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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246887, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285630

RESUMO

Abstract The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.

2.
J Loss Prev Process Ind ; 74: 104649, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629762

RESUMO

The control of the risks associated with major hazard events is critical to the safe and continuous operation of the process industry. Over the last decades, the process industry has been successful at establishing and implementing robust Process Safety Management (PSM) systems to prevent and mitigate the consequences of such major hazard events. While there exist some industry guidelines developed relatively recently for events initiated by natural disasters and security-related threats, for initiating events like outbreaks of pathogens and pandemics, there is currently a clear lack of understanding of the impact of the restrictions and disruption caused by a pandemic on the ability of companies operating major hazard facilities to keep controlling the risks associated to their hazardous operations. Moreover, there is no industry guideline on how to account for such an impact in PSM systems for process safety hazards. The recent COVID-19 outbreak caused serious disruptions to normal operations that have challenged industry in their ability to control risks. The objective of this paper is to perform an analysis of the impact of a pandemic situation on the implementation of selected elements of PSM systems related to the identification and evaluation of the risks of a major hazard and their control. The approach chosen involves the analysis of the root causes of the failure of the selected PSM elements using a Fault Tree Analysis method. The findings provide the first steps in the establishment of recommendations for the upgrade of PSM systems to face events such as pandemics.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249232

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236496, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249245

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238096, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278519

RESUMO

Abstract Pakistan is the country with mega freshwater fish diversity of native and alien species. In the presence of enormous native fishes varies species of exotic fishes have been introduced into the freshwater bodies of Pakistan which are competing with native freshwater fish fauna and making them deprive of food and habitat as well. Intentional or accidental introductions of animals, plants and pathogens away from their native niche is considered as major leading problem for biodiversity of invaded habitat. Three years study (from January 2017 to December 2019) was conducted in freshwater bodies of Province Punjab, Pakistan. Study was designed to know exotic species impacts on the distribution of native species of fishes. During current survey a total of 68 (indigenous and exotic) fish species belonging to 14 families were recorded from head Qadirabad, head Baloki, Islam headworks and Rasul barrage. Statistical analysis showed that Shannon-Wiener diversity index was the highest (1.41) at both Rasul barrage and Islam headworks but, invasive species were present in very less number in these study sites i.e. Oreochromis mozambicus, O. niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenophryngdon idella, Cyprinus carpio and H. molitrix. The diversity index showed that comparatively low diversity was present in both area head Qadirabad (1.30) and head Baloki (1.4) due to high pressure of invasive species. Direct observation of species and statistical analysis showed that aliens' species produced negative impact on the local fish fauna diversity, evenness, and numbers. It is concluded that many factors are impacts on the diversity of native fishes, but alien (invasive) species also play a major role to reduction of native species, because aliens' species produce competition for native species. So it is urgent need to analysis the aliens and native food web and roosting sites in Pakistan, in future.


Resumo O Paquistão é um país com ampla diversidade de espécies nativas e exóticas de peixes de água doce. Contudo, diversas espécies de peixes exóticos estão sendo introduzidas nos corpos de água doce paquistanês, as quais estão competindo com a fauna nativa de peixes, tornando-os privados de alimento e habitat. A introdução intencional ou acidental de animais, plantas e patógenos fora de seu nicho nativo é considerada o principal problema da biodiversidade do habitat recém-invadido. Assim, foi realizado um estudo de três anos, de janeiro de 2017 a dezembro de 2019, em corpos de água doce na província de Punjab, Paquistão. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida para conhecer os impactos de espécies exóticas na distribuição de espécies nativas de peixes. Durante a pesquisa, foi registrado um total de 68 espécies de peixes (nativas e exóticas), pertencentes a 14 famílias, nas nascentes dos rios Qadirabad, Baloki e Islam e na barragem de Rasul. A análise estatística mostrou que o índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener foi mais alto (1,41) na barragem Rasul (RB) e na nascente do rio Islam (IH); e que a maioria das espécies introduzidas estava presente em um número muito menor, isto é, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio e Hypophthalmichthy smolitrix nessa área de estudo. Por outro lado, o índice Shannon-Wiener mostrou que a diversidade estava baixa nas nascentes dos rios Qadirabad (1,30) e Baloki (1,4) em razão da alta pressão de espécies invasoras. A observação direta das espécies e a análise estatística indicaram que as espécies invasoras produziram impacto negativo na diversidade, uniformidade e números de peixes da fauna local. Conclui-se que muitos fatores impactam na diversidade de peixes nativos, mas as espécies exóticas (invasoras) também desempenham um papel importante na redução das espécies nativas, em razão da competição existente entre elas. Portanto, é urgente uma análise futura das espécies invasoras e da teia alimentar nativa no Paquistão..

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238769, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285587

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762573

RESUMO

Abstract Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P 0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P 0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P 0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P 0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


Resumo As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P 0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P 0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P 0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P 0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762571

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

9.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 217-227, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594526

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is an intensive branch of science due to the unique features of nano range particles (1-100 nm). Their nano size results in a high surface area of absorption when orally administered. Monosodium urate crystal excessive deposition causes a commonly known inflammatory disease called gout into the synovial joints. Previously it has been observed that copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) had a significant effect in reducing the serum uric acid levels in BALB/c mice as well as reducing the inflammation in the ankles of mice. This study was made to investigate the antioxidant and histopathological changes in hyperuricemic BALB/c mice upon the oral administration of copper oxide nanoparticles. Different concentrations of copper oxide nanoparticles 5, 10, and 20 ppm were given orally to gouty mice. To investigate the antioxidant activity of CuONPs, various antioxidant protocols were applied. It was noted that the nanoparticle-treated group of 20 ppm showed no significant changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and ROS values while the protein estimation values of the negative control group exhibited a significant increase (0.001). When compared to negative control, no significant effect was shown on the interpretation of histopathological changes of muscles, kidney, and liver tissues.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa , Nanopartículas , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cobre , Ingestão de Alimentos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ácido Úrico
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131695, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426124

RESUMO

This work narrates the preparation of efficient nanomaterials framework of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoglobules (NGs) with graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for the fabrication of rapid multiple ion field-effect transistor (MI-FET) sensors. Prepared ZnO-NGs@GO and ZnO-NGs@rGO nanocomposites were broadly analyzed by different analytical techniques to study their morphological, structural, compositional, and electrochemical properties. As electrode materials, ZnO-NGs@GO and ZnO-NGs@rGO were used to fabricate MI-FETs sensor for the detection of multiple ions such as Ni (II), Co (II), Cu (II), Cr (III), Fe (II), and Bi (II) ions. ZnO-NGs@GO and ZnO-NGs@rGO modified MI-FETs sensor exhibited excellent responses towards Cr (III) and Cu (II) ions, which presented the remarkable sensitivities of ~49.28 mA µM-1. cm-2 (Cr (III) ions) and ~185.32 mA µM-1. cm-2 (Cu (II) ions), respectively. The fabricated MI-FETs sensor displayed good dynamic linear detection of ions with low limit of detection (LOD) values of ~7.05 µM and ~14.9 µM for ZnO-NGs@GO and ZnO-NGs@rGO electrodes, respectively. Efficient charge transfer over electrode considerably enhanced the trace detection of Cr (III) and Cu (II) ions. The fabricated MI-FETs sensor platform exhibited extraordinary reproducibility and excellent stability of sensing performance and thus, confirmed delightful potential to sprout a useful tool for water maintaining system.


Assuntos
Grafite , Óxido de Zinco , Íons , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 869-880, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536940

RESUMO

Coatings with bioactive properties play a key role in the success of orthopaedic implants. Recent studies focused on composite coatings incorporating biocompatible elements that can increase the nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HA), the mineral component of bone, and have promising bioactive and biodegradable properties. Here we report a method of fabricating composite collagen, chitosan and copper-doped phosphate glass (PG) coatings for biomedical applications using electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The use of collagen and chitosan (CTS) allows for the co-deposition of PG particles at standard ambient temperature and pressure (1 kPa, 25 °C), and the addition of collagen led to the steric stabilization of PG in solution. The coating composition was varied by altering the collagen/CTS concentrations in the solutions, as well as depositing PG with 0, 5 and 10 mol% CuO dopant. A monolayer of collagen/CTS containing PG was obtained on stainless steel cathodes, showing that deposition of PG in conjunction with a polymer is feasible. The mass of the monolayer varied depending on the polymer (collagen, CTS and collagen/CTS) and combination of polymer + PG (collagen-PG, CTS-PG and collagen/CTS-PG), while the presence of copper led to agglomerates during deposition at higher concentrations. The deposition yield was studied at different time points and showed a profile typical of constant voltage deposition. Increasing the concentration of collagen in the PG solution allows for a higher deposition yield, while pure collagen solutions resulted in hydrogen gas evolution at the cathode. The ability to deposit polymer-PG coatings that can mimic native bone tissue allows for the potential to fabricate orthopaedic implants with tailored biological properties with lower risk of rejection from the host and exhibit increased bioactivity.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Ortopedia , Antibacterianos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Colágeno , Cobre , Durapatita
12.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131721, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352550

RESUMO

The discharge of chromium (Cr) contaminated wastewater is creating a serious threat to aquatic environment due to the rapid pace in agricultural and industrial activities. Particularly, the long-term exposure of Cr(VI) polluted wastewater to the environment is causing serious harm to human health. Therefore, the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater is demanding widespread attention. Regarding this, the bioremediation is being considered as a reliable and feasible option to handle Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater because of having low technical investment and operating costs. However, certain factors such as loss of microorganisms, toxicity to microorganisms and uneven microbial growth cycle in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI) are hindering its commercial applications. Regarding this, microbial immobilization technology (MIT) is getting great research interest because it could overcome the shortcomings of bioremediation technology's poor tolerance against Cr. Therefore, this review is the first attempt to emphases recent research developments in the remediation of Cr(VI) contamination via MIT. Starting from the selection of immobilized carrier, the present review is designed to critically discuss the various microbial immobilizing methods i.e., adsorption, embedding, covalent binding and medium interception. Further, the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by immobilized microorganism has also been explored, precisely. In addition, three kinds of microorganism immobilization devices have been critically examined. Finally, knowledge gaps/key challenges and future perspectives are also discussed that would be helpful for the experts in improving MIT for the remediation of Cr(VI) contamination.


Assuntos
Cromo , Águas Residuárias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo/análise , Humanos , Tecnologia
13.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 45(1): 8-12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818292

RESUMO

Innovative catheter-based therapies are increasingly being used for the treatment of patients with submassive pulmonary embolism. These patients may be monitored in the intensive care unit following insertion of specialized pulmonary artery catheters. However, the infusion catheters utilized in catheter-based therapies differ greatly from traditional pulmonary artery catheters designed for hemodynamic monitoring. As such, the critical care team will have to be familiar with the monitoring and management of these novel catheters. Important distinctions between the catheters are illustrated using a clinical case report.


Assuntos
Artéria Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Cateterismo de Swan-Ganz , Cateteres , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127046, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481398

RESUMO

Mangroves (Avicennia marina) growing in intertidal areas are often exposed to diesel spills, adversely damaging the ecosystem. Herein, we showed for the first time that mangrove seedlings' associations with bacteria could reprogram host-growth, physiology, and ability to degrade diesel. We found four bacterial strains [Sphingomonas sp.-LK11, Rhodococcus corynebacterioides-NZ1, Bacillus subtilis-EP1 Bacillus safensis-SH10] exhibiting significant growth during diesel degradation (2% and 5%, v/v) and higher expression of alkane monooxygenase compared to control. This is in synergy with reduced long-chain n-alkanes (C24-C30) during microbe-diesel interactions in the bioreactor. Among individual strains, SH10 exhibited significantly higher potential to improve mangrove seedling's morphology, anatomy and growth during diesel treatment in rhizosphere compared to control. This was also evidenced by reduced activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (catalases, peroxidases, ascorbic peroxidases, superoxide dismutases and polyphenol peroxidases) and lipid peroxidation during microbe-diesel interactions. Interestingly, we noticed significantly higher soil-enzyme activities (phosphatases and glucosidases) and essential metabolites in seedling's rhizosphere after bacteria and diesel treatments. Degradation of longer n-alkane chains in the rhizosphere also revealed a potential pathway that benefits mangroves by bacterial strains during diesel contaminations. Current results support microbes' application to rhizoengineer plant growth, responses, and phytoextraction abilities in environments contaminated with diesel spills. AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS: The datasets generated during the current study are available in the NCBI GenBank ((https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).

15.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(3): 115-124, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341781

RESUMO

ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the vaccination status and barriers to vaccination among the university students by utilizing a simple random sampling technique in the largest public sector university of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The participants comprised 380 university students. Data was collected by a self-designed questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Chi-square Test and Fischer Exact test were applied to assess the impact of demographics on vaccination status, and barriers to vaccination. Out of 380 participants, 328 (86.31%) were males and 52 (13.68) females. The immunization status of university students against various diseases was variable: 97.10% (n=369) were vaccinated against poliomyelitis, 58.68% (n=223) against BCG, 44.21% (n=168) against hepatitis B, 49.21% (n=187) against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and 55.26% (n=210) against measles vaccine. The barriers to vaccination were unwillingness 15.0% (n=57), inaccessibility 17.10% (n=65), financial issues 4.47 % (n=17) and unawareness 63.42% (n=241). Moreover, 31% (n=118) of the participants considered that the use of vaccines is unsafe. The vaccination status of the university students in Southern Punjab, Pakistan is alarming as most of the students were unvaccinated. The unawareness and perception of the unsafety of vaccines were the biggest barriers to vaccination.


RESUMEN Se realizó un estudio transversal para determinar el estado de vacunación y las barreras a la vacunación entre los estudiantes universitarios, mediante la utilización de una técnica de muestreo aleatorio simple, en la universidad más grande del sector público del sur de Punjab, Pakistán. Los participantes fueron 380 estudiantes universitarios. Los datos se recopilaron mediante un cuestionario de diseño propio. Se utilizó el Paquete Estadístico para Ciencias Sociales (SPSS) para el análisis de datos. Se aplicaron la prueba de chi-cuadrado y la prueba exacta de Fischer para evaluar el impacto de la demografía en el estado de vacunación y las barreras para la vacunación. De 380 participantes, 328 (86,31%) fueron hombres y 52 (13,68%) mujeres. El estado de inmunización de los estudiantes universitarios frente a diversas enfermedades fue variable: 97,10% (n = 369) fueron vacunados contra poliomielitis, 58,68% (n = 223) contra BCG, 44,21% (n = 168) contra hepatitis B, 49,21% (n = 187) contra la difteria, tos ferina y tétanos y 55,26% (n = 210) contra la vacuna contra el sarampión. Las barreras para la vacunación fueron la falta de voluntad 15,0% (n = 57); la inaccesibilidad 17,10% (n = 65); los problemas económicos 4,47% (n = 17) y el desconocimiento 63,42% (n = 241). Además, el 31% (n = 118) de los participantes consideró que el uso de vacunas no es seguro. El estado de vacunación de los estudiantes universitarios en el sur de Punjab, Pakistán, es alarmante ya que la mayoría de los estudiantes no estaban vacunados. El desconocimiento y la percepción de la inseguridad de las vacunas fueron las mayores barreras para la vacunación.

16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To address the disproportionate burden of preterm birth (PTB) in low- and middle-income countries, this study aimed to (1) verify the performance of the United States-validated spontaneous PTB (sPTB) predictor, comprised of the IBP4/SHBG protein ratio, in subjects from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania enrolled in the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement (AMANHI) biorepository study, and (2) discover biomarkers that improve performance of IBP4/SHBG in the AMANHI cohort. STUDY DESIGN: The performance of the IBP4/SHBG biomarker was first evaluated in a nested case control validation study, then utilized in a follow-on discovery study performed on the same samples. Levels of serum proteins were measured by targeted mass spectrometry. Differences between the AMANHI and U.S. cohorts were adjusted using body mass index (BMI) and gestational age (GA) at blood draw as covariates. Prediction of sPTB < 37 weeks and < 34 weeks was assessed by area under the receiver operator curve (AUC). In the discovery phase, an artificial intelligence method selected additional protein biomarkers complementary to IBP4/SHBG in the AMANHI cohort. RESULTS: The IBP4/SHBG biomarker significantly predicted sPTB < 37 weeks (n = 88 vs. 171 terms ≥ 37 weeks) after adjusting for BMI and GA at blood draw (AUC= 0.64, 95% CI: 0.57-0.71, p < .001). Performance was similar for sPTB < 34 weeks (n = 17 vs. 184 ≥ 34 weeks): AUC = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.51-0.82, p = .012. The discovery phase of the study showed that the addition of endoglin, prolactin, and tetranectin to the above model resulted in the prediction of sPTB < 37 with an AUC= 0.72 (95% CI: 0.66-0.79, p-value < .001) and prediction of sPTB < 34 with an AUC of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.67-0.90, p < .001). CONCLUSION: A protein biomarker pair developed in the U.S. may have broader application in diverse non-U.S. populations.

17.
J Endod ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the prevalence of radix entomolaris and two canals at the distal aspect of mandibular first molars amongst different geographic regions by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Pre-calibrated observers from 23 worldwide geographic locations followed a standardized screening protocol to assess 5,750 CBCT images of mandibular first molars (250 per region) gathering demographic data and recording the presence of radix entomolaris and a second canal at the distal aspect of teeth. Intra- and inter-rater reliability tests were conducted and comparisons amongst groups were performed using proportions and odds ratio forest plots. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Results of intra- and inter-rater tests were above 0.79. The prevalence of radix entomolaris varied from 0.9% in Venezuela (0%-1.9%, CI 95%) to 22.4% in China (17.2%-27.6%, CI 95%). Regarding the proportion of a second distal canal, it ranged from 16.4% in Venezuela (11.8%-21.0%, CI 95%) to 60.0% in Egypt (53.9%-66.1%, CI 95%). East Asia subgroup was associated with significantly higher prevalence of an extra distolingual root, while America subgroup, American native ethnic group and elderly patients were linked to significantly lower percentages of a second canal at the distal aspect of teeth. No significant differences were noted between male or female patients. CONCLUSIONS: The overall worldwide prevalence of radix entomolaris and a second canal at the distal aspect of the mandibular first molar were 5.6% and 36.9%, respectively. East Asia geographic region and Asian ethnic group had higher prevalence of a second distal root.

18.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 28(4): 240-246, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850750

RESUMO

Background: As the spread of COVID-19 continues, the disease and its sequels affect antenatal, intrapartum and post-partum care, thus making pregnant women and their babies vulnerable. This study assessed the knowledge of COVID-19 disease and determinants of correct knowledge among pregnant women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women. Data collected were analysed with STATA 16.0 software. Descriptive, bivariate and multinomial regression analyses were performed. The primary outcomes were awareness of COVID-19 (yes/no), correct knowledge, and determinants. Results: Three hundred and eighty participants were interviewed. The mean age was 32 years (±4.78). A little over a third (37%) were aged 30-34 years, married (97.1%), Yoruba (86.6%), had tertiary education (89.0), in skilled occupation (54.6%) and not well-exposed to media (56.7%). The knowledge of COVID-19 was good (15%), fair (79%), and poor (6%). About 19.6%, 66.7% and 13.7% of participants who had poor, fair and good knowledge, respectively, believed that COVID-19 exists (P = 0.007). The factors associated with good knowledge include occupation, income, level of education and exposure to media (P value <0.05). On multinomial logistic regression, occupation was significantly associated with good knowledge, while being less exposed to media was significantly associated with having poor knowledge. Conclusion: Pregnant women had fair knowledge of COVID-19 disease; occupation, level of education, exposure to media and income are associated with having correct knowledge. Misinformation and misconception about COVID-19 disease may affect maternal health utilization and pregnancy outcomes. Antenatal care presents an opportunity to provide health education and increase the knowledge of COVID-19 among pregnant women.

19.
Biol Lett ; 17(11): 20210389, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727703

RESUMO

The 'social microbiome' can fundamentally shape the costs and benefits of group-living, but understanding social transmission of microbes in free-living animals is challenging due to confounding effects of kinship and shared environments (e.g. highly associated individuals often share the same spaces, food and water). Here, we report evidence for convergence towards a social microbiome among introduced common vampire bats, Desmodus rotundus, a highly social species in which adults feed only on blood, and engage in both mouth-to-body allogrooming and mouth-to-mouth regurgitated food sharing. Shotgun sequencing of samples from six zoos in the USA, 15 wild-caught bats from a colony in Belize and 31 bats from three colonies in Panama showed that faecal microbiomes were more similar within colonies than between colonies. To assess microbial transmission, we created an experimentally merged group of the Panama bats from the three distant sites by housing these bats together for four months. In this merged colony, we found evidence that dyadic gut microbiome similarity increased with both clustering and oral contact, leading to microbiome convergence among introduced bats. Our findings demonstrate that social interactions shape microbiome similarity even when controlling for past social history, kinship, environment and diet.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21540, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728752

RESUMO

Non-fullerene based organic compounds are considered promising materials for the fabrication of modern photovoltaic materials. Non-fullerene-based organic solar cells comprise of good photochemical and thermal stability along with longer device lifetimes as compared to fullerene-based compounds. Five new non-fullerene donor molecules were designed keeping in view the excellent donor properties of 3-bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-thiophen-2-yl)-5,7-bis(2ethylhexyl) benzo[1,2-:4,5-c']-dithiophene-4,8-dione thiophene-alkoxy benzene-thiophene indenedione (BDD-IN) by end-capped modifications. Photovoltaic and electronic characteristics of studied molecules were determined by employing density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Subsequently, obtained results were compared with the reference molecule BDD-IN. The designed molecules presented lower energy difference (ΔΕ) in the range of 2.17-2.39 eV in comparison to BDD-IN (= 2.72 eV). Moreover, insight from the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis disclosed that central acceptors are responsible for the charge transformation. The designed molecules were found with higher λmax values and lower transition energies than BDD-IN molecule due to stronger end-capped acceptors. Open circuit voltage (Voc) was observed in the higher range (1.54-1.78 V) in accordance with HOMOdonor-LUMOPC61BM by designed compounds when compared with BDD-IN (1.28 V). Similarly, lower reorganization energy values were exhibited by the designed compounds in the range of λe(0.00285-0.00370 Eh) and λh(0.00847-0.00802 Eh) than BDD-IN [λe(0.00700 Eh) and λh(0.00889 Eh)]. These measurements show that the designed compounds are promising candidates for incorporation into solar cell devices, which would benefit from better hole and electron mobility.

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