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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.

2.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques have advanced the treatment of metastatic diseases to the spine. The objective of this review was to describe clinical outcomes, benefits, and complications of these techniques. METHODS: All relevant clinical studies describing the role of MIS, computer-assisted navigation (CAN), robot-assisted (RA) procedures, and laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) in the treatment of metastatic spine diseases were identified from PubMed, MEDLINE, and relevant article bibliographies. RESULTS: For MIS articles, we filtered 1480 results and identified 26 studies. For CAN, we searched 464 articles to identify 18 articles for review. For RA, we searched 321 results to identify 7 studies for review. For LITT, we identified 21 articles for review. CONCLUSIONS: MIS for the treatment of spine metastasis has significant potential benefits in reducing surgical site infections, hospital stay, and blood loss without compromising instrument accuracy or overall outcomes. Overall, MIS and its adjuncts have the potential to reduce the risks involved in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the spinal column without compromising the benefits of decompression and stabilization of the spine.

3.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621568

RESUMO

Background: Adjacent-segment disease (ASD) is a well-described long-term complication after lumbar fusion. There is a lack of consensus about the risk factors for development of ASD, but identifying them could improve surgical outcomes. Our goal was to analyze the effect of patient characteristics and radiographic parameters on the development of symptomatic ASD requiring revision surgery after posterior lumbar fusion. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we identified patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgery and revision surgery from May 2012 to November 2018 using an institutional lumbar fusion registry. Patients having both pre- and post-operative upright radiographs were included in the study. Revision surgeries for which the index operation was performed at an outside hospital were excluded from analysis. Univariate analysis was conducted on candidate variables, and variables with P< 0.2 were selected for multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 106 patients identified, 21 required reoperation (29 months average follow-up). Age >65 years (OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.46-11.76, P= 0.008), body mass index (BMI) >34 (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.23, P = 0.004), and osteoporosis (OR 14, 95% CI 1.38-142.42, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of reoperation in the multivariate analysis. Increased facet diastasis at fusion levels (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.85, P = 0.004) was associated with reduced reoperation rates. Change in segmental LL at the index operation level, rostral and caudal facet diastasis, vacuum discs, and T2 hyperintensity in the facets were not predictors of reoperation. Conclusion: Age >65, BMI >34, and osteoporosis were independent predictors of adjacent-segment reoperation after lumbar spinal fusion.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 625497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336816

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint degenerative disease that is an exceedingly common problem associated with aging. Aging is the principal risk factor for OA, but damage-related physiopathology of articular chondrocytes probably drives the mechanisms of joint degeneration by a progressive decline in the homeostatic and regenerative capacity of cells. Cellular aging is the manifestation of a complex interplay of cellular and molecular pathways underpinned by transcriptional, translational, and epigenetic mechanisms and niche factors, and unraveling this complexity will improve our understanding of underlying molecular changes that affect the ability of the articular cartilage to maintain or regenerate itself. This insight is imperative for developing new cell and drug therapies for OA disease that will target the specific causes of age-related functional decline. This review explores the key age-related changes within articular chondrocytes and discusses the molecular mechanisms that are commonly perturbed as cartilage ages and degenerates. Current efforts and emerging potential therapies in treating OA that are being employed to halt or decelerate the aging processes are also discussed.

5.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436244

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease leading to degeneration of articular cartilage, causing morbidity in approximately 8.5 million of the UK population. As the dense extracellular matrix of articular cartilage is primarily composed of collagen, cartilage repair strategies have exploited the biocompatibility and mechanical strength of bovine and porcine collagen to produce robust scaffolds for procedures such as matrix-induced chondrocyte implantation (MACI). However, mammalian sourced collagens pose safety risks such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and possible transmission of viral vectors. This study characterised a non-mammalian jellyfish (Rhizostoma pulmo) collagen as an alternative, safer source in scaffold production for clinical use. Jellyfish collagen demonstrated comparable scaffold structural properties and stability when compared to mammalian collagen. Jellyfish collagen also displayed comparable immunogenic responses (platelet and leukocyte activation/cell death) and cytokine release profile in comparison to mammalian collagen in vitro. Further histological analysis of jellyfish collagen revealed bovine chondroprogenitor cell invasion and proliferation in the scaffold structures, where the scaffold supported enhanced chondrogenesis in the presence of TGFß1. This study highlights the potential of jellyfish collagen as a safe and biocompatible biomaterial for both OA repair and further regenerative medicine applications.

6.
Neuroscience ; 467: 142-149, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102261

RESUMO

Emerging evidence supports an increased role for NG2/CSPG4-expressing cells in the process of neuroregeneration and synaptic plasticity, due to the increased production of multifunctional chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (NG2/CSPG4). However, the response of NG2/CSPG4-expressing cells in spinal cord injury (SCI) remains to be elcudiated. Expression and distribution of NG2/CSPG4-expressing cells were studied by immunoelectron microscopy in the ventral horns (VH) of an intact and injured rat spinal cord. In the intact spinal cord, NG2/CSPG4 expression was detected on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm of NG2 glia and was absent in neurons. Large amounts of NG2/CSPG4 were found on myelin membranes. The ability of intact astrocytes to produce NG2/CSPG4 was shown, although to a lesser extent than oligodendrocytes and NG2 glia. At 7 days after SCI at the Th8 level in the reactive glial zone of VH, the expression of NG2/CSPG4 sharply increased in NG2 glia at a distance of 3-5 mm and in reactive astrocytes were observed at all investigated distances caudally from the epicenter of injury. The obtained results indicate the presence of NG2/CSPG4-positive astrocytes in the intact spinal cord, and in the case of damage, an increase in the ability of reactive astrocytes to produce NG2/CSPG4. SCI leads to increased expression of NG2/CSPG4 by NG2 glia in the early stages after injury, which decreases with distance from the epicenter of the injury, as well as at later stages.


Assuntos
Proteoglicanas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Antígenos , Astrócitos , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Ratos , Medula Espinal
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037080

RESUMO

Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
8.
Malays Orthop J ; 15(1): 72-78, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880151

RESUMO

Introduction: The study aimed to target the current practices of the orthopaedic community in outpatient (OPD), emergency (ER) and surgical services (OT) during COVID-19. Material and method: This study surveyed 303 orthopaedic surgeons from all over Pakistan. The survey had 30 questions targeting the setup of outpatient, emergency and operation services in orthopaedic departments of different hospitals in Pakistan. Result: A total of 302 surgeons were included from 53 cities all over Pakistan. Between 35-48% of the respondents reported lack of availability of standard operating procedures in OPD, ER and in OT. Majority of the respondents noted that their OPD and surgical practice had been affected to some degree and 69% of the surgeons were only doing trauma surgery. This trend was higher in younger consultants of less than 45 years of age (p<0.001). Almost two-third of the surgeons, mostly senior (p=0.03) were using surgical masks as the only protective measure during various practices of OPD, ER and OT, while most of the setups were not assessing patients even for signs and symptoms of COVID. Almost 89% of the orthopaedic community is facing definite to mild stress during this pandemic and this has significantly affected the senior surgeons (p=0.01). Conclusion: Our study highlighted that COVID-19 has resulted in marked changes to the practices of the majority of Pakistani orthopaedic surgeons. Despite a sharp upsurge in the number of cases and mortality due to COVID-19, guidelines were still lacking at most of the settings and a substantial percentage of the orthopaedic community were not following adequate safety measures while attending to patients.

9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): 508-513, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autologous stem cell progenitor implantation into necrotic lesions of the femoral head has previously been described as a potential treatment for avascular necrosis (AVN), on the basis that there is a reduced number of functioning stem cells in the marrow within the necrotic segment. We present a case series of patients with AVN that underwent core decompression with autologous stem cell implantation using a new device. METHODS: The records and imaging of patients with AVN of the femoral head treated by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated with core decompression and stem cell progenitor implantation, using the PerFuse system. Preoperatively, demographic information, AVN staging (as per Ficat and Arlet classification) and visual analogue pain scores (VAS) of the hips were recorded. These results were compared with postoperative VAS and imaging, with further review on the progression of AVN. RESULTS: We treated 14 hips in 13 patients with an average follow up of 12 months. Patients with Ficat I-II were selected for the procedure. The average preoperative VAS was 3.9. Postoperatively, this dropped to 2.6, with over half of patients reporting at least a two-point decrease in pain. Eight of the 14 treated hips showed no radiological progression of the disease, while six showed femoral head collapse requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA) at an average of ten months after treatment. CONCLUSION: Our early findings indicate that hip decompression with stem cell progenitor implantation for AVN of the femoral head provides symptomatic relief and may be beneficial in arresting progression of disease using this simple new device.


Assuntos
Artralgia/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/etiologia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/complicações , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128689

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a fundamental component of biological tissues. The ECM in the central nervous system (CNS) is unique in both composition and function. Functions such as learning, memory, synaptogenesis, and plasticity are regulated by numerous ECM molecules. The neural ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neuronal plasticity and axon regeneration. There are two specialized types of ECM in the CNS, diffuse perisynaptic ECM and condensed ECM, which selectively surround the perikaryon and initial part of dendritic trees in subtypes of neurons, forming perineuronal nets. This review presents the current knowledge about the role of important neuronal ECM molecules in maintaining the basic functions of a neuron, including electrogenesis and the ability to form neural circuits. The review mainly focuses on the role of ECM components that participate in the control of key events such as cell survival, axonal growth, and synaptic remodeling. Particular attention is drawn to the numerous molecular partners of the main ECM components. These regulatory molecules are integrated into the cell membrane or disposed into the matrix itself in solid or soluble form. The interaction of the main matrix components with molecular partners seems essential in molecular mechanisms controlling neuronal functions. Special attention is paid to the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, type 1 transmembrane protein, neural-glial antigen 2 (NG2/CSPG4), whose cleaved extracellular domain is such a molecular partner that it not only acts directly on neural and vascular cells, but also exerts its influence indirectly by binding to resident ECM molecules.

13.
Biomater Sci ; 8(15): 4287-4298, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589696

RESUMO

Conductive polymers have been used for various biomedical applications including biosensors, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the poor processability and brittleness of these polymers hinder the fabrication of three-dimensional structures with desirable geometries. Moreover, their application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has been so far limited to excitable cells such as neurons and muscle cells. To enable their wider adoption in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, new materials and formulations that overcome current limitations are required. Herein, a biodegradable conductive block copolymer, tetraaniline-b-polycaprolactone-b-tetraaniline (TPT), is synthesised and 3D printed for the first time into porous scaffolds with defined geometries. Inks are formulated by combining TPT with PCL in solutions which are then directly 3D printed to generate porous scaffolds. TPT and PCL are both biodegradable. The combination of TPT with PCL increases the flexibility of the hybrid material compared to pure TPT, which is critical for applications that need mechanical robustness of the scaffolds. The highest TPT content shows the lowest tensile failure strain. Moreover, the absorption of a cell adhesion-promoting protein (fibronectin) and chondrogenic differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells are found to be dependent on the amount of TPT in the blends. Higher content of TPT in the blends increases both fibronectin adsorption and chondrogenic differentiation, though the highest concentration of TPT in the blends is limited by its solubility in the ink. Despite the contradicting effects of TPT concentration on flexibility and chondrogenic differentiation, a concentration that strikes a balance between the two factors is still available. It is worth noting that the effect on chondrogenic differentiation is found in scaffolds without external electric stimulation. Our work demonstrates the possibility of 3D printing flexible conductive and biodegradable scaffolds and their potential use in cartilage tissue regeneration, and opens up future opportunities in using electric stimulation to control chondrogenesis in these scaffolds.


Assuntos
Condrogênese , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Poliésteres , Polímeros , Impressão Tridimensional , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
14.
Stem Cells Dev ; 29(14): 882-894, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364057

RESUMO

Articular cartilage contains a subpopulation of tissue-specific progenitors that are an ideal cell type for cell therapies and generating neocartilage for tissue engineering applications. However, it is unclear whether the standard chondrogenic medium using transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) isoforms is optimal to differentiate these cells. We therefore used pellet culture to screen progenitors from immature bovine articular cartilage with a number of chondrogenic factors and discovered that bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP9) precociously induces their differentiation. This difference was apparent with toluidine blue staining and confirmed by biochemical and transcriptional analyses with BMP9-treated progenitors exhibiting 11-fold and 5-fold greater aggrecan and collagen type II (COL2A1) gene expression than TGFß1-treated progenitors. Quantitative gene expression analysis over 14 days highlighted the rapid and phased nature of BMP9-induced chondrogenesis with sequential activation of aggrecan then collagen type II, and negligible collagen type X gene expression. The extracellular matrix of TGFß1-treated progenitors analyzed using atomic force microscopy was fibrillar and stiff whist BMP9-induced matrix of cells more compliant and correspondingly less fibrillar. Polarized light microscopy revealed an annular pattern of collagen fibril deposition typified by TGFß1-treated pellets, whereas BMP9-treated pellets displayed a birefringence pattern that was more anisotropic. Remarkably, differentiated immature chondrocytes incubated as high-density cultures in vitro with BMP9 generated a pronounced anisotropic organization of collagen fibrils indistinguishable from mature adult articular cartilage, with cells in deeper zones arranged in columnar manner. This contrasted with cells grown with TGFß1, where a concentric pattern of collagen fibrils was visualized within tissue pellets. In summary, BMP9 is a potent chondrogenic factor for articular cartilage progenitors and is also capable of inducing morphogenesis of adult-like cartilage, a highly desirable attribute for in vitro tissue-engineered cartilage.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/citologia , Condrogênese , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo
15.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(1): 157-167, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have not evaluated the impact of illness severity and postrupture procedures in the cost of care for intracranial aneurysms. We hypothesize that the severity of aneurysm rupture and the aggressiveness of postrupture interventions play a role in cost. METHODS: The Value Driven Outcomes database was used to assess direct patient cost during the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm with clipping, coiling, and Pipeline flow diverters. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-eight patients (mean age 52.8 ± 14.1 years; 40.0% male) underwent craniotomy (64.6%), coiling (26.7%), or flow diversion (8.6%). Coiling was 1.4× more expensive than clipping (p = .005) and flow diversion was 1.7× more expensive than clipping (p < .001). More severe illness as measured by American Society of Anesthesia, Hunt/Hess, and Fisher scales incurred higher costs than less severe illness (p < .05). Use of a lumbar drain protocol to reduce subarachnoid hemorrhage and use of an external ventricular drain to manage intracranial pressure were associated with reduced (p = .05) and increased (p < .001) total costs, respectively. Patients with severe vasospasm (p < .005), those that received shunts (p < .001), and those who had complications (p < .001) had higher costs. Multivariate analysis showed that procedure type, length of stay, number of angiograms, vasospasm severity, disposition, and year of treatment were independent predictors of cost. CONCLUSIONS: These results show for the first time that disease and vasospasm severity and intensity of treatment directly impact the cost of care for patients with aneurysms in the USA. Strategies to alter these variables may prove important for cost reduction.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/economia , Craniotomia/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/patologia , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
16.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 19(2): 157-164, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occipitocervical instability may result from transcondylar resection of the occipital condyle. Initially, patients may be able to maintain a neutral alignment but severe occipitoatlantal subluxation may subsequently occur, with cranial settling, spinal cord kinking, and neurological injury. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of posterior fixation constructs to prevent progression to severe deformity after radical unilateral condylectomy. METHODS: Eight human cadaveric specimens (Oc-C2) underwent biomechanical testing to compare stiffness under physiological loads (1.5 N m). A complete unilateral condylectomy was performed to destabilize one Oc-C1 joint, and the contralateral joint was left intact. Unilateral Oc-C1 or Oc-C2 constructs on the resected side and bilateral Oc-C1 or Oc-C2 constructs were tested. RESULTS: The bilateral Oc-C2 construct provided the greatest stiffness, but the difference was only statistically significant in certain planes of motion. The unilateral constructs had similar stiffness in lateral bending, but the unilateral Oc-C1 construct was less stiff in axial rotation and flexion-extension than the unilateral Oc-C2 construct. The bilateral Oc-C2 construct was stiffer than the unilateral Oc-C2 construct in axial rotation and lateral bending, but there was no difference between these constructs in flexion-extension. CONCLUSION: Patients who undergo a complete unilateral condylectomy require close surveillance for occipitocervical instability. A bilateral Oc-C2 construct provides suitable biomechanical strength, which is superior to other constructs. A unilateral construct decreases abnormal motion but lacks the stiffness of a bilateral construct. However, given that most patients undergo a partial condylectomy and only a small proportion of patients develop instability, there may be scenarios in which a unilateral construct may be appropriate, such as for temporary internal stabilization.


Assuntos
Articulação Atlantoaxial , Fusão Vertebral , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16634, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719590

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) of DNAs amplified by rolling circle amplification from 6 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with leaf curl symptoms identified a number of monopartite begomoviruses, including Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and a betasatellite (Tomato leaf curl betasatellite [ToLCB]). Both TYLCV and ToLCB have previously been identified infecting tomato in Oman. Surprisingly the NGS results also suggested the presence of the bipartite, legume-adapted begomovirus Mungbean yellow mosaic Indian virus (MYMIV). The presence of MYMIV was confirmed by cloning and Sanger sequencing from four of the six plants. A wider analysis by PCR showed MYMIV infection of tomato in Oman to be widespread. Inoculation of plants with full-length clones showed the host range of MYMIV not to extend to Nicotiana benthamiana or tomato. Inoculation to N. benthamiana showed TYLCV to be capable of maintaining MYMIV in both the presence and absence of the betasatellite. In tomato MYMIV was only maintained by TYLCV in the presence of the betasatellite and then only at low titre and efficiency. This is the first identification of TYLCV with ToLCB and the legume adapted bipartite begomovirus MYMIV co-infecting tomato. This finding has far reaching implications. TYLCV has spread around the World from its origins in the Mediterranean/Middle East, in some instances, in live tomato planting material. The results here may suggest that begomoviruses which do not commonly infect tomato, such as MYMIV, could be spread as a passenger of TYLCV in tomato.


Assuntos
Begomovirus , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Begomovirus/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Omã , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
18.
Lasers Med Sci ; 34(8): 1575-1582, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346825

RESUMO

Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used therapeutically in a number of clinical settings and has been shown to have a photobiomodulatory effect on connective tissue cells, such as those derived from skin and tendon. In vitro cell culture models are essential tools preclinically in investigating such treatment modalities, as they help in optimising parameters for successful treatment. However, as culture system components have been reported to absorb part of the irradiated energy, which in turn has a bearing on the amount of light reaching the cells, it is important to establish specific parameters for the particular in vitro model used. This study, therefore, investigates the effect of our tissue culture system components on the IPL energy delivered. Individual wells of multi-well plates were irradiated with IPL at different device settings and under variable culture conditions (e.g. in the absence or presence of cell culture media with or without the pH indicator dye, phenol red), and the energy lost through the culture system determined. Our data demonstrated that the IPL device delivered significantly lower outputs than those published, and energy absorption by the culture equipment would further reduce fluencies delivered to the cell monolayer. Furthermore, energy absorption by media containing phenol red was marginally greater than clear media and resulted in only a small increase in temperature, which would not be harmful to cells. The use of phenol red-containing media therefore is valid and physiologically relevant when examining light-culture system interactions.


Assuntos
Luz , Modelos Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Fenolsulfonaftaleína/química , Fototerapia/instrumentação
19.
Cytokine ; 120: 144-154, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071675

RESUMO

The immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from autologous and allogeneic sources are useful in stimulating tissue regeneration and repair. To obtain a high number of MSCs for transplantation requires extensive in vitro expansion with culture media supplements that can cause xeno-contamination of cells potentially compromising function and clinical outcomes. In this study stem cells from human extracted deciduous teeth (SHED) were cultured in Knockout™ DMEM supplemented with either pooled human serum (pHS) or foetal bovine serum (FBS) to compare their suitability in maintaining immunomodulatory properties of cells during in vitro expansion. No significant difference in cell survival of SHED grown in pHS (pHS-SHED) or FBS (FBS-SHED) was observed when co-cultured with complement, monocytes or lymphocytes. However, significant changes in the expression of sixteen paracrine factors involved in immunomodulation were observed in the supernatants of FBS-SHED co-cultures with monocytes or lymphocytes compared to that in pHS-SHEDs after both 24 and 120 h of incubation. Further analysis of changing protein levels of paracrine factors in co-cultures using biological pathway analysis software predicted upregulation of functions associated with immunogenicity in FBS-SHED and lymphocyte co-cultures compared to pHS-SHED co-cultures. Pathway analysis also predicted significant stimulation of HMGB1 and TREM1 signalling pathways in FBS-SHED co-cultures indicating activation of immune cells and inflammation. Though FBS supplementation does not impact survival of SHED, our combinatorial biological pathway analysis supports the idea that in vitro expansion of SHEDs in pHS provides optimal conditions to minimise xeno-contamination and inflammation and maintain their immunomodulatory properties.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação , Soro/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Extração Dentária , Dente Decíduo/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Feto , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Comunicação Parácrina , Transdução de Sinais
20.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 24(1): 1-8, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Large experiences with the treatment of pediatric arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remain relatively rare, with limited data on presentation, treatment, and long-term functional outcomes. Because of the expected long lifespan of children, caregivers are especially interested in outcome measures that assess quality of life. The authors' intention was to describe the long-term functional outcomes of pediatric patients who undergo AVM surgery and to identify predictors of sustained neurological deficits. METHODS: The authors analyzed a 21-year retrospective cohort of pediatric patients with intracranial AVMs treated with microsurgery at two institutions. The primary outcome was a persistent neurological deficit at last follow-up. Secondary outcome measures included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and independent living. RESULTS: Overall, 97 patients (mean age 11.1 ± 4.5 years; 56% female) were treated surgically for intracranial AVMs (mean follow-up 77.5 months). Sixty-four patients (66%) presented with hemorrhage, and 45 patients (46%) had neurological deficits at presentation. Radiologically, 39% of lesions were Spetzler-Martin grade II. Thirty-seven patients (38%) with persistent neurological deficits at last follow-up were compared with those without deficits; there were no differences in patient age, presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score, AVM size, surgical blood loss, or duration of follow-up. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a focal neurological deficit on presentation, AVM size > 3 cm, and lesions in eloquent cortex were independent predictors of persistent neurological deficits at long-term follow-up. Overall, 92% of the children had an mRS score ≤ 2 on long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with AVMs treated with microsurgical resection have good functional and radiological outcomes. There is a high rate (38%) of persistent neurological deficits, which were independently predicted by preoperative deficits, AVMs > 3 cm, and lesions located in eloquent cortex. This information can be useful in counseling families on the likelihood of long-term neurological deficits after cerebral AVM surgery.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Vida Independente , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/patologia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Avaliação de Sintomas
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