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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.

2.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e934528, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare neurological disorder with a complex physiopathology that is not fully understood. Suggested underlying mechanisms include failure of autoregulation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. It is characterized by reversible multifocal constriction of the cerebral arteries, and can be triggered by many conditions, including, vasoactive medications (eg, triptans), cerebrovascular events, primary headache disorders, and metabolic causes (eg, hypercalcemia). RCVS can also be associated with pregnancy-related conditions, such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia. Thunderclap headache is the most common clinical manifestation; however, other symptoms can result from complications of the disease, such as stroke, brain edema, and seizures. Several case reports have been published of an association between RCVS and eclampsia, but to the best of our knowledge, only 3 cases were successfully treated with intravenous milrinone and this is the only patient reported in Saudi Arabia. CASE REPORT We report a case of 25-year-old primigravida woman who presented with acute-onset headache, nausea, elevated blood pressure, and generalized tonic clonic seizure. She was diagnosed as having RCVS secondary to eclampsia based on clinical and radiological features. She was initially started on nimodipine, which is usually the first-line management of RCVS, as well as magnesium sulfate and levetiracetam; however, she only achieved full recovery after starting intravenous milrinone. CONCLUSIONS Milrinone is one of the emerging drugs for treatment of RCVS, and this case report delineates the potential of using the drug, especially in cases refractory to standard therapy.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Eclampsia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários , Adulto , Eclampsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/etiologia , Humanos , Milrinona/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Vasoconstrição
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 546, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host population structure is a key determinant of pathogen and infectious disease transmission patterns. Pathogen phylogenetic trees are useful tools to reveal the population structure underlying an epidemic. Determining whether a population is structured or not is useful in informing the type of phylogenetic methods to be used in a given study. We employ tree statistics derived from phylogenetic trees and machine learning classification techniques to reveal an underlying population structure. RESULTS: In this paper, we simulate phylogenetic trees from both structured and non-structured host populations. We compute eight statistics for the simulated trees, which are: the number of cherries; Sackin, Colless and total cophenetic indices; ladder length; maximum depth; maximum width, and width-to-depth ratio. Based on the estimated tree statistics, we classify the simulated trees as from either a non-structured or a structured population using the decision tree (DT), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM). We incorporate the basic reproductive number ([Formula: see text]) in our tree simulation procedure. Sensitivity analysis is done to investigate whether the classifiers are robust to different choice of model parameters and to size of trees. Cross-validated results for area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves yield mean values of over 0.9 for most of the classification models. CONCLUSIONS: Our classification procedure distinguishes well between trees from structured and non-structured populations using the classifiers, the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cucconi and Podgor-Gastwirth tests and the box plots. SVM models were more robust to changes in model parameters and tree size compared to KNN and DT classifiers. Our classification procedure was applied to real -world data and the structured population was revealed with high accuracy of [Formula: see text] using SVM-polynomial classifier.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Algoritmos , Filogenia , Curva ROC
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378664

RESUMO

Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Linho , Biofilmes , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
5.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 174: 109791, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062400

RESUMO

Terrestrial radioactivity monitoring of 238U and 232Th series, and 40K in soil is an essential practice for radioactivity and radiation measurement of a place. In conventional practice, only basic data can be in-situ measured using a survey instrument, for example radioactivity concentration in soil and ambient dose equivalent rate. For other physical quantities, for example organ absorbed dose and organ equivalent dose, the measurement is impossible to be performed and can only be computed using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. In the past, most of the works only focused on calculating air-kerma-to-effective dose conversion factors. However, the information on organ dose conversion factors is scarcely documented and reported. This study was conducted to calculate organ absorbed and tissue-weighted equivalent dose conversion factors as a result of exposure from terrestrial gamma radiation. Series of organ dose conversion factors is produced based on computations from Monte Carlo MCNP5 simulations using modelled gamma irradiation geometry and established adult MIRD phantom. The study found out that most of the radiation exposed organs absorb energy at comparable rates, except for dense and superficial tissues i.e., skeleton and skin, which indicated slightly higher values. The good agreement between this work and previous studies demonstrated that our gamma irradiation geometry and modelling of gamma radiation sources are adequate. Therefore, the proposed organ dose conversion factors from this study are reasonably acceptable for dose estimation in environmental radioactivity monitoring practices.

6.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 53(3): 241-245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006053

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Airway management in patients with a cervical spine injury is a difficult and challenging task. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the Air-Q intubating laryngeal airway and the Ambu AuraGain laryngeal mask airway as a conduit for fibreoptic (FO) assisted endotracheal intubation in adult patients with a simulated cervical spine injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 66 adult patients underwent elective surgery under general anaes-thesia, and they were randomized to two groups: the Air-Q (AQ) group (n = 33) and the Ambu AuraGain (AA) group (n = 33). A simulated cervical spine injury was created using a cervical collar, which was applied after the induction of general anaesthesia. Ease of insertion, time taken for successful insertion, time taken for successful FO guided endotracheal intubation, oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP), Brimacombe score for FO laryngeal view, post-intubation complications and haemodynamic changes were recorded for both groups. RESULTS: The OLP was significantly higher in the AA group than in the AQ group (34.9 ± 6.4 vs. 28.6 ± 7.8 cm H 2 O; P = 0.001). Otherwise, there were no significant differences in the ease of insertion, time taken for successful insertion, time taken for successful FO guided endotracheal intubation, Brimacombe score for FO laryngeal view, haemodynamic parameters or complication rate between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Air-Q was comparably effective as Ambu AuraGain as a conduit for FO endotracheal intubation in patients with a simulated cervical spine injury; however, Ambu AuraGain has a better seal with significant OLP.


Assuntos
Máscaras Laríngeas , Adulto , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Vértebras Cervicais , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal
7.
Andrology ; 9(5): 1549-1559, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal human semen handling in vitro may induce sperm damage. However, the effects of semen swim-up, pellet swim-up, density gradient, and density gradient followed by SU on sperm motility, morphology, DNA fragmentation, acrosome reaction, intracellular reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial activity were not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of four sperm preparation techniques on sperm functional parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 60 infertile men with a minimum sperm concentration of 20 × 106 /ml and total sperm motility of ≥30%. Each raw semen sample was divided into four aliquots. Each aliquot was prepared by one of the tested techniques. Various sperm characteristics were assessed before and after sperm preparation. RESULTS: Density gradient and density gradient followed by SU resulted in significantly higher DNA fragmentation percentages compared with semen swim-up (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) and pellet swim-up (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Significantly higher percentages of spermatozoa with intact acrosome were detected in semen swim-up (p < 0.001) and pellet swim-up (p < 0.001) compared with raw semen. The percentage of reactive oxygen species-positive spermatozoa was significantly higher after pellet swim-up (p < 0.001), density gradient (p < 0.001), and density gradient followed by SU (p < 0.001) than raw semen. In addition, the percentages of 100% stained midpiece (active mitochondria) were significantly higher in semen swim-up (p < 0.001) and pellet swim-up (p < 0.001) compared with raw semen. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report comparing the impact of these techniques on various sperm functional parameters. Semen swim-up was more effective than density gradient in selecting better spermatozoa in terms of DNA integrity, reactive oxygen species levels, acrosome status, and mitochondrial activity. Randomized clinical trials comparing these four techniques are required to test their impact on embryo development and pregnancy outcomes.

8.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 21, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a common cause of death worldwide (Neumar et al., Circulation 122:S729-S767, 2010), affecting about 300,000 persons in the USA on an annual basis; 92% of them die (Roger et al., Circulation 123:e18-e209, 2011). The existing evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate (SB) for the treatment of cardiac arrest is controversial. We performed this study to summarize the evidence about the use of SB in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, until June 2019, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that used SB in patients with OHCA. Outcomes of interest were the rate of survival to discharge, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), sustained ROSC, and good neurological outcomes at discharge. Odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled in a random or fixed meta-analysis model. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies (four RCTs and 10 observational studies) enrolling 28,412 patients were included; of them, eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled estimate did not favor SB or control in terms of survival rate at discharge (OR= 0.66, 95% CI [0.18, 2.44], p=0.53) and ROSC rate (OR= 1.54, 95% CI [0.38, 6.27], p=0.54), while the pooled estimate of two studies showed that SB was associated with less sustained ROSC (OR= 0.27, 95% CI [0.07, 0.98], p=0.045) and good neurological outcomes at discharge (OR= 0.12, 95% CI [0.09, 0.15], p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The current evidence demonstrated that SB was not superior to the control group in terms of survival to discharge and return of spontaneous circulation. Further, SB was associated with lower rates of sustained ROSC and good neurological outcomes.

9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 529-533, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248949

RESUMO

RESUMO O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a prevalência geral de toxoplasmose em pavões de plumagem diferente e seu efeito nas enzimas de teste da função hepática dos hospedeiros. Um total de cem pavões de plumas diferenciais, como ombro preto (n = 52), azul (n = 28), branco (n = 10) e arlequim (n = 10) foram estudados no zoológico de Bahawalpur, no Paquistão, usando o Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) e ensaio imunossorvente ligado a enzima (ELISA). A prevalência geral por LAT e ELISA foi de 37% e 30%, respectivamente. Por LAT, observou-se uma prevalência não significativamente maior (P≥0,05) em gênero (37,77%) nos machos do que nas fêmeas (36,36%), enquanto os adultos apresentaram uma prevalência maior (37,97%) em relação aos jovens (33,33%). De acordo com o ELISA, uma prevalência significativamente (P <0,05) maior (35,55%) foi observada nos machos do que nas fêmeas (25,45%) e significativamente (P <0,05) maior prevalência (31,64%) foi registrada nos adultos do que nos jovens (23,80%). A análise do perfil bioquímico sérico mostrou que o nível de bilirrubina não teve elevação significativa nos hospedeiros infectados, em comparação aos não infectados, enquanto a concentração de albumina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) foi significativamente (P <0,05) diferente nos hospedeiros infectados. Conclui-se que a toxoplasmose afeta as enzimas do teste da função hepática. Essa é uma pesquisa preliminar e requer mais pesquisas em todo o país, com populações e amostras maiores.

10.
Hum Reprod ; 36(5): 1175-1185, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532854

RESUMO

Assessments of sperm DNA damage are controversial because of perceived uncertainties over the relationship with pregnancy and the limited range of therapies available should positive results be returned. In this article, we highlight recent data supporting a chain of associations between oxidative stress in the male germ line, DNA damage in spermatozoa, defective DNA repair in the oocyte, the mutational load carried by the resulting embryo and the long-term health trajectory of the offspring. Any condition capable of generating oxidative damage in spermatozoa (age, obesity, smoking, prolonged abstinence, varicocele, chemical exposures, radiation etc.) is capable of influencing offspring health in this manner, creating a range of pathologies in the progeny including neuropsychiatric disorders and cancer. If sperm DNA damage is detected, there are several therapeutic interventions that can be introduced to improve DNA quality prior to the use of these cells in ART. We therefore argue that infertility specialists should be engaged in the diagnosis and remediation of sperm DNA damage as a matter of best practice, in order to minimize the risk of adverse health outcomes in children conceived using ART.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Criança , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Oócitos , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(4): 1176-1185, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the risk of new persistent opioid use after cardiac surgery, postdischarge opioid use has not been quantified and evidence-based prescribing guidelines have not been established. METHODS: Opioid-naive patients undergoing primary cardiac surgery via median sternotomy between January and December 2019 at 10 hospitals participating in a statewide collaborative were selected. Clinical data were linked to patient-reported outcomes collected at 30-day follow-up. An opioid prescribing recommendation stratified by inpatient opioid use on the day before discharge (0, 1-3, or ≥4 pills) was implemented in July 2019. Interrupted time-series analyses were performed for prescription size and postdischarge opioid use before (January to June) and after (July to December) guideline implementation. RESULTS: Among 1495 patients (729 prerecommendation and 766 postrecommendation), median prescription size decreased from 20 pills to 12 pills after recommendation release (P < .001), while opioid use decreased from 3 pills to 0 pills (P < .001). Change in prescription size over time was +0.6 pill/month before and -0.8 pill/month after the recommendation (difference = -1.4 pills/month; P = .036). Change in patient use was +0.6 pill/month before and -0.4 pill/month after the recommendation (difference = -1.0 pills/month; P = .017). Pain levels during the first week after surgery and refills were unchanged. Patients using 0 pills before discharge (n = 710) were prescribed a median of 0 pills and used 0 pills, while those using 1 to 3 pills (n = 536) were prescribed 20 pills and used 7 pills, and those using greater than or equal to 4 pills (n = 249) were prescribed 32 pills and used 24 pills. CONCLUSIONS: An opioid prescribing recommendation was effective, and prescribing after cardiac surgery should be guided by inpatient use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Medição da Dor , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Hum Reprod Update ; 27(2): 324-338, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse. It could be due to male or female factors, each requiring different treatment options. ART treatment exposes couples to numerous psychological stressors. Therefore, it has been recommended by the ESHRE Psychology and Counselling Guideline Development Group recently that psychosocial support should be offered as a complementary therapy during infertility treatments. In this context, the efficiency of different psychological interventions, such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), deep breathing (DB), and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), was evaluated in several clinical trials in terms of couples' mental health and pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The neurophysiology of CBT, DB and PMR, which are used in interventional studies, in both men and women undergoing ART, has not yet been fully elucidated. This review represents a comprehensive report, aiming to collate novel insights into the neurobiological processes and physiological mechanisms that occur during the practice of CBT, DB and PMR. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were interrogated to conduct this comprehensive literature review. The search was carried out using combinations of MeSH terms and keywords: infertility, assisted reproductive techniques, IVF, ICSI, emotions, psychological stress, cognitive behavioural therapy, mind-body therapies and relaxation. Relevant information related to the mechanism of action of stress management techniques were obtained from original articles and reviews published in English without taking into consideration the time of publication. Moreover, as it was not the major focus of the review, only recent systematic reviews (2015-2019) pinpointing the effects of psychological interventions on infertility treatment outcomes were also retrieved from the above-mentioned databases. OUTCOMES: CBT, DB and PMR may modify the activity of stress-related brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus, as demonstrated by functional MRI and electroencephalogram studies. Furthermore, applying these techniques was associated with mood improvements and a decline in stress biomarkers, and, hypothetically, reducing stress biomarkers attenuates the stress-induced effects on ART outcomes. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Increasing the knowledge of fertility staff, researchers and physicians regarding the mechanisms of action of these stress management techniques has several advantages. For instance, understanding the underlying neurophysiological pathways would assist practitioners to engage ART couples in the practice of these techniques. Also, it may enhance the quality of the support programmes and psychological research. Accordingly, this will ensure that these interventions reach their full potential and therefore improve clinical outcomes.

14.
Clin Transplant ; 34(12): e14091, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940925

RESUMO

A chronic immunosuppressed state as in solid organ transplant recipients is a reported risk factor for the novel 2019 coronavirus infection. Patients with a history of orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) at a tertiary care transplant center in Detroit, Michigan were retrospectively reviewed from March until May 2020. Clinical parameters and outcomes of 5 OHT recipients and one combined heart-lung recipient with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were obtained. The cohort was predominately African American males with median age of 59 years (interquartile range, 48.25-73.25). All patients were classified as having mild-moderate disease; none required intubation or ICU admission with no deaths. The most common presenting symptoms were fever and shortness of breath 83% (n = 5), followed by cough and chills 67% (n = 4). All admitted patients (n = 5) received hydroxychloroquine and 3 received high-dose steroids. Antimetabolites were held for 2 patients (33.3%). The calcineurin inhibitor trough goal was decreased in only 1 patient; 3 other patients, without change in goal, required calcineurin inhibitor dosage reduction. Two patients requiring readmission presented 7 and 23 days after initial symptoms onset. In conclusion, our experience with OHT patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus did not have an elevated risk of severe infection. Impact of modifying immunosuppression remains unclear.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Transplante de Coração , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Teste para COVID-19 , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1698-1704, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1131578

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and hematological effects of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goat in district Dera Ghazi Khan. Blood samples (n=204) were collected comprise goats (n=101) and sheep (n=103) alongwith age, gender and breeds of animals. Samples were collected randomly from 25 flocks of 7 different union council Viz. Vehova, Tibbi Qaisrani, Lakhani, Kohar, Tuman Qaisrani, Nutkani and Kot Qaisrani of Tehsil Taunsa Sharif at least 4 animals from each flock. All ruminants divide into three groups based on age, breed and gender. The prevalence was detected through two different kits Viz. LAT and ELISA kit. The overall prevalence suspected in goats through LAT and ELISA kit was (35.64%), (32.67%) and in sheep was (25.24%), (23.30%) respectively. The Toxoplasma gondii had a significant effect on goats in age groups and non-significant all other groups of goats and sheep. Toxoplasma gondii had a significant effect on all hematological parameters like Hemoglobin, total leukocyte cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, and red blood cells, except monocytes. In conclusion of the current study, toxoplasmosis is prevalent among ruminants, reveals the possibility of transmission to humans on the use of host animals as protein source.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e efeitos hematológicos de Toxoplasma gondii em ovelhas e cabras no distrito Dera Ghazi Khan. Amostras de sangue (n=204) foram coletadas para incluir cabras (n=101) e ovelhas (n=103), além de idade, gênero e raça dos animais. Amostras foram coletadas aleatoriamente de 25 rebanhos de 7 conselhos sindicais: Vehova, Tibbi Qaisrani, Lakhani, Kohar, Tuman Qaisrani, Nutkani e Kot Qaisrani of Tehsil Taunsa Sharif com pelo menos 4 animais em cada rebanho. Todos os ruminantes foram divididos em três grupos baseados em idade, raça e gênero. A prevalência foi detectada usando dois kits, LAT e ELISA. A prevalência total suspeita em cabras através dos kits LAT e ELISA foi (35.64%), (32.67%) e em ovelhas foi (25.24%), (23.30%) respectivamente. O Toxoplasma gondii teve efeito significativo em cabras em grupos de idade e não significativo em todos os outros grupos de cabras e ovelhas. Toxoplasma gondii teve efeito significativo em todos os parâmetros hematológicos como hemoglobina, células totais de leucócitos, granulócitos, linfócitos, plaquetas e glóbulos vermelhos, exceto monócitos. O presente estudo conclui que toxoplasmose é prevalente entre ruminantes, e revela a possibilidade de transmissão para humanos com o uso de animais hospedeiros como fonte de proteína.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Cabras/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Paquistão , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência
16.
Ann Pharm Fr ; 78(3): 217-229, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the present study, an eco- friendly micellar liquid chromatographic technique was validated for separation and quantification of two drugs; namely ribavirin (RIV), and sofosbuvir (SBV) in pure form, pharmaceuticals containing them, human plasma and human urine. These drugs are administered co-administered for treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) that causes hepatitis C in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: These drugs were separated using Nucleosil 100-5 phenyl column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution (0.05M, pH 7.0) containing triethylamine (0.3%) and n-butanol (10%) was used as a mobile phase with 1.2 mLmin-1 flow rate and 215nm detection wavelength. Nine minutes were required for resolving the two drugs from the matrix. RESULTS: The method showed good linearity for RIV and SBV with correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0.9996 within the concentration ranges of (20-400) and (40-400) ngmL-1 in pure form, (30-300) and (50-300) ngmL-1 in human plasma and (20-400) and (40-400) ngmL-1 in human urine, respectively. CONCLUSION: The recommended method was applied for examination of RIV and SBV in pure and pharmaceuticals. The obtained results were statistically matched with reported methods with no significant differences. Also, the recommended method was effectively applied for estimation of both drugs in spiked human urine and plasma without purification or extraction steps and real samples of plasma and urine of humans having therapy of RIV and SBV, as well as, performing tablets dissolution-rate tests with satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Antivirais/análise , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/sangue , Antivirais/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ribavirina/análise , Ribavirina/sangue , Ribavirina/urina , Sofosbuvir/análise , Sofosbuvir/sangue , Sofosbuvir/urina , Solubilidade
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(1): 95-107, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313015

RESUMO

This study aimed at determining chicken genotypes of choice and traits preference in chicken by smallholder farmers in Nigeria. Data were obtained from a total of 2063 farmers using structured questionnaires in five agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Chi square (χ2) statistics was used to explore relationships between categorical variables. The mean ranks of the six genotypes and twelve traits of preference were compared using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis H (with Mann-Whitney U test for post hoc separation of mean ranks), Friedman, and Wilcoxon signed-rank (with Bonferroni's adjustments) tests. Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was used to assign farmers into groups. Gender distribution of farmers was found to be statistically significant (χ2 = 16.599; P ≤ 0.002) across the zones. With the exception of Shika Brown, preferences for chicken genotypes were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced by agro-ecological zone. However, gender differentiated response was only significant (P ≤ 0.01) in Sasso chicken with more preference by male farmers. Overall, FUNAAB Alpha, Sasso, and Noiler chicken were ranked 1st, followed by Kuroiler (4th), Shika Brown (5th), and Fulani birds (6th), respectively. Within genotypes, within and across zones and gender, preferences for traits varied significantly (P ≤ 0.005 and P ≤ 0.01). Traits of preference for selection of chicken breeding stock tended towards body size, egg number, egg size, and meat taste. Spearman's rank order correlation coefficients of traits of preference were significant (P ≤ 0.01) and ranged from 0.22 to 0.90. The two PCs extracted, which explained 65.3% of the variability in the dataset, were able to assign the farmers into two groups based on preference for body size of cock and hen and the other ten traits combined. The present findings may guide the choice of appropriate chicken genotypes while the traits of economic importance may be incorporated into future genetic improvement and conservation programs in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Galinhas/genética , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Animais , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Traços de História de Vida , Nigéria
18.
Indian J Microbiol ; 59(4): 525-529, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762517

RESUMO

Microsporidia are intracellular fungal parasites and they are the most common pathogens for sericulture. Microsporidian sp. can cause pebrine, a dreadful disease and lead to destructive disorder in Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer by vertical and horizontal transmission. This disease is the key factor obstructing the developmental progress of Muga culture in India. Nevertheless, molecular identification and characterization of pathogen associated with pebrine disease in A. assamensis is not yet established. Insect bioassay studies revealed that microsporidian infection in Muga silkworm, A. assamensis Helfer significantly reduced (P < 0.005) cocoon weight, pupal weight, shell weight and silk ratios. A new set of PCR primers suitable for amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) of microsporidia infecting A. assamensis have been designed. The amplicon was cloned, sequenced and analysed. Microsporidia pathogen of wild silk moth A. assamensis has been identified at genus level as Nosema sp. AA1. Phylogeny of Nosema sp. AA1 was constructed on the basis of SSU-rRNA sequence and it has a close evolutionary relationship with microsporidian pathogens of other wild silkmoths. The arrangement and organization of the rRNA genes inferred that Nosema sp. AA1 belongs to true Nosema group and not to members of the Nosema/Vairimorpha group.

19.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 56, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are a problem for cattle production mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, because they generate great economic losses. Acaricides and vaccines have been used to try to keep tick populations under control. This has been proven difficult given the resistance to acaricides and vaccines observed in ticks. Resistance to protein rBm86-based vaccines has been associated with the genetic diversity of Bm86 among the ectoparasite's populations. So far, neither genetic diversity, nor spatial distribution of circulating Bm86 haplotypes, have been studied within the Mexican territory. Here, we explored the genetic diversity of 125 Bm86 cDNA gene sequences from R. microplus from 10 endemic areas of Mexico by analyzing haplotype distribution patterns to help in understanding the population genetic structure of Mexican ticks. RESULTS: Our results showed an average nucleotide identity among the Mexican isolates of 98.3%, ranging from 91.1 to 100%. Divergence between the Mexican and Yeerongpilly (the Bm86 reference vaccine antigen) sequences ranged from 3.1 to 7.4%. Based on the geographic distribution of Bm86 haplotypes in Mexico, our results suggest gene flow occurrence within different regions of the Mexican territory, and even the USA. CONCLUSIONS: The polymorphism of Bm86 found in the populations included in this study, could account for the poor efficacy of the current Bm86 antigen based commercial vaccine in many regions of Mexico. Our data may contribute towards designing new, highly-specific, Bm86 antigen vaccine candidates against R. microplus circulating in Mexico.


Assuntos
Genes de Insetos , Variação Genética , Rhipicephalus/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Haplótipos , México , Filogenia
20.
Trop Biomed ; 36(3): 776-791, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597499

RESUMO

Malarial pathogenesis involves among others, uncontrolled or excessive cytokine production arising from dysregulated immune responses mounted by the host to eliminate the plasmodial parasite. The ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase3ß (GSK3ß) is a crucial regulator of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine productions in the inflammatory response to pathogenic infections. Andrographolide, a bioactive compound in Andrographis paniculata, displays GSK3- inhibitory effects. A previous study elsewhere has shown that this compound has antimalarial activity but the molecular basis of its action is yet to be elucidated. Here we aimed to study the anti-malarial activity of andrographolide in a murine model of malarial infection to investigate whether its mechanism of action involves cytokine modulation and inhibition of GSK3ß. Andrographolide showed strong and selective anti-plasmodial activity (IC50 = 13.70±0.71 µM; SI = 30.43) when tested against cultures of P. falciparum 3D7. Intraperitoneal administration of andrographolide (5 mg/kg body weight (bw)) into P. berghei NK65-infected ICR mice resulted in chemo-suppression of 60.17±2.12%, and significantly (P<0.05) improved median survival time of infected mice compared to nontreated control. In addition, andrographolide treatment significantly (P<0.05) decreased the level of serum pro-inflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ (1.4-fold) whilst the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and IL-4 were increased 2.3- and 2.6-fold respectively. Western blot analyses revealed that andrographolide treatment of P. berghei NK65-infected mice resulted in an increased level of phosphorylated GSK3ß (Ser9) in liver of infected mice. Andrographolide administration also decreased the levels of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (Ser536) and phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) in liver of malaria- infected animals. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the cytokine-modulating effect of andrographolide in experimental malarial infection involves at least in part inhibition of NF-κB activation as a consequence of GSK3ß inhibition. Based on its cytokine-modulating effects, andrographolide is thus a plausible candidate for adjunctive therapy in malaria subject to clinical evaluations.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Andrographis/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Malária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
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