a concentração média. Os resultados obtidos tanto de temperatura quanto de pH das amostras de água variaram de 10 a 36 0C e 7,0 a 8,44, enquanto o tamanho dos estágios de alevinos variou de 4,0 a 56,0 mm no comprimento total. Os resultados dos metais investigados encontrados em amostras de água de lagoas são da ordem de Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu, respectivamente. A temperatura e o pH ótimos para a carpa-capim foram principalmente entre 15 0C e 30 0C e pH 6,5 a 8,0. Concluiu-se, a partir dos resultados obtidos, que temperatura, pH e traços de metais foram considerados adequados para o crescimento de Ctenopharyngodon idella desde os estágios de alevinos até alevinos, mas a maior quantidade de zinco pode causar sua mortalidade. É um estudo preliminar sobre a cultura da carpa-capim em incubatório de peixes Bannu, portanto forneceria informações úteis para modelo de unidade de produção de sementes de peixes em um incubatório.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cobre , Manganês , Níquel , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469237

RESUMO

Abstract The present investigation was aimed to examine the concentrations of trace metals including e.g copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from nursery pond of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Bannu Hatchery of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the period from April 2018 to January 2019. The temperature and pH of each water sample were measured for the whole study duration. The concentration of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in collected water samples were measured in mg/liter by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The blank and standard solutions for device calibration Standard solutions i.e., 2.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 6.0 were used to measure the concentration of these metals in water samples to verify the measurements. The data was statistically analyzed on descriptive statistics (estimation of proportions and standard deviation) used to summarize mean concentration. The results obtained of both temperature and pH of water samples were found in ranged 10 to 36 0C and 7.0 to 8.44; whereas the size of fry stages was ranged from 4.0 to 56.0 mm in total length. The results of investigated metals found in pond water samples are in order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu, respectively. As optimum temperature and pH for grass carp were mostly between 15 0C and 30 0C and pH 6.5 to 8.0. It was concluded from obtained results that temperature, pH, and trace metals were found appropriate for the growth of Ctenopharyngodon idella from fry to fingerling stages, but the highest amount of zinc can cause its mortality. It is a preliminary study on grass carp culturing in Bannu fish hatchery so, it would provide useful information for model fish seed production unit in a hatchery.


Resumo A presente investigação teve como objetivo examinar as concentrações de metais traço, incluindo cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) em amostras de água coletadas de viveiro de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella) em Incubatório de Bannu de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa durante o período de abril de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. A temperatura e o pH de cada amostra de água foram medidos durante todo o período do estudo. A concentração de cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) nas amostras de água coletadas foi medida em mg / litro usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. As soluções em branco e padrão para as soluções padrão de calibração do dispositivo, ou seja, 2,0 mg, 4,0 mg e 6,0, foram usadas para medir a concentração desses metais em amostras de água para verificar as medições. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente em estatística descritiva (estimativa de proporções e desvio padrão) usada para resumir a concentração média. Os resultados obtidos tanto de temperatura quanto de pH das amostras de água variaram de 10 a 36 0C e 7,0 a 8,44, enquanto o tamanho dos estágios de alevinos variou de 4,0 a 56,0 mm no comprimento total. Os resultados dos metais investigados encontrados em amostras de água de lagoas são da ordem de Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu, respectivamente. A temperatura e o pH ótimos para a carpa-capim foram principalmente entre 15 0C e 30 0C e pH 6,5 a 8,0. Concluiu-se, a partir dos resultados obtidos, que temperatura, pH e traços de metais foram considerados adequados para o crescimento de Ctenopharyngodon idella desde os estágios de alevinos até alevinos, mas a maior quantidade de zinco pode causar sua mortalidade. É um estudo preliminar sobre a cultura da carpa-capim em incubatório de peixes Bannu, portanto forneceria informações úteis para modelo de unidade de produção de sementes de peixes em um incubatório.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469240

RESUMO

Abstract The water quality parameters of a fish pond are essential to be managing properly under control for successful operations of fish culture. Improper management of pond water quality during the juvenile stages can create stressful conditions to produce various harmful diseases, which may decrease the fish quality and results in low profits. The present study was aimed to monitored important water quality parameters of nursery ponds of Labeo rohita culturing in Bannu fish hatchery. The study duration was 75 days extends from 10th June to 24th August 2019 for the successful culture of this specie which can play a significant role in breeding season. Furthermore, the concentration of some heavy metals like copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in pond water and fry stages of this species was also determined. The data obtained from all water quality parameters were analyzed expressed as range, mean and standard deviation using MS Excel 2013. The obtained results of 75 days study revealed that the water pH & temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total dissolved oxygen (DO) of pond water samples were found within a tolerable limit except salinity and dissolved ammonia concentration were not permissible for fish growth. The average concentration of heavy metals in pond water exhibited descending order Fe>Ni>Mn>Zn>Cd>Ni, which was found in acceptable ranges. Whereas, the average values of heavy metals in fry stages were in the order of Zn>Fe>Ni>Cu>Cd>Mn, and found within the recommended values of WHO/FAO. Thus, it was concluded from this study that good water quality is a precondition, maintaining balanced levels of water quality parameters is fundamental for both the health and growth of fish culture which is quite necessary for assuring increased fish productivity. It is recommended to monitor and assess water quality parameters on a routine basis for promoting healthy fish culture.


Resumo Os parâmetros de qualidade da água de um viveiro de peixes são essenciais para um manejo adequado e sob controle para operações bem-sucedidas de piscicultura. O manejo inadequado da qualidade da água do tanque durante os estágios juvenis pode criar condições estressantes para a produção de várias doenças nocivas, o que pode diminuir a qualidade do peixe e resultar em baixos lucros. O presente estudo teve como objetivo monitorar importantes parâmetros de qualidade da água de viveiros de cultivo de Labeo rohita em incubadora de peixes Bannu. A duração do estudo foi de 75 dias, estendendo-se de 10 de junho a 24 de agosto de 2019 para o sucesso do cultivo dessa espécie que pode desempenhar papel significativo na época de reprodução. Além disso, a concentração de alguns metais pesados como cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), manganês (Mn), ferro (Fe), cádmio (Cd) e zinco (Zn) na água do tanque e estágios de fritura dessa espécie também foram determinados. Os dados obtidos de todos os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram analisados expressos como faixa, média e desvio padrão usando o MS Excel 2013. Os resultados obtidos de 75 dias de estudo revelaram que o pH e temperatura da água, condutividade elétrica, sólidos totais dissolvidos (TDS) e total de oxigênio dissolvido (OD) das amostras de água do lago foram encontrados dentro de um limite tolerável, exceto salinidade e concentração de amônia dissolvida não eram permitidas para o crescimento dos peixes. A concentração média de metais pesados na água da lagoa apresentou ordem decrescente Fe > Ni > Mn > Zn > Cd > Ni, que foi encontrada em faixas aceitáveis. Já os valores médios dos metais pesados nos estágios de fritura foram da ordem de Zn > Fe > Ni > Cu > Cd > Mn, e encontrados dentro dos valores recomendados pela OMS/FAO. Assim, concluiu-se deste estudo que a boa qualidade da água é uma condição prévia, manter níveis equilibrados dos parâmetros de qualidade da água é fundamental para a saúde e crescimento da piscicultura, o que é bastante necessário para garantir o aumento da produtividade piscícola. Recomendam-se monitorar e avaliar os parâmetros de qualidade da água em uma base rotineira para promover a piscicultura saudável.

14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245199, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355853

RESUMO

Abstract The present investigation was aimed to examine the concentrations of trace metals including e.g copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from nursery pond of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Bannu Hatchery of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the period from April 2018 to January 2019. The temperature and pH of each water sample were measured for the whole study duration. The concentration of Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn) in collected water samples were measured in mg/liter by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The blank and standard solutions for device calibration Standard solutions i.e., 2.0 mg, 4.0 mg, and 6.0 were used to measure the concentration of these metals in water samples to verify the measurements. The data was statistically analyzed on descriptive statistics (estimation of proportions and standard deviation) used to summarize mean concentration. The results obtained of both temperature and pH of water samples were found in ranged 10 to 36 0C and 7.0 to 8.44; whereas the size of fry stages was ranged from 4.0 to 56.0 mm in total length. The results of investigated metals found in pond water samples are in order of Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu, respectively. As optimum temperature and pH for grass carp were mostly between 15 0C and 30 0C and pH 6.5 to 8.0. It was concluded from obtained results that temperature, pH, and trace metals were found appropriate for the growth of Ctenopharyngodon idella from fry to fingerling stages, but the highest amount of zinc can cause its mortality. It is a preliminary study on grass carp culturing in Bannu fish hatchery so, it would provide useful information for model fish seed production unit in a hatchery.


Resumo A presente investigação teve como objetivo examinar as concentrações de metais traço, incluindo cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) em amostras de água coletadas de viveiro de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella) em Incubatório de Bannu de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa durante o período de abril de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. A temperatura e o pH de cada amostra de água foram medidos durante todo o período do estudo. A concentração de cobre (Cu), manganês (Mn), níquel (Ni) e zinco (Zn) nas amostras de água coletadas foi medida em mg / litro usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. As soluções em branco e padrão para as soluções padrão de calibração do dispositivo, ou seja, 2,0 mg, 4,0 mg e 6,0, foram usadas para medir a concentração desses metais em amostras de água para verificar as medições. Os dados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente em estatística descritiva (estimativa de proporções e desvio padrão) usada para resumir a concentração média. Os resultados obtidos tanto de temperatura quanto de pH das amostras de água variaram de 10 a 36 0C e 7,0 a 8,44, enquanto o tamanho dos estágios de alevinos variou de 4,0 a 56,0 mm no comprimento total. Os resultados dos metais investigados encontrados em amostras de água de lagoas são da ordem de Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu, respectivamente. A temperatura e o pH ótimos para a carpa-capim foram principalmente entre 15 0C e 30 0C e pH 6,5 a 8,0. Concluiu-se, a partir dos resultados obtidos, que temperatura, pH e traços de metais foram considerados adequados para o crescimento de Ctenopharyngodon idella desde os estágios de alevinos até alevinos, mas a maior quantidade de zinco pode causar sua mortalidade. É um estudo preliminar sobre a cultura da carpa-capim em incubatório de peixes Bannu, portanto forneceria informações úteis para modelo de unidade de produção de sementes de peixes em um incubatório.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Paquistão , Água , Lagoas , Pesqueiros
15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e264336, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169408

RESUMO

Environmental contamination with heavy metals is a threat to the organisms due to their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in food chains. The study was aimed to assess cadmium (Cd) effect on calcium (Ca) level in bones of a freshwater fish Channa gachua. 42 fish individuals were kept into six (6) aquaria; labelled aq.0, 1, 2, 3,4 and 5 in the laboratory for treatment. Aq.0 was control group and aq.1, 2,3,4,5 were experimental with treatment solution of Cd 0, 0.1ppm, 0.5ppm, 1ppm, 2.5ppm and 5ppm respectively for three months. After exposure, bones tissue were examined for Cd accumulation and Ca concentration. Highest accumulation of Cd were recorded in aq.5 mean 46.86 ± 0.46 mgkg-1 .and lowest in the control group with mean 0.61 ± 0.06 mgkg-1. The order of Cd bioaccumulation in bones were aq.5 > aq.4 >aq.3 > aq.2 > aq.1 > aq.0. Highest concentration of Ca were noted in aq.0 (Control group) mean 7888.06 ± 4827.22 mgkg-1 and lowest were 1132.36 ± 203.73 mgkg-1 in aq.5 (at 5.0 ppm). Generally a pattern of decreasing Ca level were observed with each rise of Cd bioaccumulation aq.0 > aq.1 > aq.2 > aq.3 > aq.4 > aq.5. Current study indicated that Cd accumulation have substantial effect on Ca level in bones and hence on skeleton system. Strict rules must be implemented by government to control metals pollution and exploitations of biota.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cálcio , Cálcio da Dieta , Peixes , Água Doce , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e258880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946728

RESUMO

The present investigation was aimed to examine the percentage quantity of protein and amino acids in scales and muscles of Pampus argenteus and Parastromateus niger gathered from the local fish market of district Quetta of Balochistan. About 80 specimens of these two species, i.e., Pampus argenteus (N=40) and Parastromateus niger (N = 40), were collected from April 2017 to May 2018. In general, crude protein content was high in scales, that is, 71.03% in Parastromateus niger and 52.11% in Pampus argenteus, as well as in muscles of two Pomfret species of fishes i.e., 63.44% in Pampus argenteus and 60.99% in Parastromateus niger on a dry-weight basis, respectively. Likewise, the muscles and scales of Parastromateus niger reveal well compositions of amino acids that include proline was found to be high, and methionine was less than other amino acids, whereas threonine was found high in the scales of Pampus argenteus, but methionine was observed in lesser amount. However, the amino acids found in Pampus argenteus muscles also showed different compositions, such as lysine was found to be high, but histidine was less, respectively. In comparison, amino acids like tryptophan and cysteine were not detected in both scales and muscles of these Pomfret species of fishes. Thus, this study was based on analyzing the utilization of both Pomfret species of scales and meat whether they could have values as good supplements of both protein and certain kinds of essential amino acids in animal diets.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Perciformes , Animais , Peixes , Metionina , Músculos , Níger
17.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e262603, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857953

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate the size at first sexual maturity (Lm) for 36 species belonging to 24 families from the marine habitat of Balochistan and Sindh in Arabian Sea, Pakistan through maximum length based an empirical and logistic model using commercial catch during June 2020 to May 2021. Individual total length (TL) was noted up to 0.1 cm using measuring broad. The Lm was calculated using two formulae; (i) log (Lm) = - 0.1246 + 0.9924 * log (Lmax) for Elasmobranchs and (ii) log (Lm) = -0.1189 + 0.9157* log (Lmax) for ray-finned fishes. The minimum Lm was recorded as 10.27 cm TL for Caranx malabaricus and 108.38 cm TL for Isurus oxyrinchus, respectively. Around Lm with 58.33% species were ranges from 19.00 cm to 25.00 cm TL. This study was estimated 16 newly Lm which is globally absent and rest 20 Lm are absent in the Arabian Sea (Pakistan coastal habitats). Therefore, the results will be helpful for the sustainable management and conservation of these marine fishes through the establishment of mesh size of trawl nets based on the size at sexual maturity (Lm).


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água , Animais , Peixes , Paquistão
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e262969, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894354

RESUMO

A 95-day feeding study was carried out to evaluate the impact of complete replacement of fish oil by plant oils in the growth performance, feed consumption fatty acid and body composition of juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus. There were four treatments i.e., A (fish oil diet), (linseed oil diet), C (soybean meal oil diet) and D (sunflower oil diet). The experimental trial was conducted in twelve 1.5-m3 fiber glass tanks (n=3). Spinefoot rabbitfish juveniles had an average initial weight of 0.948 g ± 0.124 g and they were stocked at 50 fish per tank. Fish fed diet A showed significantly better growth rate, final body weight, and total body weight than fish fed on the other diets. Moreover, the best FCR was observed for diet A followed by diet C and diets B and D had the worst FCR. Fish body composition for crude protein, dry matter, ashes and gross energy at the end of the trial had not differed between the treatments. The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was found in fish fed diet A followed in decreasing order by diets D, B, and C. Fish oil is a better dietary lipid source for Spinefoot rabbitfish juveniles, Siganus rivulatus, than plant oils. Among plant oils, soybean oil was better than linseed oil and sunflower oil as the main dietary fat source.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Óleos de Plantas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Peixes , Óleo de Semente do Linho/metabolismo , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Óleo de Girassol
19.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256817, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293545

RESUMO

The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Paquistão , Plásticos
20.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254161, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239786

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the most critical environmental parameters regarding fish physiology, modifying food intake and growth performance in many fish species. The present study has investigated the effects of different salinity levels on growth performance, feeding and survival of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer juveniles. Asian seabass juveniles were reared at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4), and 42 (T5) ppt salinity. Approximately eight hundred thirty fish individuals with an average weight of 1.24±0.52 g were randomly distributed (166 fish/Tank) in 5 concrete tanks (each tank 30×6×4 ft, volume 19,122 L) for forty days. Juveniles were initially fed 42% crude protein-containing diets at a rate of 6% of their body weight per day. The results showed that salinity level had a significant effect on the weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR), total biomass and health indices (p<0.05). The highest WG (39.11±1.49 g), ADWG (1.00±0.12 g), SGR (8.74±0.03% d-1) and lowest FCR (0.96±0.20) were observed with T3 treatment, which was significantly higher compared to other treatment groups (p<0.05). Among the health indices, the highest hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index were found with T3 treatment, significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found among the treatments in terms of survival rate (p>0.05), but the maximum survival rate (98.89±0.0%) was observed in the T3 and T2 treatments. The maximum level of crude proteins (19.99±1.4%) was found in the whole-body biochemical composition of Asian seabass juveniles in the T3 treatment group. The second-order polynomial regression showed that 20 ppt salinity is optimum for the best growth of Asian seabass. Thus, the present study recommends 20 to 36 ppt salinity for the commercial farming of Asian seabass under a closed aquaculture system.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Peixes , Água Doce , Humanos , Salinidade
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