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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257179, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374667

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induces colibacillosis, an acute and systemic disease, resulting in substantial economic losses in the poultry sector. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern associated with frequent virulence gene distribution in APEC O78:K80 that may cause pathological alterations in chickens. The antibiogram profile showed high resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, and co-trimoxazole, followed by intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and doxycycline hydrochloride, and sensitive to amikacin, streptomycin, gentamicin, and colistin. Virulence gene distribution identifies eight (irp-2, iutA, ompT, iss, iucD, astA, hlyF, iroN) genes through a conventional polymerase chain reaction. APEC O78:K80 caused significantly high liver enzyme concentrations, serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in experimental birds. Also, infected birds have hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Necropsy examination revealed fibrinous perihepatitis and pericarditis, congested lungs, intestinal ecchymotic hemorrhages and necrotizing granulomatosis of the spleen. Histopathological examination depicted hepatocellular degeneration, myocardial necrosis, interstitial nephritis, intestinal hemorrhages and lymphopenia in the spleen. This study is the first evidence to assess the antibiotic resistance profile linked with virulence genes and clinicopathological potential of APEC O78:K80 in chickens in Pakistan, which could be a useful and rapid approach to prevent and control the disease by developing the control strategies.


A Escherichia coli patogênica aviária (APEC) induz a colibacilose, uma doença aguda e sistêmica, resultando em perdas econômicas substanciais no setor avícola. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o padrão de resistência a antibióticos associado à frequente distribuição de genes de virulência em APEC O78:K80 que podem causar alterações patológicas em galinhas. O perfil do antibiograma mostrou alta resistência à eritromicina, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, ampicilina e cotrimoxazol; resistência intermediária à ciprofloxacina, levofloxacina, enrofloxacina, norfloxacina, nitrofurantoína e cloridrato de doxiciclina; e sensível à amicacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina e colistina . A distribuição de genes de virulência identificou oito genes (irp-2, iutA, ompT, iss, iucD, astA, hlyF e iroN) por meio de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase convencional. A APEC O78:K80 causou concentrações significativamente altas de enzimas hepáticas, níveis séricos de interleucina-6 e fator de necrose tumoral alfa em aves experimentais. Além disso, aves infectadas apresentaram hipoproteinemia, hipoalbuminemia e hiperglobulinemia. O exame de necropsia revelou peri-hepatite e pericardite fibrinosa, pulmões congestos, hemorragias equimóticas do intestino e granulomatose necrosante do baço. O exame histopatológico mostrou degeneração hepatocelular, necrose miocárdica, nefrite intersticial, hemorragias intestinais e linfopenia no baço. Este estudo é a primeira evidência para avaliar o perfil de resistência a antibióticos associado a genes de virulência e potencial clínico-patológico de APEC O78:K80 em galinhas no Paquistão, o que pode ser uma abordagem útil e rápida para prevenir e controlar a doença por meio do desenvolvimento de estratégias de controle.


Assuntos
Animais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259449, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374645

RESUMO

The presence of pathogenic bacteria in food is considered as a primary cause of food-borne illness and food quality deterioration worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of five essential oils (EOs) against multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens. In the current study Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella) and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus were isolated from raw milk and biochemically characterized. The anti-bacterial effect of different antibiotics and EOs (thyme, oregano, lemongrass, mint, and rosemary) was determined using the standard disc diffusion method. The antibiogram study revealed that Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to penicillin while Staphylococcus was resistant to streptomycin, amoxicillin, and lincomycin. Moderate resistance was observed to doxycycline, amikacin, enrofloxacin, kanamycin and cefixime. Isolates were found less resistant to gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. EOs showed a broad range of antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except P. aeruginosa. Of these, thyme was more effective against most of the multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and formed the largest zone of inhibition (26 mm) against Escherichia followed by oregano oil (18 mm) against Staphylococcus (p<0.05). Klebsiella spp and Citrobacter spp showed resistance to mint and lemongrass oil respectively. The EOs such as lemongrass, mint and rosemary were less active against all the bacteria. The findings of the recent study suggest the use of EOs as natural antibacterial agents for food preservation.


A presença de bactérias patogênicas em alimentos é considerada a principal causa de doenças transmitidas por alimentos e deterioração da qualidade dos alimentos em todo o mundo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a eficácia de cinco óleos essenciais (OEs) contra patógenos de origem alimentar multirresistentes. No presente estudo, bactérias Gram-negativas (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas e Klebsiella) e as bactérias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus foram isoladas do leite cru e caracterizadas bioquimicamente. O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes antibióticos e OEs (tomilho, orégano, capim-limão, hortelã e alecrim) foi determinado usando o método padrão de difusão em disco. O estudo do antibiograma revelou que as bactérias Gram-negativas eram altamente resistentes à penicilina, enquanto o Staphylococcus era resistente à estreptomicina, amoxicilina e lincomicina. Foi observada resistência moderada à doxiciclina, amicacina, enrofloxacina, canamicina e cefixima. Os isolados foram encontrados menos resistentes à gentamicina, cloranfenicol e ciprofloxacina. Os OEs mostraram uma ampla gama de atividade antimicrobiana contra todas as bactérias, exceto P. aeruginosa. Destes, o tomilho foi mais eficaz contra a maioria das cepas bacterianas multirresistentes e formou a maior zona de inibição (26 mm) contra Escherichia seguido de óleo de orégano (18 mm) contra Staphylococcus (p<0,05). Klebsiella spp e Citrobacter spp apresentaram resistência ao óleo de menta e capim-limão, respectivamente. Os OEs como capim-limão, hortelã e alecrim foram menos ativos contra todas as bactérias. Os resultados do estudo recente sugerem o uso de OEs como agentes antibacterianos naturais para conservação de alimentos.


Assuntos
Óleos , Leite , Antibacterianos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255950, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364497

RESUMO

Aquatic insect fauna remains an important tool for bio indication of environmental disturbance, while maintaining a healthy aquatic system. The purpose of the study was to document and to identify the diversity and distribution patterns of aquatic insect, a highly ignored aspect from the Qatar. Following the standard procedures, the samples were collected from aquatic habitats during the period October 2015 to May 2017 on monthly basis. A total of 11,287 individuals, belonging to 6 orders were captured. Dipterans were the abundant with the percentages of 71.01 (n=8,015), while the lowest percentage was observed for Coleoptera 0.04 (n=05). Twelve insects families were identified, among these five were reported under Diptera, followed by Hemiptera (03), while Coleoptera, Tricoptera, Odonata, and Ephemeroptera were represented by single families. Among the selected localities, Dipterans were collected from 10 stations, followed by Hemiptera (9), Coleoptera (4), Odonota (4), Ephemeroptera (3) and Trichoptera (1) respectively. Among the water bodies samples, streams were the most preferred habitats (n=2,767), while drinking water pools were the least (27). Moreover, the highest Simpson diversity index of 1.48 and lowest of 0.47 was recorded for flooded sewage pool and plastic containers respectively, while the low evenness values were observed for ponds, and less than 1 Margalef's diversity values were seen for all habitats. This study documents the patterns of the diversity and distribution of aquatic insects, and provides a baseline for the future studies from Qatar.


A fauna aquática de insetos continua sendo uma ferramenta importante para a bioindicação de distúrbios ambientais, ao mesmo tempo em que mantém um sistema aquático saudável. O objetivo do estudo foi documentar e identificar a diversidade e os padrões de distribuição dos insetos aquáticos, um aspecto altamente ignorado no Catar. Seguindo os procedimentos padrão, as amostras foram coletadas em hábitats aquáticos durante o período de outubro de 2015 a maio de 2017, mensalmente. Um total de 11.287 indivíduos, pertencentes a seis ordens, foram capturados. Dípteros foram os mais abundantes, com as porcentagens de 71,01 (n = 8.015), enquanto a menor porcentagem foi observada para Coleópteros 0,04 (n = 05). Doze famílias de insetos foram identificadas, destas, cinco foram registradas sob Diptera, seguido por Hemiptera (03), enquanto Coleoptera, Tricoptera, Odonata e Ephemeroptera foram representados por famílias únicas. Dentre as localidades selecionadas, Dipterans foram coletados em 10 estações, seguidos por Hemiptera (9), Coleoptera (4), Odonota (4), Ephemeroptera (3) e Trichoptera (1), respectivamente. Entre as amostras de corpos d'água, os riachos foram os hábitats mais preferidos (n = 2.767), enquanto as piscinas de água potável foram os menos (27). Além disso, o maior índice de diversidade de Simpson de 1,48 e o menor de 0,47 foi registrado para piscina de esgoto inundada e recipientes de plástico, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de baixa uniformidade foram observados para lagoas e menos de 1 valores de diversidade de Margalef foram observados para todos os hábitats. Este estudo documenta os padrões de diversidade e distribuição de insetos aquáticos e fornece uma linha de base para os estudos futuros do Catar.


Assuntos
Animais , Fauna Aquática , Ecossistema , Insetos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256942, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360223

RESUMO

Domestic donkey plays a key role as a draft animal in rural economy of Pakistan where its population is increasing every year. The complete mtDNA control region of forty randomly sampled donkeys was PCR- amplified and sequenced bi-directionally using specific primers. Distinct mtDNA haplotypes obtained in the current study (KY446001−KY446011) were subjected to haplotype (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) measures using DnaS as well as to phylogenetic, Network, and AMOVA analyses. There were a total 27 polymorphic sites present within 11 unique mtDNA haplotypes from the studied 40 animals from different regions. Neighbor-joining network and median-joining network both illustrated the splitting of all these haplotypes into two well-defined Nubian and Somali lineages, confirming African maternal origin of Pakistani domestic donkey. Diversity parameters h (0.967± 0.037) and π (0.02917± 0.00307) were found to reveal high levels of genetic diversity in Pakistani donkeys. AMOVA demonstrated only 1% of genetic differences between two mtDNA maternal lineages, pointing to lack of population substructure in Pakistani donkeys as is the case with worldwide domestic donkey population. Pakistani donkeys have African maternal origin and high levels of mtDNA diversity. High genetic diversity may be due to non-selective breeding and heteroplasmy. We herein provide the first report on mtDNA diversity of control region in Pakistani domestic donkey.


O burro doméstico possui um papel fundamental como animal de tração na economia rural do Paquistão, onde a população desse animal está aumentando a cada ano. A região de controle de mtDNA completa de 40 burros amostrados aleatoriamente foi ampliada por PCR e sequenciada bidirecionalmente por intermédio de primers específicos. Haplótipos distintos de mtDNA obtidos no estudo atual (KY446001 − KY446011) foram submetidos a medidas de haplótipo (h) e diversidade de nucleotídeos (π) por meio de DnaS, bem como análises filogenéticas, de rede e AMOVA. Havia um total de 27 sítios polimórficos presentes em 11 haplótipos de mtDNA exclusivos dos 40 animais estudados de diferentes regiões. A rede de união de vizinhos e a rede de união mediana ilustram a divisão de todos esses haplótipos em duas linhagens núbias e somalis bem definidas, confirmando a origem materna africana do burro doméstico do Paquistão. Os parâmetros de diversidade h (0,967 ± 0,037) e π (0,02917 ± 0,00307) revelaram altos níveis de diversidade genética em burros paquistaneses. AMOVA demonstrou apenas 1% de diferenças genéticas entre as duas linhagens maternas de mtDNA, apontando a falta de subestrutura populacional em burros paquistaneses, como é o caso da população mundial de burros domésticos. Os burros paquistaneses têm origem materna africana e altos níveis de diversidade de mtDNA. A alta diversidade genética pode ser por causa da reprodução não seletiva e de heteroplasmia. Aqui, fornecemos o primeiro relatório sobre a diversidade do mtDNA da região de controle em burros domésticos do Paquistão


Assuntos
Animais , Paquistão , Variação Genética , DNA Mitocondrial , Equidae
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e263261, 2024. tab, mapa
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1403874

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to investigate the array of hosts, distribution and to evaluate the toxicity of four insecticides: imidacloprid, fipronil, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos alone and in combination against 3rd instar maggot and adult stage of fruit fly Bactrocera diversa Coquillett, 1904 (Diptera: Tephritidae) during 2021. B. diversa maggots were found vigorously feeding inside the cucurbit hosts (pumpkin, cucumber, bitter gourd, watermelon, round melon, bottle gourd) collected from different localities of Poonch division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, and this species is reported for the first time as new record to this region. Susceptibilities of B. diversa to insecticides were evaluated using topical method. Mortality was checked after 3, 6, 8 and 24h of exposure. Cypermethrin was most effective to kill 50% of both larval and adult stage with least LC50 [7.2(1.040±0.214), 17.4(0.748±0.193)], respectively followed by imidacloprid. Imidacloprid most effectively killed 90% of both larval and adult population with least LC90 value [73.2 (3.013±0.708) 16.9 (1.886±0.437)] respectively after 24 hours. Cypermethrin with chlorpyrifos most effectively killed 50 and 90 percent of both larval and adult stage of B. diversa with least LC50 value [11.3 (1.085±0.245), 2.5 (0.759±0.252)] and least LC90 value [171.3 (1.085±0.245), 121.9 (0.759±0.252)], respectively after 24h of exposure. Toxicity of each insecticide increased with exposure for longer time and increased dose. Cypermethrin is suggested as most effective against both larval and adult stages of B. diversa in combination with chlorpyrifos followed by imidacloprid.


O presente estudo foi conduzido para investigar a variedade de hospedeiros, distribuição e avaliar a toxicidade de quatro inseticidas: imidaclopride, fipronil, cipermetrina e clorpirifós isoladamente e em combinação contra larva de 3º ínstar e estágio adulto da mosca-das-frutas Bactrocera diversa Coquillett, 1904 (Diptera: Tephritidae) durante 2021. Larvas de B. diversa foram encontradas se alimentando vigorosamente dentro dos hospedeiros de cucurbitáceas (abóbora, pepino, cabaça amarga, melancia, melão redondo, cabaça) coletados em diferentes localidades da divisão Poonch de Azad Jammu e Caxemira, Paquistão, e essa espécie é relatada pela primeira vez como novo registro para essa região. A suscetibilidade de B. diversa a inseticidas foi avaliada por método tópico. A mortalidade foi verificada após 3, 6, 8 e 24 horas de exposição. A cipermetrina foi mais eficaz para matar 50% do estágio larval e adulto com menos CL50 [7,2(1,040 ± 0,214), 17,4 (0,748±0,193)], respectivamente, seguido por imidaclopride. O imidaclopride matou mais efetivamente 90% da população larval e adulta com o menor valor de LC90 [73,2 (3,013 ± 0,708) 16,9 (1,886 ± 0,437)], respectivamente, após 24 horas. Cipermetrina com clorpirifós matou mais efetivamente 50% e 90% do estágio larval e adulto de B. diversa com valor mínimo de LC50 [11,3 (1,085 ± 0,245), 2,5 (0,759 ± 0,252)] e valor mínimo de LC90 [171,3 (1,085 ± 0,245), 121,9 (0,759 ± 0,252)], respectivamente, após 24 horas de exposição. A toxicidade de cada inseticida aumentou com a exposição por mais tempo e com o aumento da dose. A cipermetrina é sugerida como mais eficaz contra os estágios larval e adulto de B. diversa em combinação com clorpirifós seguido de imidaclopride.


Assuntos
Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Dípteros , Inseticidas
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e264473, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1403855

RESUMO

The present study was carried out in Hayat Abad Industrial Estate located in Peshawar to assess the levels of cadmium (Cd) that were present in the soil as well as the plant parts (Roots and shoots). To evaluate the phytoremediation potential of the plants different factors i.e. Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), Translocation Factor (TF), and Bioaccumulation Coefficient were determined. These plants were grown in their native habitats (BAC). We have analysed, cadmium concentration from soil which are collected from 50 different locations ranged from 11.54 mg/Kg (the lowest) to 89.80 mg/Kg (highest). The maximum concentration (89.80 mg/Kg) of cadmium was found in HIE-ST-16L Marble City and HIE-ST-7 Bryon Pharma (88.51 mg/Kg) while its minimum concentration (12.47 mg/Kg) were detected in the soil of Site (HIE-ST-14L Royal PVC Pipe) and (11.54 mg/Kg) at the site (HIE-ST-11 Aries Pharma). Most plant species showed huge potential for plant based approaches like phyto-extraction and phytoremediation. They also showed the potential for phyto-stabilization as well. Based on the concentration of cadmium the most efficient plants for phytoextraction were Cnicus benedictus, Parthenium hysterophorus, Verbesina encelioides, Conyza canadensis, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus viridis, Chenopodiastrum murale, Prosopis juliflora, Convolvulus arvensis, Stellaria media, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Cerastium dichotomum, Chrozophora tinctoria, Mirabilis jalapa, Medicago polymorpha, Lathyrus aphaca, Dalbergia sissoo, Melilotus indicus and Anagallis arvensis. The cadmium heavy metals in the examined soil were effectively removed by these plant species. Cerastium dichotomum, and Chenopodium murale were reported to be effective in phyto-stabilizing Cd based on concentrations of selected metals in roots and BCFs, TFs, and BACs values.


O presente estudo foi realizado em Hayat Abad Industrial Estate, localizado em Peshawar, para avaliar os níveis de cádmio (Cd) que estavam presentes no solo, bem como nas partes da planta (raízes e brotos). Para avaliar o potencial de fitorremediação das plantas foram determinados diferentes fatores, ou seja, Fator de Bioconcentração (BCF), Fator de Translocação (TF) e Coeficiente de Bioacumulação. Essas plantas foram cultivadas em seus habitats nativos (BAC). Analisamos a concentração de cádmio do solo coletada em 50 locais diferentes, variando de 11,54 mg/Kg (o mais baixo) a 89,80 mg/Kg (o mais alto). A concentração máxima (89,80 mg/Kg) de cádmio foi encontrada em HIE-ST-16L Marble City e HIE-ST-7 Bryon Pharma (88,51 mg/Kg) enquanto sua concentração mínima (12,47 mg/Kg) foi detectada no solo do local (HIE-ST-14L Royal PVC Pipe) e (11,54 mg/Kg) no local (HIE-ST-11 Aries Pharma). A maioria das espécies de plantas mostrou um enorme potencial para abordagens baseadas em plantas, como fitoextração e fitorremediação. Eles também mostraram o potencial de fitoestabilização. Com base na concentração de cádmio, as plantas mais eficientes para fitoextração foram Cnicus benedictus, Parthenium hysterophorus, Verbesina encelioides, Conyza canadensis, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus viridis, Chenopodiastrum murale, Prosopis juliflora, Convolvulus arvensis, Stellaria media, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Cerastium dichotomum, Chrozophora tinctoria, Mirabilis jalapa, Medicago polymorpha, Lathyrus aphaca, Dalbergia sissoo, Melilotus indicus e Anagallis arvensis. Os metais pesados ​​de cádmio no solo examinado foram efetivamente removidos por essas espécies de plantas. Cerastium dichotomum e Chenopodium murale foram relatados como eficazes na fitoestabilização do Cd com base nas concentrações de metais selecionados nas raízes e nos valores de BCFs, TFs e BACs.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/efeitos da radiação , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Paquistão
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250607, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355881

RESUMO

Abstract Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious, highly contagious and lethal disease of avian species. It is considered that ducks are natural reservoir or carrier for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and are resistant against different strains of NDV. Current study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in domestic ducks through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serum biochemical changes. For this purpose, eighty ducks were reared for 42 days and divided in two groups A and B. Ducks in group A were challenged with (NDV) at rate of 0.1 ml of ELD50 (virus titer 107.32/100µl) on second week of age, whereas Group B was control negative. Splenomegaly, atrophy of thymus and necrotic lesion in kidney were observed on 9th day of post infection. Hepatic degeneration and mononuclear cell infiltration were noticed in proventriculus and intestine in challenged ducks. Viral antigen detected in lungs, intestine, proventriculus and lymphoid organs of infected ducks through IHC. Albumin and total protein values were significantly low in infected groups A as compared to control group B. ALT, AST, and ALP values were significantly high in infected group A. On 5th and 7th day of post infection oropharyngeal swabs were negative for NDV and cloacal swabs were positive for NDV through Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. It is concluded that ducks are susceptible to NDV and virulent strain of NDV caused disease in ducks.


Resumo A doença de Newcastle (DN) é uma doença infecciosa, altamente contagiosa e letal de espécies aviárias. Considera-se que os patos são reservatórios ou portadores naturais do vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN) e são resistentes a diferentes cepas de VDN. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a patogênese da DN em patos domésticos por meio de histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) e alterações bioquímicas séricas. Para este propósito, 80 patos foram criados por 42 dias e divididos em dois grupos A e B. Os patos do grupo A foram submetidos ao VDN a uma taxa de 0,1 ml de ELD50 (título viral de 107,32 / 100 µl) na segunda semana de idade, enquanto o Grupo B foi controle negativo. Esplenomegalia, atrofia do timo e lesão necrótica no rim foram observadas no 9º dia pós-infecção. Degeneração hepática e infiltração de células mononucleares foram observadas no proventrículo e intestino em patos infectados. Antígeno viral foi detectado em pulmões, intestino, proventrículo e órgãos linfoides de patos infectados por IHQ. Os valores de albumina e proteína total foram significativamente baixos no grupo A infectado em comparação com o grupo B. Os valores de ALT, AST e ALP foram significativamente altos no grupo A. No 5º e no 7º dia após a infecção, os esfregaços orofaríngeos foram negativos para VDN, enquanto os esfregaços cloacais foram positivos para VDN por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa. Conclui-se que os patos são suscetíveis ao VDN e à cepa virulenta de VDN que causou doenças em patos.


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Patos , Doença de Newcastle/diagnóstico
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246887, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285630

RESUMO

Abstract The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Parasitos , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
10.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765441

RESUMO

The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.(AU)


O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Columbidae/parasitologia , Ftirápteros , Dípteros , Carrapatos , Ácaros , Prevalência
11.
Front Chem ; 10: 1020387, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426099

RESUMO

Ertapenem is a member of carbapenem antibiotics used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe intra-abdominal, urinary tract, acute pelvic, and post-surgical gynecologic infections. The antibacterial activity of ertapenem is mediated through binding to penicillin-binding proteins which results in inhibiting the cross-linking of the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall. Therefore, ertapenem can be labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc), a gamma emitter radionuclide, for the diagnosis of deep-seated bacterial infections, such as urinary tract, intra-abdominal, osteomyelitis, and post-surgical gynecologic infections. The labeling procedure was carried out by varying the reaction conditions, such as the amount of the ligand and reducing agent, pH, reaction time and temperature, and radioactivity. At optimized reaction conditions more than 93% 99mTc-ertapenem radioconjugate was obtained. 99mTc-ertapenem was found 90% intact in saline medium up to 6 h, while 88% intact in human blood serum up to 3 h. Biodistribution study showed target-to-non-target ratios of 2.91 ± 0.19, 2.39 ± 0.31, and 1.23 ± 0.22 in S. aureus, E. coli, and turpentine oil-infected rat models, respectively. The SPECT scintigraphy showed high uptake of 99mTc-ertapenem in bacterial-infected abscesses, and low counts were recorded in normal and turpentine oil-inflamed tissues. In conclusion, 99mTc-ertapenem can be a potent infection-imaging agent, which can diagnosis deep-seated bacterial infections at early stage but need further pre-clinical evaluation in variety of infection models.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366218

RESUMO

The prevalence of chronic diseases and the rapid rise in the aging population are some of the major challenges in our society. The utilization of the latest and unique technologies to provide fast, accurate, and economical ways to collect and process data is inevitable. Industry 4.0 (I4.0) is a trend toward automation and data exchange. The utilization of the same concept of I4.0 in healthcare is termed Healthcare 4.0 (H4.0). Digital Twin (DT) technology is an exciting and open research field in healthcare. DT can provide better healthcare in terms of improved patient monitoring, better disease diagnosis, the detection of falls in stroke patients, and the analysis of abnormalities in breathing patterns, and it is suitable for pre- and post-surgery routines to reduce surgery complications and improve recovery. Accurate data collection is not only important in medical diagnoses and procedures but also in the creation of healthcare DT models. Health-related data acquisition by unobtrusive microwave sensing is considered a cornerstone of health informatics. This paper presents the 3D modeling and analysis of unobtrusive microwave sensors in a digital care-home model. The sensor is studied for its performance and data-collection capability with regards to patients in care-home environments.


Assuntos
Informática Médica , Micro-Ondas , Humanos , Idoso , Atenção à Saúde , Monitorização Fisiológica , Doença Crônica
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322951

RESUMO

Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, has recently been repositioned in the treatment of several nondiabetic disorders including reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), where it improves endometrial functions. In vitro studies employing supratherapeutic concentrations (5-20 mM) of metformin, have reported anti-proliferative effects on endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. However, animal and human studies have revealed that therapeutic serum concentrations of metformin range between 20-70 µM. In the present study, the effect of therapeutic concentrations of metformin was studied on endometrial epithelial cells (EECs). Therapeutic concentrations of metformin induced proliferation in Ishikawa and HEC-1A cells. The proliferation of EECs was found mTOR dependent. Interestingly, therapeutic metformin concentrations were not able to activate the classical AMPK signaling. On the contrary, supratherapeutic metformin concentration (10 mM) inhibited mTOR and activated AMPK signaling. Microarray analysis of metformin-treated HEC-1A cells revealed dose-dependent differential effects on biological pathways associated with translation, ribosomal RNA processing, mitochondrial translation and cell proliferation. Therapeutic concentrations of metformin upregulated mitochondrial number as demonstrated by increased MitotrackerTM Red staining and enhanced succinate dehydrogenase (SDHD) expression; however higher concentration (10 mM) abrogated the same. Our results suggest that therapeutic concentrations of metformin augment mitochondrial strength and induce mTOR dependent endometrial cell proliferation.

14.
Nanoscale Adv ; 4(12): 2713-2728, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36132288

RESUMO

In this study, 0.02 and 0.04 wt% of chitosan (CS) were successfully incorporated in a fixed amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-doped Bi2O3 nanostructures (NSs) via a co-precipitation approach. The purpose of this research was to degrade hazardous methylene blue dye and assess antimicrobial potential of the prepared CS/PVP-doped Bi2O3 nanostructures. In addition, optical characteristics, charge recombination rate, elemental composition, phase formation, surface morphology, functional groups, d-spacing, and crystallinity of the obtained nanostructures were investigated. CS/PVP-doped Bi2O3 nanostructures exhibited efficient catalytic activity (measured as 99%) in a neutral medium for dopant-free nanostructures while the inhibition zone was measured using a Vernier caliper against pathogens Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) at low and high doses to check antimicrobial activity. Strong bactericidal action was recorded against S. aureus bacteria such that a significant inhibition zone was measured at 3.09 mm.

15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e263261, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102373

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the array of hosts, distribution and to evaluate the toxicity of four insecticides: imidacloprid, fipronil, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos alone and in combination against 3rd instar maggot and adult stage of fruit fly Bactrocera diversa Coquillett, 1904 (Diptera: Tephritidae) during 2021. B. diversa maggots were found vigorously feeding inside the cucurbit hosts (pumpkin, cucumber, bitter gourd, watermelon, round melon, bottle gourd) collected from different localities of Poonch division of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan, and this species is reported for the first time as new record to this region. Susceptibilities of B. diversa to insecticides were evaluated using topical method. Mortality was checked after 3, 6, 8 and 24h of exposure. Cypermethrin was most effective to kill 50% of both larval and adult stage with least LC50 [7.2(1.040±0.214), 17.4(0.748±0.193)], respectively followed by imidacloprid. Imidacloprid most effectively killed 90% of both larval and adult population with least LC90 value [73.2 (3.013±0.708) 16.9 (1.886±0.437)] respectively after 24 hours. Cypermethrin with chlorpyrifos most effectively killed 50 and 90 percent of both larval and adult stage of B. diversa with least LC50 value [11.3 (1.085±0.245), 2.5 (0.759±0.252)] and least LC90 value [171.3 (1.085±0.245), 121.9 (0.759±0.252)], respectively after 24h of exposure. Toxicity of each insecticide increased with exposure for longer time and increased dose. Cypermethrin is suggested as most effective against both larval and adult stages of B. diversa in combination with chlorpyrifos followed by imidacloprid.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Tephritidae , Animais , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Piretrinas
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e264473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169410

RESUMO

The present study was carried out in Hayat Abad Industrial Estate located in Peshawar to assess the levels of cadmium (Cd) that were present in the soil as well as the plant parts (Roots and shoots). To evaluate the phytoremediation potential of the plants different factors i.e. Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), Translocation Factor (TF), and Bioaccumulation Coefficient were determined. These plants were grown in their native habitats (BAC). We have analysed, cadmium concentration from soil which are collected from 50 different locations ranged from 11.54 mg/Kg (the lowest) to 89.80 mg/Kg (highest). The maximum concentration (89.80 mg/Kg) of cadmium was found in HIE-ST-16L Marble City and HIE-ST-7 Bryon Pharma (88.51 mg/Kg) while its minimum concentration (12.47 mg/Kg) were detected in the soil of Site (HIE-ST-14L Royal PVC Pipe) and (11.54 mg/Kg) at the site (HIE-ST-11 Aries Pharma). Most plant species showed huge potential for plant based approaches like phyto-extraction and phytoremediation. They also showed the potential for phyto-stabilization as well. Based on the concentration of cadmium the most efficient plants for phytoextraction were Cnicus benedictus, Parthenium hysterophorus, Verbesina encelioides, Conyza canadensis, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus viridis, Chenopodiastrum murale, Prosopis juliflora, Convolvulus arvensis, Stellaria media, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Cerastium dichotomum, Chrozophora tinctoria, Mirabilis jalapa, Medicago polymorpha, Lathyrus aphaca, Dalbergia sissoo, Melilotus indicus and Anagallis arvensis. The cadmium heavy metals in the examined soil were effectively removed by these plant species. Cerastium dichotomum, and Chenopodium murale were reported to be effective in phyto-stabilizing Cd based on concentrations of selected metals in roots and BCFs, TFs, and BACs values.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Mirabilis , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Carbonato de Cálcio , Metais Pesados/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas , Cloreto de Polivinila , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Br J Radiol ; : 20220336, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039944

RESUMO

High resolution ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) neurography are both imaging modalities that are commonly used for assessing peripheral nerves including the sural nerve (SN). The SN is a cutaneous sensory nerve which innervates the lateral ankle and foot to the base of the fifth metatarsal. It is formed by contributing nerves from the tibial and common peroneal nerves with six patterns and multiple subtypes described in literature. In addition to the SN being a cutaneous sensory nerve, the superficial location enables the nerve to be easily biopsied and harvested for a nerve graft, as well as increasing the susceptibility to traumatic injury. As with any peripheral nerves, pathologies such as peripheral nerve sheath tumors and neuropathies can also affect the SN. By utilizing a high frequency probe in US and high-resolution MR neurography, the SN can be easily identified even with the multiple variations given the standard distal course. US and MRI are also useful in determining pathology of the SN given the specific image findings that are seen with peripheral nerves. In this review, we evaluate the normal imaging anatomy of the SN and discuss common pathologies identified on imaging.

18.
Radiographics ; 42(5): 1415-1432, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867593

RESUMO

COVID-19, the clinical syndrome produced by infection with SARS-CoV-2, can result in multisystem organ dysfunction, including respiratory failure and hypercoagulability, which can lead to critical illness and death. Musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations of COVID-19 are common but have been relatively underreported, possibly because of the severity of manifestations in other organ systems. Additionally, patients who have undergone sedation and who are critically ill are often unable to alert clinicians of their MSK symptoms. Furthermore, some therapeutic measures such as medications and vaccinations can worsen existing MSK symptoms or cause additional symptoms. Symptoms may persist or occur months after the initial infection, known as post-COVID condition or long COVID. As the global experience with COVID-19 and the vaccination effort increases, certain patterns of MSK disease involving the bones, muscles, peripheral nerves, blood vessels, and joints have emerged, many of which are likely related to a hyperinflammatory host response, prothrombotic state, or therapeutic efforts rather than direct viral toxicity. Imaging findings for various COVID-19-related MSK pathologic conditions across a variety of modalities are being recognized, which can be helpful for diagnosis, treatment guidance, and follow-up. The online slide presentation from the RSNA Annual Meeting is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2022.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistema Musculoesquelético , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , Imagem Multimodal , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 2489998, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720884

RESUMO

The compounding approach is used to introduce a new family of distributions called exponentiated Bell G, analogy to exponentiated G Poisson. Several essential properties of the proposed family are obtained. The special model called exponentiated Bell exponential (EBellE) is presented along with properties. Furthermore, the risk theory related measures including value-at-risk and expected-shortfall are also computed for the special model. Group acceptance sampling plan is designed when a lifetime of a product or item follows an EBellE model taking median as a quality parameter. The parameters of the proposed model are estimated by considering maximum likelihood approach along with simulation analysis. The usefulness of the proposed model is illustrated by practical means which yield better fits as compared to several exponential related extended models.


Assuntos
Funções Verossimilhança , Simulação por Computador , Controle de Qualidade
20.
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol ; 26(3): 295-313, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654096

RESUMO

Common indications for surgical procedures of the wrist and hand include acute fractures or fracture-dislocations; nonunited fractures; posttraumatic, degenerative, and inflammatory arthritides and tendinopathies; injuries to tendons, ligaments, and the triangular fibrocartilage complex; and entrapment neuropathies. Soft tissue or osseous infections or masses may also need surgical treatment. Several of these procedures require surgical hardware placement, and most entail clinical follow-up with periodic imaging. Radiography should be the first imaging modality in the evaluation of the postoperative wrist and hand. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic ultrasonography, and occasionally nuclear medicine studies may be performed to diagnose or better characterize suspected postoperative complications. To provide adequate evaluation of postoperative imaging of the wrist and hand, the interpreting radiologist must be familiar with the basic principles of these surgical procedures and both the imaging appearance of normal postoperative findings as well as the potential complications.


Assuntos
Fibrocartilagem Triangular , Traumatismos do Punho , Mãos , Humanos , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Punho/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Punho/cirurgia , Articulação do Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Punho/cirurgia
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