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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253106, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345544

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar modelos baseados em dados para previsão da produção florestal em diferentes cenários de mudanças climáticas na divisão florestal Gallies do distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os modelos Random Forest (RF) e Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) foram desenvolvidos e avaliados usando dados de produção de duas espécies (pinheiro-azul e abeto-prateado) como uma variável objetiva e dados climáticos (temperatura, umidade, precipitação e velocidade do vento) como preditivos variáveis. A precisão da previsão de ambos os modelos foi avaliada por meio de erro quadrático médio (RMSE), erro absoluto médio (MAE), coeficiente de correlação (r), erro quadrático médio relativo (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), índice de Willmott (WI) e métricas Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE). No geral, o modelo RF superou o modelo KRR devido à sua maior precisão na previsão do rendimento florestal. O estudo recomenda fortemente que o modelo RF seja aplicado em outras regiões do país para previsão do crescimento e produtividade florestal, o que pode ajudar no manejo e planejamento futuro da produtividade florestal no Paquistão.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Paquistão
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

RESUMO

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Assuntos
Animais , Bombyx , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Bactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Larva
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Assuntos
Animais , Lagartos , Paquistão , Filogenia , Variação Genética/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250575, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350309

RESUMO

Abstract Cancer is a fatal malignancy and its increasing worldwide prevalence demands the discovery of more sensitive and reliable molecular biomarkers. To investigate the GINS1 expression level and its prognostic value in distinct human cancers using a series of multi-layered in silico approach may help to establish it as a potential shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of different cancer subtypes. The GINS1 mRNA, protein expression, and promoter methylation were analyzed using UALCAN and Human Protein Atlas (HPA), while mRNA expression was further validated via GENT2. The potential prognostic values of GINS1 were evaluated through KM plotter. Then, cBioPortal was utilized to examine the GINS1-related genetic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), while pathway enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID. Moreover, a correlational analysis between GINS1 expression and CD8+ T immune cells and a the construction of gene-drug interaction network was performed using TIMER, CDT, and Cytoscape. The GINS1 was found down-regulated in a single subtypes of human cancer while commonly up-regulated in 23 different other subtypes. The up-regulation of GINS1 was significantly correlated with the poor overall survival (OS) of Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (LIHC), Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). The GINS1 was also found up-regulated in LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of GINS1 in two diverse pathways, while few interesting correlations were also documented between GINS1 expression and its promoter methylation level, CD8+ T immune cells level, and CNVs. Moreover, we also predicted few drugs that could be used in the treatment of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC by regulating the GINS1 expression. The expression profiling of GINS1 in the current study has suggested it a novel shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC.


Resumo O câncer é uma doença maligna fatal e sua crescente prevalência mundial exige a descoberta de biomarcadores moleculares mais sensíveis e confiáveis. Investigar o nível de expressão de GINS1 e seu valor prognóstico em cânceres humanos distintos, usando uma série de abordagens in silico em várias camadas, pode ajudar a estabelecê-lo como um potencial biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de diferentes subtipos de câncer. O mRNA de GINS1, a expressão da proteína e a metilação do promotor foram analisados ​​usando UALCAN e Human Protein Atlas (HPA), enquanto a expressão de mRNA foi posteriormente validada via GENT2. Os valores prognósticos potenciais de GINS1 foram avaliados por meio do plotter KM. Em seguida, o cBioPortal foi utilizado para examinar as mutações genéticas relacionadas ao GINS1 e as variações do número de cópias (CNVs), enquanto a análise de enriquecimento da via foi realizada usando DAVID. Além disso, uma análise correlacional entre a expressão de GINS1 e células imunes T CD8 + e a construção de uma rede de interação gene-droga foi realizada usando TIMER, CDT e Cytoscape. O GINS1 foi encontrado regulado negativamente em um único subtipo de câncer humano, enquanto comumente regulado positivamente em 23 outros subtipos diferentes. A regulação positiva de GINS1 foi significativamente correlacionada com a sobrevida global pobre (OS) de Carcinoma Hepatocelular de Fígado (LIHC), Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão (LUAD) e Carcinoma de Células Claras Renais de Rim (KIRC). O GINS1 também foi encontrado regulado positivamente em pacientes LIHC, LUAD e KIRC de diferentes características clínico-patológicas. A análise de enriquecimento de vias revelou o envolvimento de GINS1 em duas vias diversas, enquanto poucas correlações interessantes também foram documentadas entre a expressão de GINS1 e seu nível de metilação do promotor, nível de células imunes T CD8 + e CNVs. Além disso, também previmos poucos medicamentos que poderiam ser usados ​​no tratamento de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC, regulando a expressão de GINS1. O perfil de expressão de GINS1 no estudo atual sugeriu que é um novo biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC.


Assuntos
Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Prognóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253107, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355911

RESUMO

Abstract Life cycle assessment was carried out for a conventional wooden furniture set produced in Mardan division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan during 2018-19. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs were collected through questionnaire surveys from 100 conventional wooden furniture set manufacturers, 50 in district Mardan and 50 in district Swabi. In the present study, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach was applied for a functional unit of one conventional wooden furniture set. Production weighted average data were modelled in the environmental impacts modelling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5. The results showed that textile used in sofa set, wood preservative for polishing and preventing insects attack and petrol used in generator had the highest contribution to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. Total cumulative energy demand for wooden furniture set manufactured was 30,005 MJ with most of the energy acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel resources.


Resumo A abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida foi realizada para um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional produzido na divisão Mardan da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa do Paquistão durante 2018-19. Os dados primários sobre entradas e saídas foram coletados por meio de pesquisas por questionário de 100 fabricantes de conjuntos de móveis de madeira convencionais, 50 no distrito de Mardan e 50 no distrito de Swabi. No presente estudo, a abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida do berço ao portão foi aplicada para uma unidade funcional de um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional. Os dados da média ponderada da produção foram modelados no software de modelagem de impactos ambientais, isto é, SimaPro v.8.5. Os resultados mostraram que os têxteis usados ​​no conjunto de sofás, o preservativo de madeira para polir e prevenir o ataque de insetos e a gasolina usada no gerador tiveram a maior contribuição em todas as categorias de impacto ambiental avaliadas. A demanda total acumulada de energia para o conjunto de móveis de madeira fabricado foi de 30.005 MJ, com a maior parte da energia adquirida de recursos de combustíveis fósseis não renováveis.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Paquistão
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252676, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364501

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is the foremost reason of progressive hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with an elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Medicinal plants have been used for human health benefits for several years, but their therapeutic potential needs to be explored. The main objective of this study was to figure out the in vitro antiviral and anticancer characteristics of total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and HCC. Total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica was isolated and quantified. The level of cytotoxicity was measured against the HepG2 cell line and it shows no significant cytotoxicity at the concentration of 504µg/ml. The anti-HCV effect was determined by absolute quantification via real time RT-PCR method and viral titer was reduced up to 66% in a dose dependent manner against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica. The anticancer potential of Iberis gibraltarica was also examined through mRNA expression studies of AFP and GPC3 genes against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica-treated HepG2 cells. The results show up to 90% of the down-regulation expression of AFP and GPC3. The obtained results indicate the therapeutic potential of total protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro.


A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é a principal causa de fibrose hepática progressiva e cirrose, com risco elevado de desenvolvimento de carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC). As plantas medicinais vêm sendo utilizadas para benefícios à saúde humana há vários anos, mas seu potencial terapêutico precisa ser explorado. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir as características antivirais e anticancerígenas in vitro da proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e HCC. A proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica foi isolada e quantificada. O nível de citotoxicidade foi medido contra a linha celular HepG2 e não apresenta citotoxicidade significativa na concentração de 504µg/ml. O efeito anti-HCV foi determinado por quantificação absoluta através do método RT-PCR em tempo real e o título viral foi reduzido em até 66% de forma dose-dependente contra a proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica. O potencial anticancerígeno de Iberis gibraltarica também foi examinado através de estudos de expressão de mRNA dos genes AFP e GPC3 contra a proteína total de células HepG2 tratadas com Iberis gibraltarica. Os resultados mostram até 90% da expressão de regulação negativa de AFP e GPC3. Os resultados obtidos indicam o potencial terapêutico da proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e carcinoma hepatocelular in vitro.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Terapêutica , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256190, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364523

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant causing serious health problems. The aim of the present study was to find out concentration of PM in ambient air and its associated health risk in Haripur city, Pakistan. Twenty-three samples were taken at various educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries in Haripur city. Concentration of PM2.5 (µg/m3) and PM10 (µg/m3) was measured with Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A portable PM counter. The results revealed that values of both PM2.5 and PM10 were above the permissible limits (35 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 150 µg/m3 for PM10) set by Environmental Protection Agency Pakistan (Pak-EPA) in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries investigated. Furthermore, significant (p<0.05) variation was found in the concentration of both PM2.5 and PM10 in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas, and industries studied. The concentration of PM2.5 was positively correlated with the concentration of PM10 in all the sampling sites. Therefore, from 1-14 scale standard of health index, the values of PM2.5 and PM10 exhibited that the ambient air quality of Haripur city Pakistan is under high risk. If the regulatory authorities such as Environmental Protection Agency, Health Department and Local Government monitor PM pollution in different settings of Haripur city, then a decrease can be possible in the pollution level. The remedies that can be taken to overcome the problem of ambient air pollution such as PM are plantation of trees at the sites where there are higher levels of air pollutants and use of masks on personal protection basis along with implementation of pollution control system in industries of Hattar Industrial Estate Haripur city, Pakistan.


O material particulado (MP) é um importante poluente do ar que causa sérios problemas de saúde. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descobrir a concentração de MP no ar ambiente e sua associação com o risco à saúde na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão. Vinte e três amostras foram coletadas em várias instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias na cidade de Haripur. A concentração de MP2,5 (µg/m3) e MP10 (µg/m3) foi medida por meio do contador de MP portátil Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A. Os resultados revelaram que os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 estavam acima dos limites permitidos (35 µg/m3 para MP2,5 e 150 µg/m3 para MP10) estabelecidos pela Agência de Proteção Ambiental do Paquistão (Pak-EPA) em todas as instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias investigadas. Além disso, foi encontrada variação significativa (p < 0,05) na concentração de MP2,5 e MP10 em todos os locais estudados. A concentração de MP2,5 correlacionou-se positivamente com a concentração de MP10 em todos os locais de amostragem. Portanto, a partir da escala padrão 1-14 do índice de saúde, os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 mostraram que a qualidade do ar ambiente na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão, está sob alto risco. Se as autoridades reguladoras, como a Pak-EPA, o Departamento de Saúde e o governo local, monitorarem a poluição por MP em diferentes configurações da cidade de Haripur, pode ser que haja uma diminuição no nível de poluição. As medidas que podem ser tomadas para superar o problema da poluição do ar ambiente, como o MP, são o plantio de árvores nos locais onde há maiores níveis de poluentes atmosféricos, o uso de máscaras e a implantação de sistema de controle de poluição nas propriedades industriais de Hattar, na cidade Haripur, Paquistão.


Assuntos
Risco à Saúde Humana , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Paquistão
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260615, 2024. tab, ilus, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374660

RESUMO

This article describes the environmental impacts of producing a single seedling in forest nurseries of selected districts (i.e., Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra) of Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. This study was based on the cradle-to-gate approach which begins with the pre-nursery stage and progresses toward the main nursery before transplanting seedlings into the plantation site. Data or life cycle inventory (LCI) of seedling production were collected through questionnaire surveys and personal meetings with forest nurseries managers and workers regarding consumption of different inputs such as electricity, diesel, fertilizers, herbicides, and polyethylene bags, organic manure, and water consumption. The SimaPro software version 8.5 and the CML2000 v2.05 environmental model was applied to perform life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) for a single seedling production in forest nurseries in the study area. In line with the objectives of the study, primary data regarding inputs and outputs of the nurseries were collected from 35 nurseries in the study area by using a random questionnaire method. In addition, secondary data were taken from online databases such as Eco-invent v.3.2 CORRIM and peer-reviewed published literature. For this study, a functional unit of a single seedling was considered. Production weighted average data were modeled in the latest environmental modeling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5 for ten US-EPA most wanted environmental impacts, such as global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion (AD), eutrophication potential (EP), acidification potential (AP), freshwater aquatic eco-toxicity (FAE), marine water eco-toxicity (MWE), terrestrial eco-toxicity (TE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), photochemical oxidation (PO), and human toxicity (HT). The results showed that the highest environmental impact posed by a single seedling was marine aquatic eco-toxicity (11.31360 kg 1,4-DB eq), followed by global warming potential (0.02945 kg CO2 eq) and (0.01227 kg 1,4-DB eq) human toxicity. The primary reason for these environmental burdens was the use of synthetic fertilizers in forest nurseries and the consumption of fossil fuels in nursery mechanization and transportation activities. The total cumulative energy demand for a single seedling was (0.800 MJ) with more than 90% contribution from fossil fuel energy resources such as petrol and diesel. It is therefore highly recommended to use renewable energy resources and organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers in forest nurseries to avoid and minimize greenhouse gas emissions (GHS) and other toxic emissions in the study area.


Este artigo descreve os impactos ambientais da produção de uma única muda em viveiros florestais de distritos selecionados (Haripur, Abbottabad e Manshera) da divisão Hazara, de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão, usando a abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida (ACV). Este estudo baseou-se na abordagem "do berço ao portão", que se inicia na fase pré-viveiro e progride em direção ao viveiro principal antes do transplante das mudas para o local de plantio. Os dados ou inventário de ciclo de vida (ICV) da produção de mudas foram coletados por meio de questionários e reuniões pessoais com o gerente e os trabalhadores dos viveiros florestais sobre o consumo de diferentes insumos, como energia elétrica, diesel, fertilizantes, herbicidas, sacos de polietileno, adubo orgânico e consumo de água. O software SimaPro, versão 8.5, e o modelo ambiental CML2000, v2.05, foram aplicados para realizar a avaliação de impacto do ciclo de vida (AICV) de uma única produção de mudas em viveiros florestais na área de estudo. Em consonância com os objetivos do estudo, os dados primários relativos às entradas e saídas dos viveiros foram coletados de 35 viveiros na área de estudo por meio de um método de questionário aleatório. Além disso, dados secundários foram obtidos de bancos de dados online, como Eco-invent v.3.2 CORRIM e literatura publicada revisada por pares. Para este estudo, foi considerada uma unidade funcional de uma única plântula. Os dados médios ponderados de produção foram modelados no software de modelagem ambiental mais recente, ou seja, SimaPro, v.8.5, para 10 impactos ambientais mais desejados pela US-EPA, como potencial de aquecimento global (PAG), depleção abiótica (DA), potencial de eutrofização (PE), potencial de acidificação (PA), ecotoxicidade de água doce (EAD), ecotoxicidade da água marinha (EAM), ecotoxicidade terrestre (ET), destruição da camada de ozônio (DCO), oxidação fotoquímica (OF) e toxicidade humana (TH). Os resultados mostraram que o maior impacto ambiental causado por uma única muda foi a ecotoxicidade da água marinha (11,31360 kg 1,4-DB eq), seguido pelo potencial de aquecimento global (0,02945 kg CO2 eq) e toxicidade humana (0,01227 kg 1,4-DB eq) eq). A principal razão para esses ônus ambientais foi o uso de fertilizantes sintéticos em viveiros florestais e o consumo de combustíveis fósseis nas atividades de mecanização e transporte de viveiros. A demanda total acumulada de energia para uma única muda foi de 0,800 MJ, com mais de 90% de contribuição de recursos energéticos de combustíveis fósseis, como gasolina e diesel. Portanto, é altamente recomendável usar recursos de energia renovável e fertilizantes orgânicos em vez de fertilizantes químicos em viveiros florestais para evitar e minimizar as emissões de gases de efeito estufa (GEE) e outras emissões tóxicas na área de estudo.


Assuntos
Madeira , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Paquistão
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260614, 2024. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374688

RESUMO

Payment for ecosystem services (PES) is a mechanism where a consumer is able and ready to pay for the protection of the precise ecosystem service and there must be a provider such as local societies receiving an economic resource, who in return, must have the ability to maintain that ecosystem service. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services. Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate tourism and carbon stock services of the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan. Two forest zones (Chirpine and Scrub) of Islamabad capital territory (ICT) were selected for estimation of carbon stock and their carbon credits and carbon worth, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted for tourism as a payment for ecosystem services. The method for carbon stock assessment was systematic sampling for Chirpine forest whereas random sampling was done for scrub forest. The size of sampling plot was 17.84 m radius, and a total of 93 plots (49 Scrub zone and 44 Chirpine zone) was taken in the study area. The carbon stock of both zones (Chirpine and Scrub zone) is 22556.75 ton/ha (Chirpine 20105.79, Scrub 2450.96) and total carbon dioxide sequestered by both zone is 82557.72 ton/ha (Chirpine 73587.2, Scrub 8970.52), total carbon credits of both zone is 302160.87 (Chirpine 269328.97, Scrub 32831.9) and the carbon worth of both Chirpine and scrub zone is 4532418.92 $ (Chirpine 4039937.09$, Scrub 492481.83$). Similarly, from tourism point of view, in Shakar Parian, 94% tourists were agreed for PES whereas 6% were disagreed for the PES (the 6% tourist were disagreed to contribute for PES, 40% were agreed for Rs.5 contribution and 54% for Rs.10.). moreover, in Lake view Park, 97% tourists were agreed and 3% are disagreed (In Lake View Park 5% tourists were disagreed for the PES contribution whereas 32% were agreed for Rs.5 and 63% were for Rs.10). In Damen e Koh, around 87% tourist were agreed and 13% were disagreed, (24% were agreed for the contribution of Rs.5 and 63% tourists were agreed for the contribution of Rs.10). In Marghazar Zoo, 93% tourists were agreed (22% were agreed for contribution of Rs.5 and 71% tourist were agreed for contribution of Rs.10) and 7% are disagreed for PES whereas 7% tourists were not agreed for contribution. PES may implement to compensate forest and parks manager to ensure better management of the forests and parks. Due to prime location and scenic beauty of the ICT, it has huge potential for implementation of PES mechanism for sustainable forest management and conservation. Therefore, it is recommended that Capital Development Authority (CDA) Islamabad should devise a plan for implementation of PES in forests and parks of ICT for its sustainable management of recreational and forest resources.


O pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES) é um mecanismo no qual um consumidor é capaz e está pronto para pagar pela proteção do serviço ecossistêmico preciso e deve haver um provedor, como sociedades locais, que recebe um recurso econômico, que, em troca, deve ter capacidade para manter esse serviço ecossistêmico. A avaliação econômica fornece a base para o pagamento de serviços ecossistêmicos. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os serviços de turismo e estoque de carbono do território da capital de Islamabad (ICT), Paquistão. Duas zonas florestais (Chirpine e Scrub) do território da capital de Islamabad (ICT) foram selecionadas para estimativa do estoque de carbono e seus créditos de carbono e valor de carbono. Uma pesquisa baseada em questionário foi realizada para turismo como pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos. O método para avaliação do estoque de carbono foi a amostragem sistemática para a floresta de Chirpine, enquanto a amostragem aleatória foi feita para a floresta de cerrado. O tamanho da parcela de amostragem foi de 17,84 m de raio, e um total de 93 parcelas (49 zona Scrub e 44 zona Chirpine) foi considerado na área de estudo. O estoque de carbono de ambas as zonas (zona Chirpine e Scrub) é de 22.556,75 ton/ha (Chirpine 20.105,79, Scrub 2.450,96), e o dióxido de carbono total sequestrado por ambas as zonas é de 82.557,72 ton/ha (Chirpine 73.587,2, Scrub 8.970,52); créditos totais de carbono de ambas as zonas são 302.160,87 (Chirpine 269.328,97, Scrub 32.831,9), e o valor de carbono tanto do Chirpine quanto da zona de scrub é 4.532.418,92 $ (Chirpine 4.039.937,09 $, Scrub 492481,83 $). Da mesma forma, do ponto de vista do turismo, em Shakar Parian 94% dos turistas concordaram com o PES, enquanto 6% discordaram do PES (6% dos turistas não concordaram em contribuir para o PES, 40% concordaram com a contribuição de R$ 5 e 54% para R$ 10). além disso, no Lake View Park, 97% dos turistas concordaram e 3% discordaram (no Lake View Park, 5% dos turistas discordaram da contribuição do PES, enquanto 32% concordaram em R$ 5 e 63% foram em R$ 10). Em Damen e Koh, cerca de 87% dos turistas concordaram e 13% discordaram (24% concordaram com a contribuição de R$ 5 e 63% dos turistas concordaram com a contribuição de R$ 10). No Jardim Zoológico de Marghazar, 93% dos turistas concordaram (22% aceitaram a contribuição de R$ 5 e 71% dos turistas aceitaram contribuir com R$ 10) e 7% discordaram para PES. enquanto 7% turistas não foram acordados para contribuição. O PSA pode ser implementado para compensar o gestor florestal e de parques para garantir uma melhor gestão de florestas e parques. Devido à localização privilegiada e beleza cênica do ICT, possui enorme potencial para implementação de mecanismo de PSA para manejo e conservação florestal sustentável. Portanto, recomenda-se que a autoridade de desenvolvimento da capital (CDA) de Islamabad elabore um plano para implementação de PES em florestas e parques de ICT para sua gestão sustentável de recursos recreativos e florestais.


Assuntos
Organização e Administração , Carbono , Ecossistema , Turismo , Paquistão
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259729, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384070

RESUMO

Agro-morphological characterizations offer robust and vigorous means for the precise characterization of germplasm to be used in breeding programs. Here, agro-morphological features-based analyses were considered to figure out the genetic variability within 99 maize accessions and five (5) check varieties including Azam, W. Islamabad, Haq Nawaz, Ev-5 and Evr197. A total of 28 important agro-morphological traits were accounted in the field trails at Hazara University Mansehra Pakistan, during spring 2015. The maximum variation was detected in grain weight per cob (53.43), followed by number of kernels per row (38.64) and flag leaf area (cm2), (38.09%). Cluster analysis divided the 99 maize accession with five check varieties of maize accessions into 7 clusters following the hierarchical clustering. Cluster II recorded 29 genotypes with maximum grain yield per cob, and highest flag leaf length, followed by cluster IV. Lowest grain yield per cob was noted for accessions of cluster I. Similarly, cluster VII consisted of accession with the longest cob length. Moreover, the investigations also revealed that the primary constituent among first five principal components with an eigen value about more than 0.98 in relation to 68.75% of the total variants. PCI accounted for 25.53%, PCII contributed 18.31%, and PCIII is 9.88% of the overall morphological variability were significant contributors were grain weight per cob, number of kernel per row, 1000 grain weight. The identification of a significant level of genetic diversity during the present investigation having implications for maize germplasm characterisation, conservation, and breeding programs aiming at developing improvement maize cultivars.


As caracterizações agromorfológicas oferecem meios robustos e vigorosos para a caracterização precisa do germoplasma a ser utilizado em programas de melhoramento. Aqui, análises baseadas em características agromorfológicas foram consideradas para descobrir a variabilidade genética dentro de 99 acessos de milho e cinco variedades de controle incluindo Azam, W. Islamabad, Haq Nawaz, Ev-5 e Evr197. Um total de 28 características agromorfológicas importantes foi contabilizado nas trilhas de campo na Universidade Hazara Mansehra, Paquistão, durante a primavera de 2015. A variação máxima foi detectada no peso de grãos por espiga (53,43), seguido pelo número de grãos por linha (38,64) e área da folha da bandeira (cm2), (38,09%). A análise de cluster dividiu os 99 acessos de milho com cinco variedades de acessos de milho em 7 clusters seguindo o agrupamento hierárquico. O cluster II registrou 29 genótipos com máxima produtividade de grãos por espiga e maior comprimento de folha bandeira, seguido do cluster IV. O menor rendimento de grãos por espiga foi observado para os acessos do cacho I. Da mesma forma, o cacho VII consistiu no acesso com maior comprimento de espiga. Além disso, as investigações também revelaram que o constituinte primário entre os cinco primeiros componentes principais com um valor próprio de cerca de 0,98 em relação a 68,75% do total de variantes. PCI representou 25,53%, PCII contribuiu com 18,31% e PCIII é 9,88% da variabilidade morfológica geral, onde os contribuintes significativos foram peso de grãos por espiga, número de grãos por linha, peso de 1.000 grãos. A identificação de um nível significativo de diversidade genética durante a presente investigação tem implicações para a caracterização de germoplasma de milho, conservação e programas de melhoramento visando o desenvolvimento de cultivares melhoradas de milho.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Paquistão
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e262662, 2024. tab, ilus, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384097

RESUMO

A socio-economic study was conducted in district Mardan of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan to get a comprehensive knowledge of the agroforestry tree species grown on the farmlands, their yield, and carbon stock. For yield and carbon stock estimation, data were collected from 59 sample plots by measuring the diameter, height, volume, and biomass of selected agroforestry tree species through D-tape and Haga altimeter. A total of 59 sample plots were inventoried using 2.5 percent sampling intensity. Each sample plot has an area of 0.5 ha, where each tree with a Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm was inventoried. The calculated amount of volume of each tree species was then converted to biomass by multiplying it by the density of wood and the Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF). Total yield and C stock for the selected agroforestry tree species were 11535.2 metric tons and 2102.2 metric tons, respectively. Populus euroamericana is classified as the main tree with 28% growing stock prior to Morus alba by 21%, while Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, Salix tetrasperma, and Bombax ceiba consist of 15%, 12%, 8%, 6%,7% and 3% growing stock respectively. Among the species found in different sampling plots the yield of Populus euroamericana was found to be 4747.5 metric tons and it was followed by the species Morus alba found at 2027.3 metric tons. Similarly, the volume for Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dalbergia sissoo, Salix spp, Boombox ceiba, and Acacia nilotica was 1532.2 tons,1503 ton,745.7,203.5ton, 555.4ton and 220.5ton, respectively. The carbon stock for Populus euroamericana was calculated as 777.8 ton/ha, while for Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Melia azedarach, Morus alba, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, Salix species, and Bombax ceiba it was calculated as 312.3ton/ha, 272.1ton/ha, 363ton/ha, 245.1ton/ha, 51.4ton/ha, 27.3ton/ha and 53.2ton/ha, respectively. The questionnaire survey conducted for price dynamics showed that the majority of respondents purchase timber from the market for construction. But they use farm trees with low-quality city construction. They dislike using local timber in the conventional building as timber from farm trees is liable to insect attack. Rs. 50,000-100000, (33.33%) of daily sales was concluded from 50% of the trader while (16.7%) of the traders have their sales between Rs.150,000-200,000. Therefore, it is concluded by the authors that both provincial and federal government should promote agroforestry in Pakistan through different incentives because it has the potential to cope with dilemma of deforestation of natural forests and improve the livelihood of local peoples. It is strongly recommended that special projects just like the Ten Billion Tree Afforestation Project (T-BTTP) should be launched for agroforestry plantation and promotion in the country to sustain the ecological harmony and uplift the socio-economic condition of the peoples of Pakistan.


Um estudo socioeconômico foi realizado no distrito de Mardan, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão, para obter maior conhecimento das espécies de árvores agroflorestais cultivadas em terras agrícolas, seu rendimento e estoque de carbono. Para a estimativa de produção e estoque de carbono, foram coletados os dados de 59 parcelas amostrais, medindo-se o diâmetro, a altura, o volume e a biomassa de espécies de árvores agroflorestais selecionadas por meio de fita D e altímetro Haga. Um total de 59 parcelas amostrais foi inventariado usando 2,5% de intensidade de amostragem. Cada parcela amostral possui uma área de 0,5 ha, em que cada árvore com Diâmetro à Altura do Peito (DAP) ≥ 5 cm foi inventariada. A quantidade calculada de volume de cada espécie de árvore foi então convertida em biomassa, multiplicando-a pela densidade da madeira e pelo Fator de Expansão da Biomassa (BEF). A produção total e o estoque de C para as espécies de árvores agroflorestais selecionadas foram 11.535,2 toneladas métricas e 2.102,2 toneladas métricas, respectivamente. Populus euroamericana foi classificada como a principal árvore com 28% de crescimento de estoque, seguida de Morus alba com 21%, enquanto Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, Salix tetrasperma e Bombax ceiba apresentaram 15%, 12%, 8%, 6%, 7% e 3% de crescimento do estoque, respectivamente. Entre as espécies encontradas em diferentes parcelas de amostragem, o rendimento de Populus euroamericana foi de 4.747,5 toneladas, seguida pela espécie Morus alba, com rendimento de 2.027,3 toneladas. Da mesma forma, o volume de Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dalbergia sissoo, Salix spp, Bombax ceiba e Acacia nilotica foi de 1.532,2 toneladas, 1.503 toneladas, 745,7 toneladas, 555,4 toneladas e 220,5 toneladas, respectivamente. O estoque de carbono para Populus euroamericana foi calculado como 777,8 ton/ha, enquanto para Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Melia azedarach, Morus alba, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, Salix species e Bombax ceiba foi calculado como 312,3 ton/ha, 272,1 ton/ha, 363 ton/ha, 245,1 ton/ha, 51,4 ton/ha, 27,3 ton/ha e 53,2 ton/ha, respectivamente. A pesquisa por questionário, realizada para a dinâmica de preços, mostrou que os entrevistados, em sua maioria, compram madeira do mercado para construção, mas usam árvores de fazenda em construções urbanas de baixa qualidade. Eles não gostam de utilizar a madeira local na construção convencional, pois ela é suscetível ao ataque de insetos. Em relação às vendas diárias, 50% dos comerciantes vendem entre Rs. 50.000-100.000, enquanto 16,7% têm suas vendas entre Rs.150.000-200.000. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o governo provincial quanto o governo federal devem promover, por meio de diferentes incentivos, a agrossilvicultura no Paquistão, por ter o potencial de lidar com o dilema do desmatamento de florestas naturais e melhorar a subsistência das populações locais. É fortemente recomendado que projetos especiais, como o Projeto de Reflorestamento de Dez Bilhões de Árvores (T-BTTP), sejam lançados para plantio agroflorestal e promoção no país para sustentar a harmonia ecológica e elevar a condição socioeconômica dos povos do Paquistão.


Assuntos
Árvores , Carbono , Comércio , Paquistão
13.
Molecules ; 28(5)2023 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36903399

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have newly developed as a potential drug delivery system. MSC-based drug delivery systems (MSCs-DDS) have made significant strides in the treatment of several illnesses, as shown by a plethora of research. However, as this area of research rapidly develops, several issues with this delivery technique have emerged, most often as a result of its intrinsic limits. To increase the effectiveness and security of this system, several cutting-edge technologies are being developed concurrently. However, the advancement of MSC applicability in clinical practice is severely hampered by the absence of standardized methodologies for assessing cell safety, effectiveness, and biodistribution. In this work, the biodistribution and systemic safety of MSCs are highlighted as we assess the status of MSC-based cell therapy at this time. We also examine the underlying mechanisms of MSCs to better understand the risks of tumor initiation and propagation. Methods for MSC biodistribution are explored, as well as the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cell therapies. We also highlight various promising technologies, such as nanotechnology, genome engineering technology, and biomimetic technology, to enhance MSC-DDS. For statistical analysis, we used analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kaplan Meier, and log-rank tests. In this work, we created a shared DDS medication distribution network using an extended enhanced optimization approach called enhanced particle swarm optimization (E-PSO). To identify the considerable untapped potential and highlight promising future research paths, we highlight the use of MSCs in gene delivery and medication, also membrane-coated MSC nanoparticles, for treatment and drug delivery.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Nanopartículas , Distribuição Tecidual , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Citoplasma
14.
Int J Impot Res ; 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36859681

RESUMO

Injection of exogenous material into the penis and scrotum has been performed for augmentation purposes. Complications include cosmetic dissatisfaction, penile necrosis and lymphoedema. We report the complications and outcomes from a single centre with an updated systematic review of the literature. A retrospective review of all cases presenting with foreign substance injection into the genitalia, over a 10-year period was performed. Thirty-five patients with a mean (standard deviation (SD); range) age of 36.9 (±9.1; 22-61) years at presentation were included. The mean (SD; range) time between injection and presentation was 7.8 (±5.8; 1 day-20 years) years. The most common injected substance was silicone (n = 16, 45.7%) and liquid paraffin (n = 8, 22.9%). The penile shaft (94.3%) was the most injected site. The most common presentations were cosmetic dissatisfaction (57.1%) and pain and/or swelling (45.7%). Surgery was required in 32 (91.4%) cases. Primary procedures included local excision and primary closure (n = 19, 59.4%), circumcision (n = 5, 15.6%), excision with a split skin graft or a scrotal flap reconstruction (n = 5, 15.6%). Three (8.6%) patients presented with necrosis and required acute debridement. Overall, 18 patients had more than 1 procedure, and 8 patients required 3 or more procedures. A systematic search of the literature identified 887 articles of which 68 studies were included for analysis. The most common substance injected was paraffin (47.7%), followed by silicone (15.8%). The majority of patients (77.9%) presented with pain, swelling or penile deformity. 78.8% of the patients underwent surgical treatment, which included excision and primary closure with or without the use of skin grafts (85.1% of all procedures), the use of flaps (12.3%) and penile amputation (n = 2). Complications of foreign body injection into the male genitalia can be serious resulting in necrosis and autoamputation. Surgical intervention is often required to excise abnormal tissue to manage pain and improve cosmesis.

15.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2023 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36890109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selecting wheat varieties with allelopathic potential or high competitiveness against weeds is a sustainable solution for organic farming to eliminate the use of synthetic herbicides. Wheat is one of the most economically important crops. This study focuses on screening the allelopathic or competitive potential of four wheat cultivars, Maurizio, NS 40S, Adesso and Element, on two weeds of interest due to acquired herbicide resistance, Portulaca oleracea and Lolium rigidum, through germination and growth bioassays and the identification and quantification of benzoxazinoids (BXZs) and polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids). RESULTS: The different cultivars showed different abilities to manage surrounding weeds and different capacity to exude or accumulate specialized metabolites in the presence of those weeds. Furthermore, each cultivar behaved differently depending on the weed present in the medium. The most efficient cultivar to control the tested monocot and dicot weeds was Maurizio, as it effectively controlled germination and growth of L. rigidum and P. oleracea while exuding large amounts of benzoxazinones through the roots, especially the hydroxamic acids 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one and dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxaxin-3(4H)-one. By contrast, NS 40S, Adesso and Element showed the potential to control the growth of just one of the two weeds through allelopathy or competition. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that Maurizio is the most promising wheat cultivar for sustainable weed control, and that the screening of crop varieties with allelopathic potential, which results in the displacement of synthetic herbicides, is an immediate solution in ecological and sustainable agriculture. © 2023 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

16.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 2023 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36913170

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is aimed at providing an overview of new developments in gene editing technology, including examples of how this technology has been used to develop cell models for studying the effects of gene ablation or missense mutations on lipoprotein assembly and secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing is superior to other technologies because of its ease, sensitivity, and low off-target effects. This technology has been used to study the importance of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, as well as to establish causal effects of APOB gene missense mutations on lipoprotein assembly and secretion. CRISPR/Cas9 technology is anticipated to provide unprecedented flexibility in studying protein structure and function in cells and animals and to yield mechanistic insights into variants in the human genome.

17.
J Neurol Sci ; 447: 120594, 2023 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36893513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple trials have shown that mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is superior to medical therapy. However, no robust evidence is available regarding MT beyond 24 h. In this study, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of endovascular stroke therapy in this late window. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of prospectively collected data of patients who met extended window trial criteria, but underwent MT beyond 24 h. Safety and efficacy outcomes included symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), procedural complications, number of passes, successful recanalization (mTICI 2b - 3), delta (Δ) NIHSS (baseline-discharge), and favorable outcomes (mRS 0-2 at 90 days). RESULTS: A total of 39 patients were included with a median age of 69 years (IQR 61.5, 73.5); 54% were females. Hypertension was present in 76% of patients; 23% were smokers. Half of the patients had M1 occlusion (48.7%). Median preprocedural NIHSS was 11 (IQR 7.0, 19.5). Successful revascularization was achieved in 87%; median number of passes was 2 (IQR 1.0, 3.0). Median ΔNIHSS was 3.0 (IQR -1.5, 8.0). Favorable outcome was achieved in 49% (95% CI: 34%-64%), and 95% were free of complications. A total of 3 patients (7.7%) had sICH. In an exploratory analysis, posterior circulation occlusion was associated with higher mRS at 90 days (OR: 14.7, p = 0.016). Favorable discharge facility was associated with lower mRS at 90 days (OR: 0.11, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed comparable clinical outcomes of MT beyond 24 h compared to MT trials within 24 h in patients with favorable imaging profile, especially in anterior circulation occlusions.

18.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2023 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36797170

RESUMO

VELRAD is the first multicentre feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing videoendoscopic radical inguinal lymphadenectomy versus open dissection for male genital cancer. We have randomised nine patients so far in our attempt to identify the best approach to inguinal lymph node dissection.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36762865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials of the efficacy and safety of endovascular thrombectomy in patients with large ischemic strokes have been carried out in limited populations. METHODS: We performed a prospective, randomized, open-label, adaptive, international trial involving patients with stroke due to occlusion of the internal carotid artery or the first segment of the middle cerebral artery to assess endovascular thrombectomy within 24 hours after onset. Patients had a large ischemic-core volume, defined as an Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score of 3 to 5 (range, 0 to 10, with lower scores indicating larger infarction) or a core volume of at least 50 ml on computed tomography perfusion or diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to endovascular thrombectomy plus medical care or to medical care alone. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days (range, 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability). Functional independence was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early for efficacy; 178 patients had been assigned to the thrombectomy group and 174 to the medical-care group. The generalized odds ratio for a shift in the distribution of modified Rankin scale scores toward better outcomes in favor of thrombectomy was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.89; P<0.001). A total of 20% of the patients in the thrombectomy group and 7% in the medical-care group had functional independence (relative risk, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.60 to 5.51). Mortality was similar in the two groups. In the thrombectomy group, arterial access-site complications occurred in 5 patients, dissection in 10, cerebral-vessel perforation in 7, and transient vasospasm in 11. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient in the thrombectomy group and in 2 in the medical-care group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with large ischemic strokes, endovascular thrombectomy resulted in better functional outcomes than medical care but was associated with vascular complications. Cerebral hemorrhages were infrequent in both groups. (Funded by Stryker Neurovascular; SELECT2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03876457.).

20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 13(3)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36770550

RESUMO

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a commonly used material, as it is biocompatible and relatively cheap. However, its mechanical properties and weak antibiofilm activity are major concerns. With the development of new technology, 3D-printed resins are emerging as replacements for PMMA. Few studies have investigated the antibiofilm activity of 3D-printed resins. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antibiofilm activity and surface roughness of a 3D-printed denture base resin modified with different concentrations of zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs). A total of 60 resin disc specimens (15 × 2 mm) were fabricated and divided into six groups (n = 10). The groups comprised a heat-polymerized resin (PMMA) group, an unmodified 3D-printed resin (NextDent) group, and four 3D-printed resin groups that were modified with ZrO2 NPs at various concentrations (0.5 wt%, 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%). All specimens were polished using a conventional method and then placed in a thermocycler machine for 5000 cycles. Surface roughness (Ra, µm) was measured using a non-contact profilometer. The adhesion of Candida albicans (C. albicans) was measured using a fungal adhesion assay that consisted of a colony forming unit assay and a cell proliferation assay. The data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparison, and p-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The lowest Ra value (0.88 ± 0.087 µm) was recorded for the PMMA group. In comparison to the PMMA group, the 3% ZrO2 NPs 3D-printed group showed a significant increase in Ra (p < 0.025). For the 3D-printed resins, significant differences were found between the groups with 0% vs. 3% ZrO2 NPs and 3% vs. 5% ZrO2 NPs (p < 0.025). The highest Ra value (0.96 ± 0.06 µm) was recorded for the 3% ZrO2 NPs group, and the lowest Ra values (0.91 ± 0.03 µm) were recorded for the 0.5% and 5% ZrO2 NPs groups. In terms of antifungal activity, the cell proliferation assay showed a significant decrease in the C. albicans count for the 0.5% ZrO2 NPs group when compared with PMMA and all other groups of 3D-printed resins. The group with the lowest concentration of ZrO2 NPs (0.5%) showed the lowest level of C. albicans adhesion of all the tested groups and showed the lowest Candida count (0.29 ± 0.03). The addition of ZrO2 NPs in low concentrations did not affect the surface roughness of the 3D-printed resins. These 3D-printed resins with low concentrations of nanocomposites could be used as possible materials for the prevention and treatment of denture stomatitis, due to their antibiofilm activities.

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