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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 78(2): 337-344, maio-ago. 2018. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-735325

RESUMO

The effects of extreme droughts on freshwater fish remain unknown worldwide. In this paper, we estimated the condition factor, a measure of relative fitness based on the relationship of body weight to length, in four fish species representing two trophic levels (omnivores and piscivores) from Amazonian floodplain lakes for three consecutive years: 2004, 2005 (an anomalous drought year), and 2006. The two omnivores, Colossoma macropomum and Mylossoma duriventre, exhibited trends consistent with their life cycles in 2004 and 2006: high values during the hydrologic seasons of high water, receding water, and low water, with a drop following reproduction following the onset of rising water. However during the drought year of 2005 the condition factor was much lower than normal during receding and low water seasons, probably as a result of an abnormal reduction in resource availability in a reduced habitat. The two piscivorous piranhas, Serrasalmus spilopleura and S. elongatus, maintained relatively stable values of condition factor over the hydrologic cycles of all three years, with no apparent effect of the drought, probably because the reduction in habitat is counterbalanced by the resulting increase in relative prey density. We suggest that if predictions of increasing drought in the Amazon are correct, predatory species may benefit, at least in the short run, while omnivores may be negatively affected.(AU)


Os efeitos de secas extremas sobre peixes de água doce ainda é globalmente desconhecido. Neste artigo, nós estimamos o fator de condição, uma medida relativa de bem estar baseada na relação entre e peso do corpo e o comprimento, em quatro espécies de peixes de lagos da Amazônia, pertencentes a dois níveis tráficos (onívoros e carnívoros), capturadas durante três anos consecutivos: 2004, 2005 (quando ocorreu uma seca anômala) e 2006. As duas espécies onívoras, Colossoma macropomum e Mylossoma duriventre exibiram tendências consistentes com seu ciclo de vida nos anos de 2004 e 2006: valores mais altos na cheia, vazante e seca, seguida por uma queda na enchente que coincide com a estação reprodutiva. No entanto, o fator de condição foi muito menor durante a seca e a enchente em 2005, provavelmente devido a redução anormal na disponibilidade de recursos em um habitat reduzido. As duas espécies piscívoras, as piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura e S. elongatus, mantiveram relativa estabilidade nas estimativas do fator d condição, ao longo do ciclo hidrológico dos três anos, sem efeito aparente da seca extrema, provavelmente porque a redução do habitat foi contrabalanceada pelo aumento na densidade de presas. Caso as predições de aumento de frequência de secas extremas venha a se confirmar, acreditamos que espécies predadoras poderão ser beneficiadas, ao menos no curto prazo, enquanto as onívoras serão negativamente afetadas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Characidae , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária , Traços de História de Vida , Secas , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos , Ecossistema Amazônico
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 337-344, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888876

RESUMO

Abstract The effects of extreme droughts on freshwater fish remain unknown worldwide. In this paper, we estimated the condition factor, a measure of relative fitness based on the relationship of body weight to length, in four fish species representing two trophic levels (omnivores and piscivores) from Amazonian floodplain lakes for three consecutive years: 2004, 2005 (an anomalous drought year), and 2006. The two omnivores, Colossoma macropomum and Mylossoma duriventre, exhibited trends consistent with their life cycles in 2004 and 2006: high values during the hydrologic seasons of high water, receding water, and low water, with a drop following reproduction following the onset of rising water. However during the drought year of 2005 the condition factor was much lower than normal during receding and low water seasons, probably as a result of an abnormal reduction in resource availability in a reduced habitat. The two piscivorous piranhas, Serrasalmus spilopleura and S. elongatus, maintained relatively stable values of condition factor over the hydrologic cycles of all three years, with no apparent effect of the drought, probably because the reduction in habitat is counterbalanced by the resulting increase in relative prey density. We suggest that if predictions of increasing drought in the Amazon are correct, predatory species may benefit, at least in the short run, while omnivores may be negatively affected.


Resumo Os efeitos de secas extremas sobre peixes de água doce ainda é globalmente desconhecido. Neste artigo, nós estimamos o fator de condição, uma medida relativa de bem estar baseada na relação entre e peso do corpo e o comprimento, em quatro espécies de peixes de lagos da Amazônia, pertencentes a dois níveis tróficos (onívoros e carnívoros), capturadas durante três anos consecutivos: 2004, 2005 (quando ocorreu uma seca anômala) e 2006. As duas espécies onívoras, Colossoma macropomum e Mylossoma duriventre exibiram tendências consistentes com seu ciclo de vida nos anos de 2004 e 2006: valores mais altos na cheia, vazante e seca, seguida por uma queda na enchente que coincide com a estação reprodutiva. No entanto, o fator de condição foi muito menor durante a seca e a enchente em 2005, provavelmente devido a redução anormal na disponibilidade de recursos em um habitat reduzido. As duas espécies piscívoras, as piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura e S. elongatus, mantiveram relativa estabilidade nas estimativas do fator d condição, ao longo do ciclo hidrológico dos três anos, sem efeito aparente da seca extrema, provavelmente porque a redução do habitat foi contrabalanceada pelo aumento na densidade de presas. Caso as predições de aumento de frequência de secas extremas venha a se confirmar, acreditamos que espécies predadoras poderão ser beneficiadas, ao menos no curto prazo, enquanto as onívoras serão negativamente afetadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Lagos , Ecossistema , Secas , Characidae/fisiologia , Ciclo Hidrológico
3.
Braz J Biol ; 78(2): 337-344, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832839

RESUMO

The effects of extreme droughts on freshwater fish remain unknown worldwide. In this paper, we estimated the condition factor, a measure of relative fitness based on the relationship of body weight to length, in four fish species representing two trophic levels (omnivores and piscivores) from Amazonian floodplain lakes for three consecutive years: 2004, 2005 (an anomalous drought year), and 2006. The two omnivores, Colossoma macropomum and Mylossoma duriventre, exhibited trends consistent with their life cycles in 2004 and 2006: high values during the hydrologic seasons of high water, receding water, and low water, with a drop following reproduction following the onset of rising water. However during the drought year of 2005 the condition factor was much lower than normal during receding and low water seasons, probably as a result of an abnormal reduction in resource availability in a reduced habitat. The two piscivorous piranhas, Serrasalmus spilopleura and S. elongatus, maintained relatively stable values of condition factor over the hydrologic cycles of all three years, with no apparent effect of the drought, probably because the reduction in habitat is counterbalanced by the resulting increase in relative prey density. We suggest that if predictions of increasing drought in the Amazon are correct, predatory species may benefit, at least in the short run, while omnivores may be negatively affected.


Assuntos
Characidae/fisiologia , Secas , Ecossistema , Lagos , Animais , Ciclo Hidrológico
4.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 116(4): 419-22, 1997 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9149395

RESUMO

We undertook a preliminary investigation of the cuticular extracts of five common mantid species in the eastern United States: Tenodera sinensis (Saussure), T. angustipennis (Saussure) and Mantis religiosa (Linnaeus) introduced from the Old World and Stagmomantis carolina (Johannson) and Bruneria borealis (Scudder), which are New World species. The major components of these mixtures were normal alkanes, predominately hentriacontane, or in the case of the parthenogenic species B. borealis, tritriacontane. Tricontanal was detected in the extracts of all five species, and smaller amounts of other aldehydes and n-tricontanol were detected in some species. Complex mixtures of methyl and dimethylalkanes also were present in these extracts. The composition of the cuticular hydrocarbons of these mantids may be an adaptation for reduction of evaporative water loss in these insects that inhabit open fields.


Assuntos
Epiderme/química , Ortópteros/química , Alcanos/análise , Alcanos/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Extratos de Tecidos/química
5.
Oecologia ; 113(1): 126-132, 1997 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28307287

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that a generalist arthropod predator, Tenodera sinensis Saussure, could trigger a trophic cascade in an old-field ecosystem. These mantids had relatively weak effects on abundance and biomass of other carnivorous arthropods as a group. The effect of mantids on herbivores was stronger than on carnivores, mainly concentrated in Homoptera and Diptera. Herbivore load was reduced by mantids with the consequence that overall plant biomass (mainly grasses) was increased. Percapita interaction strengths between mantids and other arthropod taxa were, for the most part, weakly negative. Our study demonstrates that a significant trophic cascade can be triggered by a generalist predator even within the framework of a diverse community with relatively diffuse interactions.

6.
Oecologia ; 104(4): 496-500, 1995 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28307665

RESUMO

Relative timing of egg hatch between two cooccurring, congeneric mantids, Tenodera angustipennis and T. sinensis, was experimentally manipulated in replicated field enclosures to test the importance of intraguild predation to survivorship and development of T. angustipennis. T. angustipennis is normally smaller than its congener because of later egg-hatch. Delaying introduction of T. sinensis relative to normal egg hatch phenology reduced mortality for T. angustipennis, but did not affect its rate of development. The results indicate that intraguild predation by normally earlierhatching T. sinensis can be an important factor in the early life history of T. angustipennis, but that interspecific competition is not a strong selective factor in developmental asynchrony between these two species.

7.
Oecologia ; 98(3-4): 269-273, 1994 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28313902

RESUMO

We investigated the short-term response of an arthropod assemblage to elevated generalist predator densities by introducing Chinese mantids (Tenodera sinensis) to field plots in a replicated, controlled experiment. Abundances of carnivorous arthropods were reduced by mantids to a greater extent than herbivores, and cursorial spiders emigrated from treatment plots in greater numbers than from controls. Initially, this emigration consisted only of small spiders that were demonstrated in the laboratory to be prey for mantids. Thus, the initial response of an arthropod assemblage to increased predators, densities was increased interactions among predators, which caused decline in predator population densities in a shorter time than competition for prey would require. Predator avoidance behavior must be considered together with intraguild predation and competition when interpreting the outcome of predator manipulations. Shortterm experiments may be more valuable than longer term studies in detecting this effect.

8.
Oecologia ; 92(2): 215-221, 1992 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28313054

RESUMO

The structure of cursorial spider assemblages was examined along a gradient of four temperature successional communities. Species diversity (H'), richness (S), and evenness (J') exhibited a dichotomy between herbaceous and woody communities rather than a progressive change with community age: all three parameters were higher in the two younger fields than in the two older woodlands, which is contrary to conventional successional theory. Species importance curves were steeper in the two woody communities. The breadth of the distribution of adult body lengths was greater in the two herbaceous communities. Indices of community similarity revealed neither a successional trend nor the vegetative dichotomy. We suggest the hypothesis that habitat structure is a more important determinant of cursorial spider diversity than successional age per se, and that the switch in dominance from herbaceous to woody vegetation is the critical change. We further suggest that competition for prey is more important to cursorial spiders in early successional (herbaceous) communities, because of a switch in the limiting resource from prey in these communities to the amount of accumulating litter (a spatial resource) in older woody stands. This may explain the greater variation in adult body size of these generalist predators in the two younger communities.

9.
Oecologia ; 79(4): 458-462, 1989 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28313478

RESUMO

A guild of cellular slime molds (CSM) consisting of two isolates from each of five species, representing two genera, and obtained from the same square meter of forest soil exhibited extensive growth rate variation when tested on a suite of 18 bacteria isolated from the same soil. Significant growth rate differences were found at each taxonomic level examined: among species of different genera, between genera, among species within genera, and between isolates (=clones) within species. The type of bacteria used as prey determined the relative rank of the growth rates in different CSM isolates, as well as the taxonomic level at which significant differences were found. We suggest a possible reconciliation between a previous hypothesis, based on competition, and contradictory experimental work on resource partitioning in this guild of bacterial predators. Our results raise a question about the efficacy of using single genotypes to represent a species when ecological ideas are developed through laboratory investigations.

10.
Oecologia ; 76(4): 549-552, 1988 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28312406

RESUMO

Two sympatric, congeneric mantid species, Tenodera sinensis (Saussure) and t. angustipennis (Saussure) exhibit intrinsically different temporal patterns of egg hatch in the spring. Tenodera sinensis hatches first, and begins to enter second instar by the time T. angustipennis starts to hatch. As a result, there is asynchrony in developmental times such that several different instars may be present during the first crucial month of life when mantid population densities are high and prey availability is low. The body length ratio of larger to smaller nymphs is most commonly ≥1.37, in favor of T. sinensis. This character divergence suggests allochronic niche separation which may alleviate competition for prey. However this same ratio appears to be the threshold for both interspecific predation and cannibalism among these bitrophic generalist predators. Therefore T. sinensis, which is nearly always larger, may have a selective advantage by utilizing its smaller congener and later-hatching conspecifics as prey in a food limited environment.

11.
Oecologia ; 65(4): 513-515, 1985 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28311858

RESUMO

The hypothesis that carrion provides a source of nutrition important to reproduction in the omnivorous neogastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say), was tested by collecting snails during winter, prior to reproductive season, and allowing them to feed ad libitum on three replicated diets (with starvation control) in the laboratory: vegetable, meat, and a mixture of meat and vegetable.The results indicate that, while a mixed diet is necessary for growth, meat may be the most important dietary constituent in terms of sexual condition and reproductive output of I. obsoleta. It is suggested that the chemotactic response to meat may be strongest for both sexes during the reproductive season, and may be responsible for some of the marked spatial heterogeneity in natural populations.

12.
Oecologia ; 46(3): 295-301, 1980 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28310035

RESUMO

Experiments were performed to determine if earlier colonists inhibited, enhanced, or were necessary for establishment of later colonists during development of an estuarine fouling community at Lewes, Delaware. We determined the significance of earlier stages on the successional process by functionally removing early colonizing species. Since settlement of sessile invertebrates onto our experimental test plates was seasonal, we were able to accomplish functional removal of early colonists by putting out clean test panels after these species had ceased settling. Comparisons between panels initially submerged at three different times in 1974 and 1975, and between panels put out at one-month intervals throughout the study (to describe seasonal settlement patterns) allowed us to determine interactions between adult populations of earlier colonists and colonizing individuals of later arriving species.The dominant sessile species in our system and their times of settlement were: a barnacle (Balanus improvisus) - April through June, a polychaete (Hydroides dianthus) - July and August, a tunicate (Molgula manhatensis) - June through October, a hydroid (Tubularia crocea) - July through October, and a mussel (Mytilus edulis) - November through April. All successional series eventually came to be dominated by M. edulis, and it persisted as the dominant for over a year.A variety of species interactions were observed. M. edulis inhibited colonization by all other dominants and B. improvisus partially inhibited settlement of M. manhattensis. The presence of adult M. manhattensis had no influence on summer settlement of T. crocea, but the hydroids enhanced settlement of tunicates in the fall. During both years of our study, larger settlements of mussels were noted on panels harboring tunicates and hydroids than on bare surfaces. H. dianthus, on the other hand, became established only on bare substrates, and colonization was almost totally inhibited by other dominants.Development in our fouling community did not conform to any single model of community development presented to date. Instead, components of several models were observed within our relatively simple (in terms of number of species) system. For example, facilitation (enhancement of later colonists by earlier ones) and inhibition (resistance of earlier colonists to invasion by later colonists) were both observed. However, we found no evidence earlier colonists were essential for establishment of the next developmental stage. In fact, inhibitory interactions appeared to be much more prevalent than facilitative interactions. The former may also have more profound effects on community development since they more often determine eventual species compositions.

13.
Oecologia ; 23(4): 335-342, 1976 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28308971

RESUMO

A new method for measuring structural change in sets of species which have been subjected to natural or experimental perturbation is developed and is shown to be superior to static diversity and evenness measures for this purpose. Three parameters, HΔ', JΔ', and XΔ;} are shown to provide necessary and sufficient information on the severity of a perturbation as well as the uniformity of its effect on all species in the set. When positive and negative changes in species abundance are considered separately, the method is sensitive to compensatory changes which are not detected by static measures.The parameters are then calculated for some data sets on polluted and unpolluted fish communities in second and third order streams from the Clemons Fork watershed in eastern Kentucky. Results indicate that HΔ', the diversity of change over two sampling seasons, is high for perturbed and unperturbed systems, but JΔ' the eveness of change is lower for the communities which were polluted in the second sampling season. Severe pollution results in the suppression of most major fish species, whereas more moderate pollution results in a large number of compensatory changes. The biological basis for such an outcome is discussed, and the notion of these three parameters as the "vital signs" of a healthy ecosystem is presented.

14.
Science ; 182(4111): 443-9, 1973 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17832454

RESUMO

The principal raw material of modern U.S. agriculture is fossil fuel, whereas the labor input is relatively small (about 9 hours per crop acre). As agriculture is dependent upon fossil energy, crop production costs will also soar when fuel costs increase two- to fivefold. A return of 2.8 kcal of corn per 1 kcal of fuel input may then be uneconomical. Green revolution agriculture also uses high energy crop production technology, especially with respect to fertilizers and pesticides. While one may not doubt the sincerity of the U.S. effort to share its agricultural technology so that the rest of the world can live and eat as it does, one must be realistic about the resources available to accomplish this mission. In the United States we are currently using an equivalent of 80 gallons of gasoline to produce an acre of corn. With fuel shortages and high prices to come, we wonder if many developing nations will be able to afford the technology of U.S. agriculture. Problems have already occurred with green revolution crops, particularly problems related to pests (57). More critical problems are expected when there is a world energy crisis. A careful assessment should be made of the benefits, costs, and risks of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be certain that this program will not aggravate the already serious world food situation (58). To reduce energy inputs, green revolution and U.S. agriculture might employ such alternatives as rotations and green manures to reduce the high energy demand of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. U.S. agriculture might also reduce energy expenditures by substituting some manpower currently displaced by mechanization. While no one knows for certain what changes will have to be made, we can be sure that when conventional energy resources become scarce and expensive, the impact on agriculture as an industry and a way of life will be significant. This analysis is but a preliminary investigation of a significant agricultural problem that deserves careful attention and greater study before the energy situation becomes more critical.

16.
Science ; 175(4024): 917-8, 1972 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17781065
17.
Science ; 173(4002): 1134-6, 1971 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17836604

RESUMO

An ecosystem perturbation experiment in which inorganic fertilizer was added to two successional old fields of different ages indicated that stability, expressed as resistance to modification by enrichment, increased during succession only at the primary trophic level. The perturbation was propagated throughout the arthropod herbivores and carnivores. Both herbivores and carnivores were less stable in the older field. In contrast to current ecological theory, greater diversity at a trophic level was accompanied by lower stability at the next higher level.

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