*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(27): 16512-16521, 2022 Jul 13.*

##### RESUMO

We discuss and examine the stability, electronic properties, and transport characteristics of asymmetric monolayers XWGeN2 (X = O, S, Se, Te) using ab initio density functional theory. All four monolayers of quintuple-layer atomic Janus XWGeN2 are predicted to be stable and they are all indirect semiconductors in the ground state. When the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is included, a large spin splitting at the K point is found in XWGeN2 monolayers, particularly, a giant Rashba-type spin splitting is observed around the Γ point in three structures SWGeN2, SeWGeN2, and TeWGeN2. The Rashba parameters in these structures are directionally isotropic along the high-symmetry directions Γ-K and Γ-M and the Rashba constant αR increases as the X element moves from S to Te. TeWGeN2 has the largest Rashba energy up to 37.4 meV (36.6 meV) in the Γ-K (Γ-M) direction. Via the deformation potential method, we calculate the carrier mobility of all four XWGeN2 monolayers. It is found that the electron mobilities of OWGeN2 and SWGeN2 monolayers exceed 200 cm2 V-1 s-1, which are suitable for applications in nanoelectronic devices.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(31)2022 Jun 10.*

##### RESUMO

We present a theory of phonon-drag thermopower,Sxxg, in MoS2monolayer at a low-temperature regime in the presence of a quantizing magnetic fieldB. Our calculations forSxxgconsider the electron-acoustic phonon interaction via deformation potential (DP) and piezoelectric (PE) couplings for longitudinal (LA) and transverse (TA) phonon modes. The unscreened TA-DP is found to dominateSxxgover other mechanisms. TheSxxgis found to oscillate with the magnetic field where the lifting effect of the valley and spin degeneracies in MoS2monolayer has been clearly observed. An enhancedSxxgwith a peak value ofâ¼1mV K-1at aboutT = 10 K is predicted, which is closer to the zero field experimental observation. In the Bloch-Grüneisen regime the temperature dependence ofSxxggives the power-lawSxxgâTÎ´e, whereÎ´evaries marginally around 3 and 5 for unscreened and screened couplings, respectively. In addition,Sxxgis smaller for larger electron densityne. The power factor PF is found to increase with temperatureT, decrease withne, and oscillate withB. The prediction of an increase of thermal conductivity with temperature and the magnetic field is responsible for the limit of the figure of merit (ZT). At a particular magnetic field and temperature,ZTcan be maximized by optimizing electron density. By fixingne=1012cm-2, the highestZTis found to be 0.57 atT = 5.8 K andB = 12.1 T. Our findings are compared with those in graphene and MoS2for the zero-magnetic field.

*RSC Adv ; 12(21): 12971-12977, 2022 Apr 28.*

##### RESUMO

Due to the broken vertical symmetry, the Janus material possesses many extraordinary physico-chemical and mechanical properties that cannot be found in original symmetric materials. In this paper, we study in detail the structural, electronic, and transport properties of 1T Janus PdXO monolayers (X = S, Se, Te) by means of density functional theory. PdXO monolayers are observed to be stable based on the analysis of the vibrational characteristics and molecular dynamics simulations. All three PdXO structures exhibit semiconducting characteristics with indirect bandgap based on evaluations with hybrid functional Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06). The influences of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the band diagram of PdXO are strong. Particularly, when the SOC is included, PdTeO is calculated to be metallic by the HSE06+SOC approach. With high electron mobility, Janus PdXO structures have good potential for applications in future nanodevices.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(30)2022 May 26.*

##### RESUMO

We theoretically study the magneto-optical absorption coefficients (MOACs) and the refractive index changes (RICs) due to both intra- and inter-band transitions in topological insulator (TI) thin films. The interplay between Zeeman energy and hybridization contribution leads to a transition between the normal insulator phase and the TI phase. The difference in the optical response in these two phases as well as at the phase transition point has been analyzed. The influence of the electron density, magnetic field, and temperature on the MOACs and RICs in both intra- and inter-band transitions is investigated. Our results show that the electron density affects directly the threshold energy. At a finite temperature, the thermal excitation causes the triggering of some new transitions which do not appear atT= 0 K. Evidence of the half-peak feature of the first inter-band transition is also found in TI thin films.

*RSC Adv ; 12(13): 7973-7979, 2022 Mar 08.*

##### RESUMO

In this paper, the structural, electronic, and transport properties of Janus GaInX3 (X = S, Se, Te) single-layers are investigated by a first-principles calculations. All three structures of GaInX3 are examined to be stable based on the analysis of their phonon dispersions, cohesive energy, and Born's criteria for mechanical stability. At the ground state, The Janus GaInX3 is a semiconductor in which its bandgap decreases as the chalcogen element X moves from S to Te. Due to the vertical asymmetric structure, a difference in the vacuum level between the two surfaces of GaInX3 is found, leading to work functions on the two sides being different. The Janus GaInX3 exhibit high directional isotropic transport characteristics. Particularly, GaInX3 single-layers have high electron mobility, which could make them potential materials for applications in electronic nanodevices.

*ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(18): 21577-21584, 2022 May 11.*

##### RESUMO

The atomic, electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of penta-like two-dimensional PdPX (X = O, S, Te) nanosheets have been systematically investigated using density functional theory calculations. All three PdPX nanosheets exhibit dynamic and mechanical stability on the basis of an analysis of phonon dispersions and the Born criteria, respectively. The PdPX monolayers are found to be brittle structures. Our calculations demonstrate that the PdPX nanosheets exhibit semiconducting characteristics with indirect band gaps of 0.93 (1.99), 1.34 (2.11), and 0.74 (1.51) eV for X = O, S, Te, respectively, using the PBE (HSE06) functional, where PdPTe is the best material for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting. Our findings give important basic characteristics of penta-like two-dimensional PdPX materials and should motivate further theoretical and experimental investigations of these interesting materials.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(11)2021 Dec 31.*

##### RESUMO

Motivated by the recent successful synthesis of 2D quintuple-layer atomic materials, for the first time, we design and investigate the electronic and transport properties of Janus Al2XY2(X/Y = S, Se, Te; X ≠ Y) monolayers by using the density functional theory. Our calculations demonstrate that most of the models of Al2XY2(except for Al2STe2monolayer) are dynamically and mechanically stable. By using the hybrid functional, all models of Al2XY2are semiconductors with an indirect bandgap. Meanwhile, Al2TeS2monolayer is found to be metal at the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof level. Due to the vertical asymmetry structure, an intrinsic built-in electric field exists in the Al2XY2and leads to a difference in the vacuum levels between the two sides of the monolayers. Carrier mobilities of Al2XY2monolayers are high directional anisotropic due to the anisotropy of their deformation potential constant. Al2XY2monolayers exhibit high electron mobility, particularly, the electron mobility of Al2SeS2exceeds 1 × 104cm2V-1 s-1, suggesting that they are suitable for applications in nanometer-sized electronic devices.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(4)2021 Nov 04.*

##### RESUMO

Two-dimensional Janus monolayers have outstanding electronic and transport properties due to their asymmetric atomic structures. In the present work, we systematically study the structural, electronic, and transport properties of the Janus GaInX2(X= S, Se, Te) monolayers by using the first-principles calculations. The stability of the investigated monolayers is confirmed via the analysis of vibrational spectrum and molecular dynamics simulations. Our calculations demonstrate that while GaInS2and GaInSe2monolayers are direct semiconductors, GaInTe2monolayer exhibits the characteristics of an indirect semiconductor. The band gap of GaInX2decreases when the chalcogen elementXvaries from S to Te. Obtained results reveal that small spin-orbit splitting energy in the valence band is found around the Γ point of the Brillouin zone when the spin-orbit coupling is included. Interestingly, GaInS2and GaInSe2have high and directional isotropic electron mobility meanwhile the directional anisotropy of the electron mobility is found in the Janus GaInTe2monolayer. Our findings not only present superior physical properties of GaInX2monolayers but also show promising potential applications of these materials in nanoelectronic devices.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(22)2021 May 04.*

##### RESUMO

Inspired by the successfully experimental synthesis of Janus structures recently, we systematically study the electronic, optical, and electronic transport properties of Janus monolayers In2XY(X/Y= S, Se, Te withX≠Y) in the presence of a biaxial strain and electric field using density functional theory. Monolayers In2XYare dynamically and thermally stable at room temperature. At equilibrium, both In2STe and In2SeTe are direct semiconductors while In2SSe exhibits an indirect semiconducting behavior. The strain significantly alters the electronic structure of In2XYand their photocatalytic activity. Besides, the indirect-direct gap transitions can be found due to applied strain. The effect of the electric field on optical properties of In2XYis negligible. Meanwhile, the optical absorbance intensity of the Janus In2XYmonolayers is remarkably increased by compressive strain. Also, In2XYmonolayers exhibit very low lattice thermal conductivities resulting in a high figure of meritZT, which makes them potential candidates for room-temperature thermoelectric materials.

*Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4015, 2021 Feb 17.*

##### RESUMO

We theoretically investigate the electron and hole states in a semiconductor quantum dot-quantum ring coupled structure, inspired by the recent experimental report by Elborg and collaborators (2017). The finite element method constitutes the numerical technique used to solve the three-dimensional effective mass equation within the parabolic band approximation, including the effects of externally applied electric and magnetic fields. Initially, the features of conduction electron states in the proposed system appear discussed in detail, under different geometrical configurations and values of the intensity of the aforementioned electromagnetic probes. In the second part, the properties of an electron-hole pair confined within the very kind of structure reported in the reference above are investigated via a model that tries to reproduce as close as possible the developed profile. In accordance, we report on the energies of confined electron and hole, affected by the influence of an external electric field, revealing the possibility of field-induced separate spatial localization, which may result in an indirect exciton configuration. In relation with this fact, we present a preliminary analysis of such phenomenon via the calculation of the Coulomb integral.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(15)2021 Feb 18.*

##### RESUMO

The influences of an external electric field with uniform or modulated potential on the electronic and optical properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are explored using the multi-orbital tight-binding Hamiltonian. The interplay between an electric field and interaction between (s,px,py,pz) orbitals remarkably enriches the main features of band structures and absorption spectra. The applied electric field can notably alter the energy dispersions ofπandσbands, leading to the deformation of band-edge states, open and close of a band gap, and modification of the Fermi energy. The vertical optical excitations happen among theπbands, while their available channels depend on the Fermi level which is controlled by theσ-edge bands and a finite potential. With the rich and unique properties, GNRs are suitable candidates for applications in the fields of photodetectors, nanoelectronics, and spintronics. The calculated results are expected to be examined by the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopies and optical spectroscopies.

*RSC Adv ; 11(38): 23280-23287, 2021 Jul 01.*

##### RESUMO

Motivated by very recent successful experimental transformation of AB-stacking bilayer graphene into fluorinated single-layer diamond (namely fluorinated diamane C4F2) [P. V. Bakharev, M. Huang, M. Saxena, S. W. Lee, S. H. Joo, S. O. Park, J. Dong, D. C. Camacho-Mojica, S. Jin, Y. Kwon, M. Biswal, F. Ding, S. K. Kwak, Z. Lee and R. S. Ruoff, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2020, 15, 59-66], we systematically investigate the structural, elastic, electronic, transport, and optical properties of fluorinated diamane C4F2 by using density functional theory. Our obtained results demonstrate that at the ground state, the lattice constant of C4F2 is 2.56 Å with chemical bonding between the C-C interlayer and intralayer bond lengths of about 1.5 Å which are close to the C-C bonding in the bulk diamond. Based on calculations for the phonon spectrum and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the structure of C4F2 is confirmed to be dynamically and thermally stable. C4F2 exhibits superior mechanical properties with a very high Young's modulus of 493.19 N m-1. Upon fluorination, the formation of C-C bonding between graphene layers has resulted in a comprehensive alteration of electronic properties of C4F2. C4F2 is a direct semiconductor with a large band gap and phase transitions are found when a biaxial strain or external electric field is applied. Interestingly, C4F2 has very high electron mobility, up to 3.03 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1, much higher than other semiconductor compounds. Our findings not only provide a comprehensive insight into the physical properties of C4F2 but also open up its applicability in nanoelectromechanical and optoelectronic devices.

*RSC Adv ; 11(63): 39672-39679, 2021 Dec 13.*

##### RESUMO

The lacking of the vertical mirror symmetry in Janus structures compared to their conventional metal monochalcogenides/dichalcogenides leads to their characteristic properties, which are predicted to play significant roles for various promising applications. In this framework, we systematically examine the structural, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of the two-dimensional 2H Janus CrXO (X = S, Se, Te) monolayers by using first-principles calculation method based on density functional theory. The obtained results from optimization, phonon spectra, and elastic constants demonstrate that all three Janus monolayers present good structural and mechanical stabilities. The calculated elastic constants also indicate that the Janus CrTeO monolayer is much mechanically flexible than the other two monolayers due to its low Young's modulus value. The metallic behavior is observed at the ground state for the Janus CrSeO and CrTeO monolayers in both PBE and HSE06 levels. Meanwhile, the Janus CrSO monolayer exhibits a low indirect semiconducting characteristic. The bandgap of CrSO after the correction of HSE06 hybrid functional is the average value of its binary transition metal dichalcogenides. The broad absorption spectrum of CrSO reveals the wide activated range from the visible to near-ultraviolet region. Our findings not only present insight into the brand-new Janus CrXO monolayers but can also motivate experimental research for several applications in optoelectric and nanoelectromechanical devices.

*RSC Adv ; 11(45): 28381-28387, 2021 Aug 16.*

##### RESUMO

Although O is an element of chalcogen group, the study of two-dimensional (2D) O-based Janus dichalcogenides/monochalcogenides, especially their 1T-phase, has not been given sufficient attention. In this work, we systematically investigate the structural, electronic, and optical properties of 1T Janus GeSO monolayer by using the density functional theory. Via the analysis of phonon spectrum and evaluation of elastic constants, the GeSO monolayer is confirmed to be dynamically and mechanically stable. Calculated results for the elastic constants demonstrate that the Janus GeSO monolayer is much mechanically flexible than other 2D materials due to its small Young's modulus. At the ground state, while both GeS2 and GeO2 monolayers are indirect semiconductors, the Janus GeSO monolayer is found to be a direct band gap semiconductor. Further, effective masses of both electrons and holes are predicted to be directionally isotropic. The Janus GeSO monolayer has a broad absorption spectrum, which is activated from the visible light region and its absorption intensity is very high in the near-ultraviolet region. The calculated results not only systematically provide the fundamental physical properties of GeSO monolayer, but also stimulate scientists to further studying its importance both theoretically and experimentally.

*RSC Adv ; 11(15): 8552-8558, 2021 Feb 23.*

##### RESUMO

Surface functionalization is one of the useful techniques for modulating the mechanical and electronic properties of two-dimensional systems. In the present study, we investigate the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of hexagonal boron phosphide monolayer functionalized by Br and Cl atoms using first-principles predictions. Once surface-functionalized with Br/Cl atoms, the planar structure of BP monolayer is transformed to the low-buckled lattice with the bucking constant of about 0.6 Å for all four configurations of functionalized boron phosphide, i.e., Cl-BP-Cl, Cl-BP-Br, Br-BP-Cl, and Br-BP-Br. The stability of functionalized BP monolayers is confirmed via their phonon spectra analysis and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our calculations indicate that the functionalized BP monolayers possess a fully isotropic elastic characteristic with the perfect circular shape of the angle-dependent Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio due to the hexagonal symmetry. The Cl-BP-Cl is the most stiff with the Young's modulus C 2D = 43.234 N m-1. All four configurations of the functionalized boron phosphide are direct semiconductors with a larger band gap than that of a pure BP monolayer. The outstanding stability, isotropic elastic properties, and moderate band gap make functionalized boron phosphide a very intriguing candidate for next-generation nanoelectromechanical devices.

*Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8961, 2020 Jun 02.*

##### RESUMO

We have theoretically investigated the electronic states in a core/shell pyramidal quantum dot with GaAs core embedded in AlGaAs matrix. This system has a quite similar recent experimental realization through a cone/shell structure [Phys. Status Solidi-RRL 13, 1800245 (2018)]. The research has been performed within the effective mass approximation taking into account position-dependent effective masses and the presence of external electric and magnetic fields. For the numerical solution of the resulting three-dimensional partial differential equation we have used a finite element method. A detailed study of the conduction band states wave functions and their associated energy levels is presented, with the analysis of the effect of the geometry and the external probes. The calculation of the non-permanent electric polarization via the off-diagonal intraband dipole moment matrix elements allows to consider the related optical response by evaluating the coefficients of light absorption and relative refractive index changes, under different applied magnetic field configurations.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(20): 11637-11643, 2020 May 28.*

##### RESUMO

In this paper, detailed investigations of the electronic and optical properties of a Janus SnSSe monolayer under a biaxial strain and electric field using ab initio methods are presented. Our calculations indicate that the Janus SnSSe monolayer is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap larger/lower than that of the SnSe2/SnS2 monolayer. To obtain accurate estimates of the band gap, both Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functionals have been used and the effect of spin-orbit coupling has also been included. While the influence of the electric field on the electronic and optical properties of the Janus SnSSe monolayer is quite weak, biaxial strain plays a key role in controlling these properties. The Janus SnSSe monolayer has a wide absorption spectrum, from visible light to the ultraviolet region. At equilibrium, the maximum absorption coefficient of the monolayer is up to 11.152 × 104 cm-1 in the ultraviolet region and it can be increased by strain engineering. With high absorption intensity in the visible light area and being able to tune the absorbance by strain, the Janus SnSSe monolayer becomes a promising material for applications in optoelectronic devices.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(21): 12129-12139, 2020 Jun 07.*

##### RESUMO

The fundamental investigation of topological crystalline insulator (TCI) thin films is essential for observing interesting phenomena. In practice, a promising pathway involves the application of electric and magnetic fields to tune the topological phases of TCI thin films. To achieve this, we applied a perpendicular electric field and an in-plane magnetic field to not only tune the Dirac gap of a SnTe(001) thin film and find the phase transition but also to directly connect them with their effects on the group velocity of both massless and massive surface Dirac fermions. The TCI thin film is an inherent insulator due to the hybridization between the front and back surfaces, and it transitions to a semimetal phase at a critical perpendicular electric field due to the Stark effect. Correspondingly, the anisotropic group velocity of the upper (lower) conduction (valence) band decreases (increases) with the electric field at certain momenta. We found that when one of the in-plane Zeeman field components becomes stronger than the intrinsic hybridization potential, the anisotropic Weyl cones with opposite chiralities retrieve at the critical momenta and the corresponding group velocities become zero. Further, the isotropic in-plane Zeeman field leads to rotation of the band structure, as expected, resulting in non-zero group velocities along all directions. Finally, for the sake of completeness, the combined Stark and Zeeman effects are tracked and the results show that the system is an insulator at all fields and the group velocities are altered more than when the individual Stark and Zeeman effects are applied. Our findings may provide interesting physical insights for practical applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(15): 7952-7961, 2020 Apr 15.*

##### RESUMO

Constructing vertical heterostructures by placing graphene (Gr) on two-dimensional materials has recently emerged as an effective way to enhance the performance of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. In this work, first principles calculations are employed to explore the structural and electronic properties of Gr/GeC and Gr/functionalized-GeC by H/F/Cl surface functionalization. Our results imply that the electronic properties of the Gr, GeC and all functionalized-GeC monolayers are well preserved in Gr/GeC and Gr/functionalized-GeC heterostructures, and the Gr/GeC heterostructure forms a p-type Schottky contact. Interestingly, we find that the p-type Schottky contact in Gr/GeC can be converted into the n-type one and into an n-type ohmic contact by H/F/Cl surface functionalization to form Gr/functionalized-GeC heterostructures. Furthermore, we find that electric fields and strain engineering can change both the Schottky barrier heights and the contact types of the Gr/functionalized-GeC vdWHs. These findings suggest that Gr/functionalized-GeC heterostructures can be considered as a promising candidate for designing high-performance optoelectronic and nanoelectronic devices.

*RSC Adv ; 10(72): 44545-44550, 2020 Dec 09.*

##### RESUMO

In this work, we perform first-principles calculations to examine the electronic, optical and photocatalytic properties of the BX-ZnO (X = As, P) heterostructures. The interlayer distance and binding energy of the most energetically favorable stacking configuration are 3.31 Å and -0.30 eV for the BAs-ZnO heterostructure and 3.30 Å and -0.25 eV for the BP-ZnO heterostructure. All the stacking patterns of the BX-ZnO heterostructures are proved to have thermal stability by performing AIMD simulations. The BAs-ZnO and BP-ZnO heterostructures are semiconductors with direct band gaps of 1.43 eV and 2.35 eV, respectively, and they exhibit type-I band alignment, which make them suitable for light emission applications with the ultra-fast recombination between electrons and holes. Both the BAs-ZnO and BP-ZnO heterostructures can exhibit a wider optical absorption range for visible-light owing to their reduced band gaps compared with the isolated BAs, BP and ZnO monolayers. The band alignment of both the BAs-ZnO and BP-ZnO heterostructures can straddle the water redox potential and they would have better performances owing to the direct band gap and the reduced band gap. All these findings demonstrate that the BX-ZnO heterostructures can be considered as potential photocatalysts for water splitting.