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1.
IUCrJ ; 9(Pt 2): 231-242, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371507

RESUMO

Intensity-correlation measurements allow access to nanostructural information on a range of ordered and disordered materials beyond traditional pair-correlation methods. In real space, this information can be expressed in terms of a pair-angle distribution function (PADF) which encodes three- and four-body distances and angles. To date, correlation-based techniques have not been applied to the analysis of microstructural effects, such as preferred orientation, which are typically investigated by texture analysis. Preferred orientation is regarded as a potential source of error in intensity-correlation experiments and complicates interpretation of the results. Here, the theory of preferred orientation in intensity-correlation techniques is developed, connecting it to the established theory of texture analysis. The preferred-orientation effect is found to scale with the number of crystalline domains in the beam, surpassing the nanostructural signal when the number of domains becomes large. Experimental demonstrations are presented of the orientation-dominant and nanostructure-dominant cases using PADF analysis. The results show that even minor deviations from uniform orientation produce the strongest angular correlation signals when the number of crystalline domains in the beam is large.

2.
Langmuir ; 34(8): 2764-2773, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381863

RESUMO

Mesophase structures of self-assembled lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles are important factors that directly influence their ability to encapsulate and release drugs and their biological activities. However, it is difficult to predict and precisely control the mesophase behavior of these materials, especially in complex systems with several components. In this study, we report the controlled manipulation of mesophase structures of monoolein (MO) and phytantriol (PHYT) nanoparticles by adding unsaturated fatty acids (FAs). By using high throughput formulation and small-angle X-ray scattering characterization methods, the effects of FAs chain length, cis-trans isomerism, double bond location, and level of chain unsaturation on self-assembled systems are determined. Additionally, the influence of temperature on the phase behavior of these nanoparticles is analyzed. We found that in general, the addition of unsaturated FAs to MO and PHYT induces the formation of mesophases with higher Gaussian surface curvatures. As a result, a rich variety of lipid polymorphs are found to correspond with the increasing amounts of FAs. These phases include inverse bicontinuous cubic, inverse hexagonal, and discrete micellar cubic phases and microemulsion. However, there are substantial differences between the phase behavior of nanoparticles with trans FA, cis FAs with one double bond, and cis FAs with multiple double bonds. Therefore, the material library produced in this study will assist the selection and development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems with desired mesophase.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Álcoois Graxos/química , Glicerídeos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 71: 584-593, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27987748

RESUMO

Engineered nanoparticles with multiple complementary imaging modalities are of great benefit to the rapid treatment and diagnosis of disease in various organs. Herein, we report the formulation of cubosomes and hexosomes that carry multiple amphiphilic imaging contrast agents in their self-assembled lipid bilayers. This is the first report of the use of both near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging and gadolinium lipid based magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modalities in cubosomes and hexosomes. High-throughput screening was used to rapidly optimize formulations with desirable nano-architectures and low in vitro cytotoxicity. The dual-modal imaging nanoparticles in vivo biodistribution and organ specific contrast enhancement were then studied. The NIRF in vivo imaging results indicated accumulation of both cubosomes and hexosomes in the liver and spleen of mice up to 20h post-injection. Remarkably, the biodistribution of the nanoparticle formulations was affected by the mesophase (i.e. cubic or hexagonal), a finding of significant importance for the future use of these compounds, with hexosomes showing higher accumulation in the spleen than the liver compared to cubosomes. Furthermore, in vivo MRI data of animals injected with either type of lyotropic liquid crystal nanoparticle displayed enhanced contrast in the liver and spleen.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Nanopartículas/química , Imagem Óptica , Animais , Células CHO , Meios de Contraste/química , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Cricetulus , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células U937
4.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 72(Pt 12): 1254-1266, 2016 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27917826

RESUMO

Radiation damage is a major limitation to synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of biomacromolecules. Flowing the sample during exposure helps to reduce the problem, but its effectiveness in the laminar-flow regime is limited by slow flow velocity at the walls of sample cells. To overcome this limitation, the coflow method was developed, where the sample flows through the centre of its cell surrounded by a flow of matched buffer. The method permits an order-of-magnitude increase of X-ray incident flux before sample damage, improves measurement statistics and maintains low sample concentration limits. The method also efficiently handles sample volumes of a few microlitres, can increase sample throughput, is intrinsically resistant to capillary fouling by sample and is suited to static samples and size-exclusion chromatography applications. The method unlocks further potential of third-generation synchrotron beamlines to facilitate new and challenging applications in solution scattering.


Assuntos
Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Doses de Radiação , Tamanho da Amostra , Soluções/química , Síncrotrons/instrumentação , Difração de Raios X/instrumentação , Raios X
5.
Langmuir ; 32(27): 6882-94, 2016 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27315326

RESUMO

Nanostructured bicontinuous lipidic cubic phases are used for the encapsulation of proteins in a range of applications such as in meso crystallization of transmembrane proteins and as drug delivery vehicles. The retention of the nanoscale order of the cubic phases subsequent to protein incorporation, as well as retention of the protein structure and function, is essential for all of these applications. Herein synthetic peptides (WALP21, WALPS53, and WALPS73) with a common α-helical hydrophobic domain, but varying hydrophilic loop size, were designed to systematically examine the effect of peptide structure and charge on bicontinuous cubic phases. The effect of the cubic phases on the secondary structure of the peptides was also investigated. The incorporation of the WALP peptides in cubic phases formed by a range of lipids showed that hydrophobic mismatch of the peptides with the lipid bilayers, the hydrophilic domain size, and peptide charge were all significant factors determining the response of the lipid nanomaterial to protein insertion. As charge repulsion had the most significant effect on the phase transitions observed, we suggest that buffer pH and salt concentration must be carefully considered to ensure cubic mesophase retention. Importantly, the WALP peptides were found to have a different conformation depending on the local lipid environment. Such structural changes could potentially affect membrane protein function, which is crucial for both current and prospective applications.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
6.
Langmuir ; 32(18): 4509-20, 2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27023315

RESUMO

Self-assembled lyotropic liquid crystalline lipid nanoparticles have been developed for a wide range of biomedical applications with an emerging focus for use as delivery vehicles for drugs, genes, and in vivo imaging agents. In this study, we report the generation of lipid nanoparticle libraries with information regarding mesophase and lattice parameter, which can aid the selection of formulation for a particular end-use application. In this study we elucidate the phase composition parameters that influence the internal structure of lipid nanoparticles produced from monoolein, monopalmitolein and phytantriol incorporating a variety of saturated fatty acids (FA) with different chain lengths at varying concentrations and temperatures. The material libraries were established using high throughput formulation and screening techniques, including synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. The results demonstrate the rich polymorphism of lipid nanoparticles with nonlamellar mesophases in the presence of saturated FAs. The inclusion of saturated FAs within the lipid nanoparticles promotes a gradual phase transition at all temperatures studied toward structures with higher negative surface curvatures (e.g., from inverse bicontinuous cubic phase to hexagonal phase and then emulsified microemulsion). The three partial phase diagrams produced are discussed in terms of the influence of FA chain length and concentration on nanoparticle internal mesophase structure and lattice parameters. The study also highlights a compositionally dependent coexistence of multiple mesophases, which may indicate the presence of multicompartment nanoparticles containing cubic/cubic and cubic/hexagonal mesophases.

7.
Langmuir ; 31(44): 12025-34, 2015 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26488819

RESUMO

Lipidic bicontinuous cubic mesophases with encapsulated amphiphilic proteins are widely used in a range of biological and biomedical applications, including in meso crystallization, as drug delivery vehicles for therapeutic proteins, and as biosensors and biofuel cells. However, the effect of amphiphilic protein encapsulation on the cubic phase nanostructure is not well-understood. In this study, we illustrate the effect of incorporating the bacterial amphiphilic membrane protein Ag43, and its individual hydrophobic ß(43) and hydrophilic α(43) domains, in bicontinuous cubic mesophases. For the monoolein, monoalmitolein, and phytantriol cubic phases with and without 8% w/w cholesterol, the effect of the full length amphiphilic protein Ag43 on the cubic phase nanostructure was more significant than the sum of the individual hydrophobic ß(43) and hydrophilic α(43) domains. Several factors were found to potentially influence the impact of the hydrophobic ß(43) domain on the cubic phase internal nanostructure. These include the size of the hydrophobic ß(43) domain relative to the thickness of the lipid bilayer, as well as its charge and diameter. The size of the hydrophilic α(43) domain relative to the water channel radius of the cubic mesophase was also found to be important. The secondary structure of the Ag43 proteins was affected by the hydrophobic thickness and physicochemical properties of the lipid bilayer and the water channel diameter of the cubic phase. Such structural changes may be small but could potentially affect membrane protein function.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
8.
Nano Lett ; 15(6): 4229-33, 2015 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25984944

RESUMO

We present the first observation of Janus nanoparticles consisting of stable, coexisting ordered mesophases in discrete particles created by lipid self-assembly. Cryo-TEM images provided visual identification of the multicompartment Janus nanoparticles and, combined with SAXS data, confirmed the presence of mixed cubic phases and mixed cubic/hexagonal phases within individual nanoparticles. We further investigated computer visualization models to interpret the potential interface between the interconnected coexisting nanostructured domains within a single nanoparticle.

9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 317(2): 585-92, 2008 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17964590

RESUMO

Recently we have investigated the formation of novel thick, solid, mesostructured films of polymer/surfactant mixtures which form spontaneously at the air-solution interface. Here we report studies of the effect of adding a series of sparingly soluble species to the precursor solution, to alter the mesostructure of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/polyethylenimine films and to investigate the incorporation of small molecules within the films. Small-angle neutron scattering confirmed that cyclohexane and decane evenly swell the micelles in film forming solutions, while cyclohexanol extends the prolate micelles along their long axis. Although the presence of these additives in solution did not greatly affect the formation of the film, it was observed that they did influence the structure of the films. Films produced with decane consisted of a cubic phase rather the conventional 2-D hexagonal phase, whilst both cyclohexane and cyclohexanol enhance the level of ordering in low MW polymer films. Benzene was found to have no significant effect on the film.

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