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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842095

RESUMO

Correction for 'Efficient amidation of weak amines: synthesis, chiral separation by SFC, and antimicrobial activity of N-(9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl) carboxamide' by Kathiravan Asokan et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2024, 22, 309-319, https://doi.org/10.1039/D3OB01774E.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1330688, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751974

RESUMO

Introduction: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a serious neurological syndrome that may develop following immunosuppressive therapy for stem cell transplantation (SCT). We report 8 patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who developed PRES, which is likely to be related to immunosuppression. Methods: This is retrospective cohort analysis of the SCD registry at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSHRC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria included all adults SCD patients who underwent SCT from 2011 until 2022. We explored all cases of PRES in patients with SCT. PRES was diagnosed with MRI imaging showing reversible vasogenic cerebral edema associated with neurological symptoms including severe headache, seizures, encephalopathy, delirium, and visual disturbances. Results: During ten years follow-up (2011-2022) we found 8 patients with PRES (age range between 14 to 37 years at diagnosis) PRES occurred 8 to 124 days following SCT in 7 cases and one patient developed PRES 8 months prior to SCT. All patients were on immunosuppressive medications, including tacrolimus, cyclosporine, sirolimus and or mycophenolate mofetil. Headache, seizures, visual hallucinations, confusion, and drowsiness were the most common presenting symptoms. MRI showed abnormalities in the occipital, parietal and frontal lobes in most cases. Recovery was complete in all patients and no recurrences were noted. Two patients had graft versus host disease (GVHD). We compared risk factors for PRES among the 8 cases and 136 SCT in SCD patients who did not develop PRES. There was a significant association between PRES and imaging abnormalities, including previous bi-hemispheric infarctions (p = 0.001), and cerebral microbleeds (CBMs). PRES was strongly associated with presence (p = 0.006), size (p = 0.016) and number (p = 0.005) of CMBs. Conclusion: PRES can develop days to weeks following SCT in patients with SCD, and is associated with immunosuppressive therapy, previous bi-hemispheric infarctions and CMB. Prompt recognition and intervention leads to good recovery.

3.
Res Dev Disabil ; 149: 104750, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723430

RESUMO

The employment of individuals with disabilities is significantly low. Many factors are associated with this issue; however, support and accommodations that can be provided to such individuals can improve their employment rate and outcomes. This study aimed to examine the support provided to employees with disabilities in Saudi Arabia. The descriptive approach was utilized, and a survey was used to collect the data. The sample consisted of 86 employer participants to examine the support of their employees with disabilities. Findings revealed that the support provided was high, and the participants reported that such support facilitates finding and maintaining a job. In addition, the variables were all found to have no significant differences. Providing needed and necessary support is an effective strategy that leads to competitive employment for individuals with disabilities, especially for the long term. Implications and recommendations are also discussed.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Emprego , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Adulto , Arábia Saudita , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem , Readaptação ao Emprego , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
4.
Cureus ; 16(5): e59912, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastrointestinal bleeding is a major healthcare burden and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, clinical presentation, and risk factors of patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding in the emergency department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The medical records of patients who presented to the emergency department with gastrointestinal bleeding between January 2010 and January 2020 were reviewed. Patients aged 18 years or older, with gastrointestinal bleeding (upper or lower) regardless of underlying cause, lifestyle, location of bleeding, health status, or medication use, were included. Demographic characteristics, initial vital signs, medical history, physical examination findings, comorbidities, medications, laboratory and radiological investigations, cause and stage of liver disease, management, and complications were recorded. Endoscopic findings and management of the bleeding site were collected according to the presenting symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 760 patients were included. The mean age was 62.7 ± 17.8 years, and 61.4% were males. The most common comorbidities at presentation were hypertension (54.1%), diabetes mellitus (51.2%), and ischemic heart disease (18.2%). The origins of the bleeding were lower gastrointestinal in 52% and upper gastrointestinal in 48% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was found to be more common than upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemorrhoids, polyps, diverticular disease, and colonic ulcers were the major risk factors for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. In contrast, upper gastrointestinal bleeding was predominantly caused by esophageal varices, gastritis, and peptic ulcers.

5.
Cureus ; 16(5): e60155, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736764

RESUMO

Introduction Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rising in popularity among young adults and teenagers. Previous studies have shown that among high and middle schoolers, the percentage of e-cigarette smokers was noticeably higher than tobacco cigarette smokers. Various research papers focusing on different communities have reported a low-to-moderate level of knowledge and awareness of e-cigarette's effects on health. E-cigarettes were initially advertised as devices to help people quit smoking, but the use of e-cigarettes in modern days has changed considerably. A big chunk of the population perceived that e-cigarettes have no harmful effects because they are nicotine-free and thus are used as a replacement for regular cigarettes rather than as a way to quit smoking. Objectives The study aimed to assess the perception of e-cigarette consumption and associated factors among the Saudi population in Jeddah city. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Saudi population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2023. The study assessed the participant's perceptions of e-cigarette consumption and its risk factors. A pre-existing online questionnaire created by Google Forms was distributed among the population through social media applications to collect data after obtaining their informed consent. Results A total of 515 participants were included in this study. Relatives and friends were the most common sources (54%) for information about e-cigarettes. Of the sample, 17.5% thought that e-cigarettes were safer than conventional cigarettes, 13.4% used e-cigarettes on a regular basis, and 65% had not smoked electronically before. Vaping pushed only 17.2% to try traditional tobacco cigarettes, and 25% stopped using traditional tobacco products after starting to smoke e-cigarettes. Gender, age group, and total family salary were the associated factors with the use of e-cigarettes. In addition, an association between the perception of e-smoking and its use was noticed, as well as a significant association between gender and withdrawal symptoms. Conclusion A minority of the participants perceived that e-cigarette smoking is safer than conventional methods of smoking. The majority did not practice e-smoking at all. Furthermore, results showed that relatives and friends were the most common sources of information. The findings from the correlation testing underscore several noteworthy associations within the studied population. Notably, gender, age, total family salary, and occupation exhibited statistically significant correlations with e-cigarette usage.

6.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(45): 64-68, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774934

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal carcinoma is commonly diagnosed and accounts for an important cause of cancerrelated mortality worldwide. Despite that literature has shown the superiority of laparoscopic surgery, with improved short-term clinical benefits and equivalent oncological outcomes compared with open surgery for colorectal cancer, most cases are operated by open approach. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and pathological outcomes between laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery at our institution. METHODOLOGY: 126 patients who had operations for colorectal cancers were identified. Patients ' clinical data, surgery type and details, postoperative early clinical outcomes and histology reports were retrieved from the database and retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analysis was used to assess the differences between laparoscopy and open approach in terms of clinical and oncological outcomes. RESULTS: Significant advantages were associated with minimally invasive colorectal surgery, with shorter postoperative hospital stay, less incidence of medical complications and improved survival. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups in pathological parameters, namely, number of retrieved lymph nodes and margins. DISCUSSION: In the hands of skilled trained surgeons, laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is oncologically safe as it showed adequate dissection and appropriate number of resected lymph nodes, and is associated with reduction in postoperative morbidity and mortality. Conversion to open surgery is a risk associated with minimally invasive surgery. However, it is reported that conversion and postoperative complications are decreasing with increased surgical experience. CONCLUSION: In accordance with the current worldwide practice, our study indicates that minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer has the benefits of laparoscopy in terms of short-term clinical outcomes but show similar pathological outcomes in comparison to open approach. With increased surgical expertise, laparoscopic surgery is becoming the standard approach to treat colorectal cancer in our centre.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Laparoscopia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Barein , Idoso , Adulto
7.
Transl Pediatr ; 13(4): 584-595, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715666

RESUMO

Background: In 1978, Charlotte Dravet first described a form of epilepsy termed Dravet syndrome (DS). It is a form of genetic epilepsy with early-onset, intractable epilepsy episodes, and neurodevelopmental delay. In children, DS can lead to refractory seizures that are resistant to standard therapy. Recently, perampanel (PER) was approved as an antiepileptic drug for patients as young as 4 years old. Methods: The medical records were retrospectively reviewed and patients with DS who used PER were included in this study. The diagnosis was established using whole-exome sequencing, and the collected data included the patients' demographic characteristics, seizure pattern, PER dosage, laboratory and imaging findings. Results: This study included 18 pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of DS. The mean age of PER initiation was 7.67±3.865. Most patients had two types of seizures (61.1%) followed by three types (22.2%), with generalized tonic-clonic being the most frequently reported type of seizure. The mean efficacy of PER was 29.17%±29.368%, and only one patient had an efficacy of 100%. Moreover, patients aged 8 years and younger presented with higher efficacy than those who were older (49.17%±34.120% vs. 19.17%±21.829%, P=0.03). Conclusions: This study presented supporting evidence of the promising therapeutic effect of PER among patients with DS. PER can be considered one of the treatment options for this group of patients. However, several patients presented with unfavorable side effects that led to medication cessation. Future multicenter studies are required to explore further treatment options for patients with DS.

8.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-9, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the safety and effectiveness of monotherapy versus combination therapy for the treatment of infections caused by S. maltophilia. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, cohort study included patients treated with either monotherapy or combination therapy for infections caused by S. maltophilia. Primary outcomes included overall in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, and clinical cure. Safety outcomes were also evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression was used as a control for confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients were included, 330 patients received monotherapy and 77 patients received combination therapy. A total of 21% presented with concomitant bacteremia. After adjusting the differences between the two groups, there were no statistically significant differences between patients who received monotherapy versus combination therapy in clinical cure (55% vs 65%; OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.40-1.31) and overall in-hospital mortality (52% vs 49%; OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.45-1.57). However, patients who received monotherapy had a lower rate of 30-day mortality (28% vs 32%; OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.90) and acute kidney injury (9% vs 18%; OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.16-0.78). CONCLUSION: Clinical outcomes did not significantly differ in patients who received combination therapy versus monotherapy. More data are needed to validate these findings.

9.
Natl J Maxillofac Surg ; 15(1): 3-17, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690239

RESUMO

Distant metastasis to salivary glands is a very rare event. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been known for its high propensity of metastasis to unusual locations and salivary glands are one among those sites. Approximately 0.1% of all salivary gland metastatic neoplasms originate from renal malignancies Literature has reported several studies analysing the metastatic tumors to the oral region. However, very little research work has been published to date to analyse solely the RCC metastasizing to the salivary glands. Thus, this review was conducted to examine the published cases of RCC metastasizing to salivary glands in the literature to date and to learn about their characteristics. An electronic search of the published literature was performed without publication year limitation in PubMed/ Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Embase, and Research Gate databases, using mesh keywords like ('Renal cancer', OR 'Renal carcinoma' OR 'Renal cell cancer' OR 'Renal cell carcinoma'), AND ('Metastasis' OR 'Metastases'), And ('Salivary glands' OR 'Parotid gland' OR 'Submandibular gland' OR 'Sublingual gland'). We also searched all related journals manually. The reference list of all articles was also checked. Our research revealed a total of 83 relevant papers (1965-2022) with 100 patients. Parotid was the most predominant gland affected. 8% of patients died with a mean survival time of 1.3 yr. From this research, it can be concluded that RCC metastasizing to salivary glands is a rare occurrence. Careful evaluation of these cases is needed in order to raise awareness of these lesions and gain a better understanding of their characteristics for clinical as well as global implications.

11.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0015924, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808977

RESUMO

The human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is considered one of the most common viruses that infect children globally. The virus is known to have extensive gene sequence variability within and between RSV groups A and B globally; however, there is no information on the whole-genome characterization and diversity of RSV in Kuwait. Therefore, this study aimed to sequence the entire genome of RSV strains isolated from patients with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in Kuwait. Therefore, this study aimed to sequence the entire genome of RSV strains isolated from patients with ARTI in Kuwait. Between January 2020 and September 2022, 7,093 respiratory samples were collected from hospitalized infants, children, and adults and were analyzed for respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time PCR. Whole-genome sequencing using the Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology was performed on 84 RSV-positive samples. The results revealed a higher prevalence of group A (76%) than group B (24%) RSV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RSV-A strains clustered with the GA2.3.5 sub-genotype and RSV-B strains clustered with the GB5.0.5a sub-genotype; however, forming new lineages of RSV-A and RSV-B circulated in Kuwait during this period. Genetic variability was higher among the group A viruses than group B viruses, and the rate of synonymous and missense mutations was high in genes other than the G protein-coding gene. We also detected several known and unique molecular markers in different protein-coding genes. This is the first study in Kuwait to characterize the whole genomes of RSV A and B to identify the circulating genotypes, comprehend the genetic diversity and the evolution of the virus, and identify important genetic markers associated with specific genotypes.IMPORTANCEWhole-genome sequencing of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) strains in Kuwait using MinION Nanopore technology was used to characterize and analyze the genotypes and sub-genotypes of the RSV circulating among patients with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuwait. This study also identified known and unknown gene mutations and imported genetic markers associated with specific genotypes. These results will assist in establishing a framework for RSV classification and allow for a better consideration of the mechanisms leading to the generation of diversity of RSV. In addition, these data will allow a comparison of vaccine viruses with those in Kuwait, providing useful insights into future vaccine and therapy strategies for RSV in Kuwait.

12.
Cureus ; 16(3): e56108, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618311

RESUMO

Background Thrombocytopenia is the most prevalent hematological condition in neonates that develops in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This set of illnesses is caused by either decreased platelet production due to placental insufficiency, increased platelet breakdown (consumption), or a combination of the two causes. Based on platelet count, it is defined as mild, moderate, or severe thrombocytopenia, with early and late onset. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and the factors that contribute to it in newborns hospitalized in the neonatal critical care unit at the Maternity and Children Hospital in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methods This descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out at the NICU of the Maternity and Children Hospital in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, over the span of one year (August 2022 to August 2023) among hospitalized neonates with thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia is defined as a platelet count of 150,000 or less. These patients were monitored until they recovered or died. Results The inclusion criteria were met by a total of 242 newborns with thrombocytopenia. Half of the neonates (57%) were full-term, with Apgar scores greater than 5 at the first (84%) and fifth (93%) minutes, respectively. The great majority of individuals (84%) experienced early-onset thrombocytopenia of mild severity (62%) and were asymptomatic (93%). The majority of the cases resolved spontaneously, with only 21% requiring platelet transfusion. There was a significant relationship discovered between gestational age and the severity of thrombocytopenia, with very preterm infants having moderate to severe thrombocytopenia, as well as birth weight (p=0.001). Furthermore, neonates with severe thrombocytopenia had a considerably higher mortality rate (p=0.001). Conclusion The mortality and morbidity of newborns with perinatal risk for neonatal thrombocytopenia can be reduced with timely detection of the cause and development of thrombocytopenia, as well as adequate and early care.

13.
Surg Open Sci ; 19: 95-100, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601734

RESUMO

Background: Frailty has been associated with worse postoperative outcomes. The 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) is an objective measure although its validity in measuring frailty in patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC) has not been reported. Methods: This study used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) targeted proctectomy database. The mFI-5 was calculated by five preoperative diagnoses: insulin-dependent or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, congestive heart failure, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and dependent or partially dependent functional status. The impact of mFI-5 on minor and major postoperative morbidity in CUC patients undergoing IPAA was analyzed. Results: The cohort included 1454 patients (median age 38 years, median body mass index [BMI] 26 kg/m2) of which 87 % had a mFI-5 = 0, 11 % had a mFI-5 = 1, and 2.5 % a mFI-5 ≥ 2. In multivariable logistic regression, mFI-5 ≥ 2 was significantly associated with minor complications (OR = 2.29, 95 % CI [1.00-5.22], p = 0.049), but not with major complications (p = 0.860). Conclusion: IPAA for CUC is associated with high postoperative morbidity, however, the mFI-5 alone has limited utility in determining which patients are at a higher risk of complications due to frailty. These observations suggest there is a need for more relevant instruments to measure frailty in this patient cohort.

14.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 16(Suppl 1): S757-S760, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595385

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of child-friendly dentist attire and camouflage syringes on reducing dental anxiety in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 120 pediatric patients aged 6 to 12 years. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: group A (child-friendly dentist attire), group B (camouflage syringe), or group C (control group). Child preference for dentist attire was assessed using a visual analog scale, while dental anxiety was measured using the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale and the Facial Image Scale. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in dental anxiety scores in both group 2 and group 3 compared to group 1 (P < 0.001). Children in group A exhibited a higher preference for child-friendly dentist attire [mean score: 8.7, standard deviation (SD): 1.2] compared to group 1 (mean score: 3.2, SD: 1.5) (P < 0.001). Similarly, children in group 2 showed a higher preference for a camouflage syringe (mean score: 8.5, SD: 1.3) compared to group 1 (mean score: 3.4, SD: 1.6) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Child-friendly dentist attire and camouflage syringes were found to be effective in reducing dental anxiety among pediatric patients. These interventions were well received by children and their parents, highlighting the importance of considering child preferences in dental settings.

15.
Cureus ; 16(3): e57217, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38681476

RESUMO

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare inherited disorder of resistance to aldosterone and presents with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Cohen syndrome (CS) is another rare inherited disease. Concurrent presentation with pseudohypoaldosteronism makes it so extraordinary and implies more challenges for clinicians. We report a case of a female with Cohen syndrome (novel mutation) and systemic pseudohypoaldosteronism, as well as the challenges we have encountered in the management of this patient.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 444, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671365

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) are an important public health threat, with costly operational and economic consequences for NHS Integrated Care Systems and NHS Trusts. UK Health Security Agency guidelines recommend that Trusts use locally developed risk assessments to accurately identify high-risk individuals for screening, and implement the most appropriate method of testing, but this presents many challenges. METHODS: A convenience sample of cross-specialty experts from across England met to discuss the barriers and practical solutions to implementing UK Health Security Agency framework into operational and clinical workflows. The group derived responses to six key questions that are frequently asked about screening for CPE. KEY FINDINGS: Four patient groups were identified for CPE screening: high-risk unplanned admissions, high-risk elective admissions, patients in high-risk units, and known positive contacts. Rapid molecular testing is a preferred screening method for some of these settings, offering faster turnaround times and more accurate results than culture-based testing. It is important to stimulate action now, as several lessons can be learnt from screening during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as from CPE outbreaks. CONCLUSION: Further decisive and instructive information is needed to establish CPE screening protocols based on local epidemiology and risk factors. Local management should continually evaluate local epidemiology, analysing data and undertaking frequent prevalence studies to understand risks, and prepare resources- such as upscaled screening- to prevent increasing prevalence, clusters or outbreaks. Rapid molecular-based methods will be a crucial part of these considerations, as they can reduce unnecessary isolation and opportunity costs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Programas de Rastreamento , beta-Lactamases , Humanos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Inglaterra , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Hospitais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/genética
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(3): e5662, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528849

RESUMO

The expression "pleomorphic adenoma" has been used synonymously with mixed cutaneous tumors and chondroid syringomas. It originates from eccrine or apocrine skin, salivary glands, and lacrimal glands. Histologically, it comprises an epithelial-lined glandular component embedded in the cartilaginous, myxomatous, or fibrous stroma. These lesions are usually misdiagnosed because they are extremely rare. It commonly affects middle-aged men and has a slow-growing nature. The usual manifestation is a firm nodular lesion in the periorbital region, particularly at eyelid margins. A unique presentation of this tumor was described in a young woman. The tumor presented as a small, static, nontender lump located at the junction of the superior margin of the left eyebrow and forehead. After a thorough clinical assessment, she underwent a complete surgical excision of the lesion. The most probable preoperative clinical impression at that time was that of a sebaceous cyst. However, histopathological examination revealed it to be a pleomorphic adenoma, which, to our knowledge, has never been reported in the literature at this specific anatomical site. Two years after the procedure, the patient's follow-up was uneventful, and revealed no recurrence of the lesion. Although its incidence is exceptionally low, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions in the head, neck, and trunk. Complete surgical excision for histopathological assessment is recommended to rule out malignancy and avoid the frequent issue of local recurrence in cases of benign tumors.

18.
Qual Health Res ; : 10497323241234008, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497200

RESUMO

Health professionals/clinicians interview people regularly as part of their role. However, a qualitative research interview differs considerably to a clinical interview. If clinicians approach qualitative research interviewing based on their expertise in clinical interviewing, it could cause insufficiencies in qualitative data generation. In this reflection article, we, a team of four experienced clinical occupational therapists with no previous experience in qualitative research interviewing, share our experiences while learning to become qualitative research interviewers before undertaking our first qualitative research project. We engaged in self-directed reading, formal training on qualitative interviewing, and practice interviews and used peer feedback and reflection to prepare ourselves to conduct qualitative interviews. We drew upon the work-role transitions theory to work through our adjustment to the new role. Although we set out to "switch hats" as the research topic itself was not clinical, interviewing people on health-related topics will mean bringing our clinical instincts into our research role, while still recognizing the difference between a clinical and research interview. This article can inform experienced clinicians/novice qualitative researchers as they develop this new skillset.

19.
Cureus ; 16(2): e54123, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487160

RESUMO

Background Advances in pump technology and the availability of insulin analogs, as well as the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), which established the benefit of improved glycemic control, have all contributed to the increased use of insulin pump therapy in recent years, particularly in children. Purpose This research aims to compare the impact of insulin delivery method, i.e., continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or multiple daily injections (MDI) on glycemic control and the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methods  A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a diabetic center in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, over 24 months (2020-2022) among children with type I diabetes mellitus (age group 1-14 years). Results  In total, 351 patients with diabetes were induced, with 316 (90%) on MDI and 35 (10%) on CSII. After six months of diagnosis, precisely 38 (12%) of patients with diabetes on the MDI regimen experienced DKA, compared to 4 (11.4%) of those on the CSII regimen, with no statistically significant difference (P=0.918). At six months and nine months of follow-up, the average hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was considerably higher in diabetic patients on MDI (8.9 ± 1.7% vs. 8.2 ± 1.5% and 9.1 ± 1.6% vs. 8.0 ± 1.3%, respectively, with a significant p-value ≤0.05). Conclusion In this study, we found that patients on the MDI regimen had considerably higher HbA1c levels than patients on the CSII regimen, but there was no statistically significant difference in DKA rates between them. This is a short-term follow-up study, and we recommend that patients be followed for a longer period of time for further accurate outcomes.

20.
Saudi Med J ; 45(3): 252-260, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, over a 5-year period, among Saudi women. METHODS: A 2-phase, population-based study combining cross-sectional and cohort designs was carried out with 5360 ever-married women aged 30-65 from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between 2013 and 2018. Participants were enrolled in a designated screening program and screened using the hybrid capture 2 HPV test. Women testing positive for HPV were followed up after one year to estimate the HPV clearance rate, while those testing negative had a follow-up after 5 years to assess new HPV infections. Factors associated with HPV positivity and clearance, including sociodemographic and clinical aspects, were analyzed. RESULTS: Participant's mean age was 44.3 and the average marriage duration was 22.6 years. The initial HPV prevalence was 4.7%. After one year, the HPV clearance rate among initially positive women was 84.3%. The rate of new HPV infections among initially negative women after 5 years was 0.2%, resulting in a cumulative HPV prevalence of 5% over the study period. The incidence rate was estimated at 47 per 100,000 person-years. Parity was the only independent factor inversely associated with HPV positivity, with an odds ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.8 - 0.99). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV in Saudi women was relatively low, suggesting a low transmission rate of HPV. This finding indicates the need for continuous monitoring and tailored prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência
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