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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMO

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246825, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285634

RESUMO

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Resumo Um estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito do extrato da folha de Piper nigrum (pimenta-do-reino) sobre o desempenho de crescimento, composição centesimal, parâmetros hematológicos e resposta imune de alevinos de Labeo rohita com peso médio de 22,14 ± 0,98g. Após aclimatação por duas semanas, os peixes (n = 25) foram selecionados aleatoriamente e colocados em quatro aquários de vidro (T0, T1, T2 e T3) em temperatura constante da água (30,0 ± 1,0 °C), pH (7,50 ± 0,5) e dureza total (200 ± 2,0 mgL-1) por um período de 12 semanas, com três repetições cada. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração suplementada com extrato de folha de P. nigrum @ 0,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% em T0, T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, cinco peixes foram selecionados aleatoriamente de cada aquário para composição centesimal, carga microbiana intestinal e cutânea e parâmetros hematológicos. Proteínas totais, albuminas e globulinas também foram registradas para avaliar a memória imunológica. O resultado revelou que os peixes em T2 apresentaram melhor desempenho de crescimento com ganho de peso médio de 56,11 ± 0,51 g. Assim, concluiu-se que Piper nigrum, uma planta medicinal, também pode ser usado para melhorar o desempenho de crescimento e resposta imunológica de Labeo rohita como alternativas atraentes contra antibióticos e vacinas e não mostrou efeitos colaterais negativos na saúde dos peixes, bem como sobre seu ambiente.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247791, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285637

RESUMO

Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O crescimento do setor de aquicultura é fortemente dependente do fornecimento contínuo de rações baratas para peixes com perfil nutricional equilibrado. Porém, a farinha de peixe (FM) não consegue atender a essa demanda devido à sua escassa oferta e alto custo. Com o objetivo de testar o potencial da farinha de semente de canola (MSC) como substituto da farinha de peixe, um ensaio alimentar de 12 semanas foi conduzido para verificar o desempenho de crescimento e a composição centesimal de alevinos de Labeo rohita. A ração de proteína da ração teste foi satisfeita substituindo FM por CSM em 0, 25, 50 e 75%. Dezesseis dietas de teste, viz., TD1 (controle), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 e TD16 foram suplementadas com ácido cítrico (CA; 0 e 2,5%) e fitase (PHY; 0 e 750 FTU / kg) em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. O maior ganho de peso (11,03g), % de ganho de peso (249,21%), taxa de crescimento específico (1,39) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (1,20) foram registrados por peixes alimentados com TD12. Além disso, o mesmo nível aumentou a proteína bruta (59,26%) e a gordura (16,04%), sendo significativamente diferente (p <0,05) do controle. Conclusivamente, a adição de fitase acidificada (CA; 2,5%, PHY; 750 FTU / kg) em TD12 (CSM = 50%) levou a um melhor crescimento e composição próxima de alevinos de L. rohita.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468517

RESUMO

Fish protein is serving as a source of nutrition for protein starving world. However, sustainable aquaculture products require inexpensive plant by-products due to finite sources of fish meal. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine nutrient utilization, growth performance and hematological indices of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) based diets. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having MOLM as a substitute of fish meal (FM) at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for the period of 90 days. Fingerlings having initial weight 6.35±0.04g were reared in triplicate tanks at the stocking density of 15 and hand fed at the rate of 5% of total biomass twice regularly. Chromic oxide inclusion level was 1% in diets. After analysis, maximum growth performance and improved digestibility of nutrients were found in fish fed with diet at 10% replacement level as compared to fish fed on control diet and other test diets. Additionally, it was found that the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration of fish showed a significantly (p<0.05) inverse correlation with the increase in MOLM. In present research, it was concluded that MOLM has good potential to be used as a FM substitute in C. mrigala diet with maximum effect at 10% showing positive hematological indices.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Moringa oleifera , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246825, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431909

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Piper nigrum , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247791, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431918

RESUMO

The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta/veterinária
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378683

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Carboidratos
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259781

RESUMO

Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Ácido Cítrico , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes
11.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 29(8): 1096-1116, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of neuropathic-like pain (NP) and pain sensitization (PS) defined by self-report questionnaires in knee and hip osteoarthritis, and whether prevalence is potentially explained by disease-severity or affected joint. DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL were systematically searched (1990-April 2020) for studies describing the prevalence of NP and PS in knee and hip osteoarthritis using self-report questionnaires. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Statistical heterogeneity between studies and sub-groups (affected joint and population source as a proxy for disease severity) was assessed (I2 statistic and the Chi-squared test). RESULTS: From 2,706 non-duplicated references, 39 studies were included (2011-2020). Thirty-six studies reported on knee pain and six on hip pain. For knee osteoarthritis, the pooled prevalence of NP was: using PainDETECT, possible NP(score ≥13) 40% (95%CI 32-48%); probable NP(score >18) 20% (95%CI 15-24%); using Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs, 32% (95%CI 26-38%); using Douleur Neuropathique (DN4) 41% (95% CI 24-59%). The prevalence of PS using Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) was 36% (95% CI 12-59%). For hip osteoarthritis, the pooled prevalence of NP was: using PainDETECT, possible NP 29% (95%CI 22-37%%); probable NP 9% (95%CI 6-13%); using DN4 22% (95%CI 12-31%) in one study. The prevalence of possible NP pain was higher at the knee (40%) than the hip (29%) (difference 11% (95% CI 0-22%), P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using self-report questionnaire tools, NP was more prevalent in knee than hip osteoarthritis. The prevalence of NP in knee and hip osteoarthritis were similar for each joint regardless of study population source or tool used. Whether defining NP using self-report questionnaires enables more effective targeted therapy in osteoarthritis requires investigation.

12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112389, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901903

RESUMO

The present study aims to formulate the characterization and distribution of microplastic in the estuarine surface sediments of Kayamkulam estuary, southwest coast of India. The sediments were dominated by fibre and film shaped microplastic substances. The surface sediments were dominated by <1000 µm microplastics. The composition of microplastics in descending order was as follows: polyester > polypropylene > polyethylene. The distribution of microplastics was significantly higher than that observed in the other study regions, except for Pearl river estuary and Guanabara Bay. The distribution of microplastics was chiefly controlled by estuarine inundating water and the distance of the sampling site from the open sea.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(3): 1944-1953, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732080

RESUMO

Several anti-nutritional substances are found in plant derivatives for example phytate, that make the nutrients and minerals unavailable to fish, hence leading to poor growth performance. Presence of the anti-nutrient factor such as phytate is a chelated compound and need enzyme for its breakdown and availability of nutrients to improve fish growth. This research work was performed to check the improvement of overall performance of Cyprinus carpio fingerlings by the help of phytase addition in Moringa oleifera by- products based diet. Combination of Moringa seed meal and Moringa leaf meal was utilized as test ingredient to formulate seven test feeds, containing graded levels of phytase (0, 500, 650, 800, 950, 1100 and 1250 FTU kg-1). In feeding trial of 70 days, fingerlings were given feed two times in a day at the rate of 4% of wet weight of their bodies and faeces were collected. According to current results, it was found that growth performance parameters i.e. weight gain; 25 g, specific growth rate; 1.67 and feed conversion ratio; 1.10 were improved to maximum at 950 FTU kg-1. Digestibility of nutrients (crude protein; 73%, crude fat; 71% and gross energy; 67%) and minerals absorption was also maximum (Ca; 70%, Zn; 66%, K; 74%, Mn; 66% and P; 71%) at 950 FTU kg-1. Lowest growth efficiency, nutrient digestibility and mineral absorption were observed in fingerlings fed at control diet (0 FTU kg-1). Results of the current study, proved that 950 FTU kg-1 is the most optimum level of phytase to formulate economical and ecofriendly feed for improved growth of C. carpio fingerlings as it decreases the discharge of minerals and nutrients in water bodies.

14.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11346, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304681

RESUMO

Background Social media is a crucial part of our daily life. Facebook, being the biggest social media platform, plays a significant role in the spread of information influencing the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care agencies like the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use social media as a platform to impart information regarding COVID-19; simultaneously, there is a spread of misinformation on social media, masking the credible sources of information. Our research aims to assess the utility of Facebook in providing misinformation and testing its "fact-check policy." Methods An online search was conducted on Facebook by a newly created account to eliminate bias. The Facebook search bar was used to investigate multiple keywords. Data were tabulated in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). Descriptive statistical analysis of Facebook accounts and posts was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) while statistical importance was set a priority at a p-value of 0.05. Results Our study consisted of 454 Facebook posts. Most (22.5%) were posted by verified accounts and 23.9% by informal individual/group accounts. The tone for most (40.4%) COVID-19 information was serious while the most common (43.9%) topic was medical/public health. In total, 22.3% included misinformation, 19.6% were unverifiable, and 27.5% included correct information verifiable by the WHO or CDC. Conclusions Misinformation/unverifiable information related to the COVID-19 crisis is spreading at a distressing rate on social media. We quantified the misinformation and tested Facebook's "fact-check policy." We advise strict initiatives to control this infodemic and advise future researches to evaluate the accuracy of content being circulated on other social media platforms.

15.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 28(11): 1403-1411, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost a third of those undergoing knee replacement for osteoarthritis have poor outcomes despite technically successful surgery. Preoperative neuropathic-like pain and/or pain sensitisation may increase the risk of pain following joint replacement. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether preoperative neuropathic-like pain and pain sensitisation predicts pain, function and satisfaction following joint replacement for knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL were systematically searched until March 2020. Studies detecting neuropathic-like pain and/or sensitisation using self-report questionnaires prior to knee replacement for osteoarthritis, and relating this to post-operative outcomes were identified. Data extraction, risk of bias assessment and meta-analysis were performed, where appropriate. RESULTS: Five manuscripts, including one preprint, examining six cohorts were included: four used painDETECT or modified painDETECT, one the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs, and another the Central Sensitisation Inventory to identify preoperative characteristics. Three studies showed preoperative neuropathic-like pain or sensitisation was associated with more intense post-operative pain. All four studies examining the risk of significant pain after knee replacement suggested it was increased after >3 months. The only study examining patient satisfaction and function found reduced satisfaction, but no difference in function in those with preoperative sensitisation. Meta-analysis found the relative risk of increased pain following knee replacement in those with neuropathic-like pain (painDETECT ≥13) to be 2.05 (95% confidence intervals 1.51, 2.79). CONCLUSION: These results provide consistent but limited evidence that self-report tools detecting neuropathic-like pain and/or pain sensitisation, predict patients at higher risk of pain following knee replacement.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Sensibilização do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111410, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753194

RESUMO

Element concentration (Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Co) in the surface sediments of Ashtamudi estuary, Southwest coast of India, has been analyzed to understand the spatial variation and potential ecological risk status. The sediment pollution index and Potential Ecological Risk index suggest that the northeastern part of the estuary exhibits low to moderate polluted sediments with moderate ecological risk. The results of correlation analysis indicate that the natural weathering process and river input play an important role in the distribution of the elements in the surface sediments of the estuary. The extracted factor results indicate that the fine sediment fractions supporting for accumulation of the trace elements, whereas the enriched level of Fe and Mn is chiefly controlled by the riverine process, and other elements are contributed by anthropogenic influences.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Lagos , Medição de Risco
17.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(5)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110878

RESUMO

Thermal stability, salt tolerance, and solubility in normal and high salinity brine are the major requirements for any surfactant designed for oilfield applications because the surfactant stays in a non-ambient environment inside the reservoir for a long period of time. Herein, a series of new gemini cationic surfactants (GSs) with varying spacer hydrophilicity were synthesized and elucidated using MALDI-ToF-MS, NMR (1H, 13C), as well as FTIR spectroscopy. GSs found to be soluble in normal as well as high salinity brine and aqueous stability tests revealed that GSs possess the ability to retain their structural integrity at high salinity and high temperature conditions because no suspension formation or precipitation was detected in the oven aged sample of GSs at 90 °C for 30 days. Thermal gravimetric analysis displayed a higher decomposition temperature than the real reservoir temperature and the GS with a secondary amine spacer exhibited high heat stability. The significant reduction in surface tension and critical micelle concentration was observed using 1 M NaCl solution in place of deionized water. The difference in surface tension and critical micelle concentration was insignificant when the 1 M NaCl solution was replaced with seawater. The synthesized surfactants can be utilized for oilfield applications in a challenging high temperature high salinity environment.

18.
Scand J Rheumatol ; 48(1): 64-71, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between obesity and knee and hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis across a range of physical performance. METHOD: The body mass index and physical performance (on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey) of 9135 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study participants were measured in 1999-2000. The incidence of knee and hip arthroplasty during 2002-2011 was determined by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. RESULTS: Over 9.1 ± 2.3 years (mean ± sd)) of follow-up, 317 participants had knee and 202 had hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Using those with neither obesity nor significantly impaired physical performance as the reference group, participants with both obesity and significantly impaired physical performance had a higher knee arthroplasty risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.85-7.14] than those with obesity alone (HR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.81-3.44) or impaired physical performance alone (HR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.59-3.02). Similar results were observed for hip arthroplasty (obesity and impaired physical performance: HR = 2.67, 95% CI 1.72-4.15; obesity alone: HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.51; impaired physical performance alone: HR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.26-2.66). Among overweight/obese patients, 5 kg greater baseline weight increased the knee arthroplasty risk across all levels of physical performance, and hip arthroplasty risk in those with the highest level of physical performance. CONCLUSION: Although impaired physical performance is an independent risk factor for knee and hip arthroplasty, greater weight increased knee arthroplasty for overweight/obese participants at all levels of physical performance, but hip arthroplasty only in those with good physical performance. Targeting weight loss has the potential to reduce the risk of knee arthroplasty and improve patient outcomes, even in those with poor physical performance.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Osteoartrite do Quadril/etiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Austrália/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Climacteric ; 21(2): 132-139, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378442

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability with no cure. The incidence of osteoarthritis is sexually dimorphic: women have a higher rate of osteoarthritis than men after the age of 50. Research has investigated the contribution of sex hormones, reproductive factors and hormone supplementation to osteoarthritis. It has been recognized that different joints are susceptible to different risk factors for osteoarthritis. We reviewed the evidence for the effect of endogenous sex hormones, reproductive factors and hormone supplementation on joint-specific osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hand. Although the role of these hormonal factors in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is complex, data suggest that endogenous hormones and reproductive factors have a role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, especially knee osteoarthritis, with uncertainty for the effect of exogenous hormones. From the available data, it is hard to conclude whether this is a direct effect of hormonal factors, or whether other factors related to these hormonal factors, i.e. obesity and inflammation, have a role in this association. Further studies should consider the mediation effect of body weight and inflammation, change in body weight throughout life, circulatory levels of all endogenous hormones and circulatory levels of hormones after hormone supplementation in this complex relationship.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , História Reprodutiva , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Articulações/fisiopatologia , Menarca/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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