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1.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 35, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thousands of years of natural and artificial selection since the domestication of the horse has shaped the distinctive genomes of Chinese Mongolian horse populations. Consequently, genomic signatures of selection can provide insights into the human-mediated selection history of specific traits and evolutionary adaptation to diverse environments. Here, we used genome-wide SNPs from five distinct Chinese Mongolian horse populations to identify genomic regions under selection for the population-specific traits, gait, black coat colour, and hoof quality. Other global breeds were used to identify regional-specific signatures of selection. RESULTS: We first identified the most significant selection peak for the Wushen horse in the region on ECA23 harbouring DMRT3, the major gene for gait. We detected selection signatures encompassing several genes in the Baicha Iron Hoof horse that represent good biological candidates for hoof health, including the CSPG4, PEAK1, EXPH5, WWP2 and HAS3 genes. In addition, an analysis of regional subgroups (Asian compared to European) identified a single locus on ECA3 containing the ZFPM1 gene that is a marker of selection for the major domestication event leading to the DOM2 horse clade. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic variation at these loci in the Baicha Iron Hoof may be leveraged in other horse populations to identify animals with superior hoof health or those at risk of hoof-related pathologies. The overlap between the selection signature in Asian horses with the DOM2 selection peak raises questions about the nature of horse domestication events, which may have involved a prehistoric clade other than DOM2 that has not yet been identified.


Assuntos
Casco e Garras , Cavalos , Animais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Genoma , Cavalos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adaptação Biológica/genética
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765419

RESUMO

Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.(AU)


A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.(AU)


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/toxicidade , Biotransformação
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248026, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374638

RESUMO

Poultry industry is amongst highly developed industries of Pakistan, fulfilling the protein demand of rapidly increasing population. On the other hand, the untreated poultry waste is causing several health and environmental problems. The current study was designed to check the potential of keratinolytic fungal species for the conversion of chicken-feather waste into biofortified compost. For the purpose, three fungal species were isolated from soil samples. These strains were pure cultured and then characterized phenotypically and genotypically. BLAST searches of 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the fungal isolates revealed that the two fungal isolates belonged to genus Aspergillus and one belonged to genus Chrysosporium. Optimum temperature for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Chrysosporium queenslandicum was 29, 26 and 25 oC, respectively. A. flavus showed maximum (53%) feather degradation, A. niger degraded feather waste up to 37%, while C. queenslandicum showed 21% keratinolytic activity on chicken feathers at their respective temperature optima. The degradation potential of these fungal species showed their ability to form compost that has agro-industrial importance.


A indústria avícola está entre as indústrias altamente desenvolvidas do Paquistão, atendendo a demanda de proteína da população em rápido crescimento. Por outro lado, os resíduos de aves não tratados estão causando diversos problemas de saúde e ambientais. O presente estudo foi desenhado para verificar o potencial de espécies de fungos queratinolíticos para a conversão de resíduos de penas de frango em composto biofortificado. Para tanto, três espécies de fungos foram isoladas de amostras de solo. Essas cepas foram cultivadas puramente e, em seguida, caracterizadas fenotipicamente e genotipicamente. As pesquisas do BLAST da sequência de nucleotídeos do rDNA 18S dos isolados de fungos revelaram que os dois isolados de fungos pertenciam ao gênero Aspergillus e um pertencia ao gênero Chrysosporium. A temperatura ótima para Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger e Chrysosporium queenslandicum foi de 29, 26 e 25 oC, respectivamente. A. flavus apresentou degradação máxima de penas (53%), A. niger degradou resíduos de penas em até 37%, enquanto C. queenslandicum apresentou 21% de atividade queratinolítica em penas de frango em suas respectivas temperaturas ótimas. O potencial de degradação dessas espécies de fungos mostrou sua capacidade de formar composto de importância agroindustrial.


Assuntos
Produtos Avícolas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Paquistão
5.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-9, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study used the latest available data cuts from the CARTITUDE-1 and KarMMa clinical trials to update previously published matching-adjusted indirect treatment comparisons (MAICs) assessing the comparative efficacy of ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel) versus the FDA-approved idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel) dose range of 300 to 450 × 106 CAR-positive T-cells in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who were previously treated with a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory drug, and an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (i.e. triple-class exposed). METHODS: MAICs were performed with the latest available individual patient data for cilta-cel (CARTITUDE-1) and published summary-level data for ide-cel (KarMMa). The analyses included treated patients from CARTITUDE-1 who satisfied the eligibility criteria for KarMMa. The MAIC adjusted for unbalanced baseline covariates of prognostic significance identified in the literature and by clinical expertise. Comparative efficacy was assessed for overall response rate (ORR), complete response or better (≥CR) rate, duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Cilta-cel was associated with statistically significantly improved ORR (odds ratio [OR]: 94.93 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.86, 412.25; p < .0001]; relative risk [RR]: 1.34), ≥CR rate (OR: 5.65 [95% CI: 2.51, 12.69; p < .0001]; RR: 2.23), DoR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.52 [95% CI: 0.30, 0.88; p = .0152]), PFS, (HR: 0.38 [95% CI: 0.24, 0.62; p < .0001]), and OS (HR: 0.43 [95% CI: 0.22, 0.88; p = .0200]) compared with ide-cel. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses demonstrate improved efficacy with cilta-cel versus ide-cel for all outcomes over longer follow-up and highlight its therapeutic potential in triple-class exposed RRMM patients.

6.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 221: 107377, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical, laboratory, and histopathological features that may predict the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent temporal artery biopsy (TAB) between January 1, 2011 and March 31, 2019. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory features, histopathological features, and biopsy results were collected. GCA status was determined by a neuro-ophthalmologist (OOA). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify features that predict GCA status. RESULTS: Of 101 patients who underwent TAB, 31 (31%) were diagnosed with GCA. Age was found to be statistically significant for the diagnosis of GCA (P = 0.009), with an average age of 74.4 years ( ± 8.1) in those with GCA vs. 68.9 years ( ± 10.0) in those without. The incidence of transient vision loss was higher in GCA than non-GCA patients (P = 0.005). Anterior arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (n = 3), ophthalmic artery occlusion (n = 2), and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (n = 1) were seen only in the GCA group. Of the 31 GCA patients, 15 had active GCA (48%), 3 (10%) had healed temporal arteritis (HTA), 8 (26%) had suggested HTA, and 5 (16%) had false negative biopsies. Of the 70 non-GCA patients, 63 (90%) had negative biopsies, 2 (3%) had HTA, and 5 (7%) had suggested HTA. Histopathological analysis revealed that CD68 staining had a sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 86%. Both presence of multinucleated giant cells (MNGC) and transmural inflammation had 100% specificity; however, sensitivity was ≤ 50%. In patients with negative TABs and complete risk factor data available (n = 66), the odds of GCA increased 2.16-fold every 5 years of age, and 1.08-fold every mg/day of oral steroid use. A biopsy result of HTA had an odds ratio of 84.7 and suggested HTA of 49.2 against a negative TAB for diagnosis of GCA. CONCLUSION: Age at time of biopsy, HTA, and suggested HTA are predictive for the diagnosis of GCA. Transient vision loss is more commonly seen in GCA, and anterior arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, ophthalmic artery occlusion, and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy are important ophthalmic manifestations of GCA. CD68 staining is more sensitive but less specific for diagnosing GCA in comparison to other histopathologic findings such as presence of MNGC and transmural inflammation. Further work is recommended to investigate the importance of the specific histopathologic finding of CD68 staining in the diagnosis of GCA.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana , Idoso , Biópsia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação/patologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/diagnóstico , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/etiologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Artérias Temporais
7.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 66: 104031, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ofatumumab is a subcutaneously administered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) therapy that has been evaluated in two identically designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), ASCLEPIOS I (NCT02792218) and ASCLEPIOS II (NCT02792231), in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). Ocrelizumab is another anti-CD20 MoAb therapy, administered intravenously, that has been evaluated in two identically designed RCTs, OPERA I (NCT01247324) and OPERA II (NCT01412333) in RMS. Given the absence of published RCTs with head-to-head comparisons between these MoAbs, this study assessed the indirect comparative efficacy of ofatumumab and ocrelizumab. METHODS: Given the availability of individual patient data for ASCLEPIOS I/II and summary-level data for OPERA I/II, simulated treatment comparisons were used to assess the comparative efficacy of ofatumumab versus ocrelizumab while adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics between trials. Comparative efficacy was estimated for the proportion of patients with 3- and 6-month confirmed disability progression (CDP) and for annualized relapse rate (ARR). Exploratory analyses were conducted for the outcome of no evidence of disease activity based on three parameters (NEDA-3) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes (proportion of patients with gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions and brain volume change). RESULTS: Although comparative results were not significant for 3-month CDP (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.90 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-1.42]) or 6-month CDP (HR: 0.84 [95% CI: 0.47-1.49]), ofatumumab showed a significant improvement in ARR (rate ratio: 0.60 [95% CI: 0.43-0.84]) compared with ocrelizumab. Significantly favorable results were also associated with ofatumumab for NEDA-3 and MRI outcomes. CONCLUSION: Ofatumumab was associated with more favorable efficacy results compared with ocrelizumab for clinical, NEDA-3, and MRI outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Cistina Difosfato/uso terapêutico , Gadolínio/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 77: 102226, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785567

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause severe complications in the newborn and immunocompromised individuals. The parasite evokes a strong innate immune response in the infected hosts which is followed by a robust adaptive immunity. In the last few years, importance of innate immune mechanisms dependent on the role of MyD-88 independent pathways, inflammatory monocytes and innate lymphocyte have been identified. However, notwithstanding the strong immune response to the parasite, the chronic infection persists in the host. The inability to prevent chronic infection can be attributed to aberration in the memory CD8 T cell response caused by an increased expression of inhibitory receptors that leads to their dysfunctionality.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Recém-Nascido , Monócitos , Toxoplasma/fisiologia
9.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(10): 1759-1767, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815818

RESUMO

Objective: In the absence of head-to-head trials, indirect treatment comparisons (ITCs) between ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel; in CARTITUDE-1) and treatments used in real-world clinical practice (physician's choice of treatment [PCT]), were previously conducted. We conducted multiple meta-analyses using available ITC data to consolidate the effectiveness of cilta-cel versus PCT for patients with triple-class exposed relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM).Methods: Five ITCs were assessed for similarity to ensure robust comparisons using meta-analysis. Effectiveness outcomes were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to next treatment (TTNT), and overall response rate (ORR). A robust variance estimator was used to account for the use of CARTITUDE-1 in each pairwise ITC. Analyses were conducted in both treated and enrolled populations of CARTITUDE-1.Results: Four ITCs were combined for evaluation of OS. Results were statistically significantly in favor of cilta-cel versus PCT in treated patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.26). Three ITCs were combined for evaluation of PFS and TTNT. Cilta-cel reduced the risk of progression and receiving a subsequent treatment by 80% (HR: 0.20 [95% CI: 0.06, 0.70]) and 83% (HR: 0.17 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.26]), respectively. Three ITCs were combined for evaluation of ORR. Cilta-cel increased the odds of achieving an overall response by 86-times versus PCT in treated patients. Findings were consistent in the enrolled populations and across sensitivity analyses.Conclusions: Evaluating multiple indirect comparisons, cilta-cel demonstrated a significantly superior advantage over PCT, highlighting its effectiveness as a therapy in patients with triple-class exposed RRMM.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Médicos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Exp Suppl ; 114: 373-388, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544009

RESUMO

Microsporidia are a group of pathogens, which can pose severe risks to the immunocompromised population, such as HIV-infected individuals or organ transplant recipients. Adaptive immunity has been reported to be critical for protection, and mice depleted of T cells are unable to control these infections. In a mouse model of infection, CD8 T cells have been found to be the primary effector cells and are responsible for protecting the infected host. Also, as infection is acquired via a peroral route, CD8 T cells in the gut compartment act as a first line of defense against these pathogens. Thus, generation of a robust CD8 T-cell response exhibiting polyfunctional ability is critical for host survival. In this chapter, we describe the effector CD8 T cells generated during microsporidia infection and the factors that may be essential for generating protective immunity against these understudied but significant pathogens. Overall, this chapter will highlight the necessity for a better understanding of the development of CD8 T-cell responses in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and provide some insights into therapies that may be used to restore defective CD8 T-cell functionality in an immunocompromised situation.


Assuntos
Microsporídios , Microsporidiose , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Camundongos , Microsporídios/genética , Microsporidiose/genética
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248026, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544900

RESUMO

Poultry industry is amongst highly developed industries of Pakistan, fulfilling the protein demand of rapidly increasing population. On the other hand, the untreated poultry waste is causing several health and environmental problems. The current study was designed to check the potential of keratinolytic fungal species for the conversion of chicken-feather waste into biofortified compost. For the purpose, three fungal species were isolated from soil samples. These strains were pure cultured and then characterized phenotypically and genotypically. BLAST searches of 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the fungal isolates revealed that the two fungal isolates belonged to genus Aspergillus and one belonged to genus Chrysosporium. Optimum temperature for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Chrysosporium queenslandicum was 29, 26 and 25 oC, respectively. A. flavus showed maximum (53%) feather degradation, A. niger degraded feather waste up to 37%, while C. queenslandicum showed 21% keratinolytic activity on chicken feathers at their respective temperature optima. The degradation potential of these fungal species showed their ability to form compost that has agro-industrial importance.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Plumas , Animais , Galinhas , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Temperatura
12.
Trends Parasitol ; 38(4): 272-273, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190281

RESUMO

Vaccine-mediated immunity to parasites has not been achieved. Immune C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to secondary Toxoplasma gondii infection. Using a forward genetics approach, Souza et al. identify Nfkbid as an important factor for the regulation of B cell immunity during secondary Toxoplasma infection and protection against rechallenge.


Assuntos
Vacinas Protozoárias , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Toxoplasmose , Vacinas de DNA , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas de Protozoários , Toxoplasma/genética
13.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 139(2): 145-160, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559415

RESUMO

Vietnamese smallholder dairy cows (VDC) are the result of crossbreeding between different zebu (ZEB) and taurine dairy breeds through many undefined generations. Thus, the predominant breed composition of VDC is currently unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the level of genetic diversity and breed composition of VDC. The SNP data of 344 animals from 32 farms located across four dairy regions of Vietnam were collected and merged with genomic reference data, which included three ZEB breeds: Red Sindhi, Sahiwal and Brahman, three taurine breeds: Holstein (HOL), Jersey (JER) and Brown Swiss (BSW), and a composite breed: Chinese Yellow cattle. Diversity and admixture analyses were applied to the merged data set. The VDC were not excessively inbred, as indicated by very low inbreeding coefficients (Wright's FIS ranged from -0.017 to 0.003). The genetic fractions in the test herds suggested that the VDC are primarily composed of HOL (85.0%); however, JER (6.0%), BSW 5.3%) and ZEB (4.5%) had also contributed. Furthermore, major genotype groupings in the test herds were pure HOL (48%), B3:15/16HOL_1/16ZEB (22%) and B2:7/8HOL_1/8ZEB (12%). The genetic makeup of the VDC is mainly components of various dairy breeds but also has a small percentage of ZEB; thus, the VDC could be a good genetic base for selecting high milk-producing cows with some degree of adaptation to tropical conditions.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Genoma , Leite , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Genótipo , Vietnã
14.
Front Genet ; 12: 760450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868240

RESUMO

Extensively grazed cattle are often mustered only once a year. Therefore, birthdates are typically unknown or inaccurate. Birthdates would be useful for deriving important traits (growth rate; calving interval), breed registrations, and making management decisions. Epigenetic clocks use methylation of DNA to predict an individual's age. An epigenetic clock for cattle could provide a solution to the challenges of industry birthdate recording. Here we derived the first epigenetic clock for tropically adapted cattle using portable sequencing devices from tail hair, a tissue which is widely used in industry for genotyping. Cattle (n = 66) with ages ranging from 0.35 to 15.7 years were sequenced using Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION and methylation was called at CpG sites across the genome. Sites were then filtered and used to calculate a covariance relationship matrix based on methylation state. Best linear unbiased prediction was used with 10-fold cross validation to predict age. A second methylation relationship matrix was also calculated that contained sites associated with genes used in the dog and human epigenetic clocks. The correlation between predicted age and actual age was 0.71 for all sites and 0.60 for dog and human gene epigenetic clock sites. The mean absolute deviation was 1.4 years for animals aged less than 3 years of age, and 1.5 years for animals aged 3-10 years. This is the first reported epigenetic clock using industry relevant samples in cattle.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910782

RESUMO

Most traits in livestock, crops and humans are polygenic, that is, a large number of loci contribute to genetic variation. Effects at these loci lie along a continuum ranging from common low-effect to rare high-effect variants that cumulatively contribute to the overall phenotype. Statistical methods to calculate the effect of these loci have been developed and can be used to predict phenotypes in new individuals. In agriculture, these methods are used to select superior individuals using genomic breeding values; in humans these methods are used to quantitatively measure an individual's disease risk, termed polygenic risk scores. Both fields typically use SNP array genotypes for the analysis. Recently, genotyping-by-sequencing has become popular, due to lower cost and greater genome coverage (including structural variants). Oxford Nanopore Technologies' (ONT) portable sequencers have the potential to combine the benefits genotyping-by-sequencing with portability and decreased turn-around time. This introduces the potential for in-house clinical genetic disease risk screening in humans or calculating genomic breeding values on-farm in agriculture. Here we demonstrate the potential of the later by calculating genomic breeding values for four traits in cattle using low-coverage ONT sequence data and comparing these breeding values to breeding values calculated from SNP arrays. At sequencing coverages between 2X and 4X the correlation between ONT breeding values and SNP array-based breeding values was > 0.92 when imputation was used and > 0.88 when no imputation was used. With an average sequencing coverage of 0.5x the correlation between the two methods was between 0.85 and 0.92 using imputation, depending on the trait. This suggests that ONT sequencing has potential for in clinic or on-farm genomic prediction, however, further work to validate these findings in a larger population still remains.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Genoma/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Gado/genética , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/instrumentação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
16.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(11): 1933-1944, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Head-to-head trials comparing siponimod with fingolimod or ofatumumab in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking. Instead, the comparative efficacy of siponimod can be derived from indirect treatment comparisons (ITCs). We assessed the suitability of ITCs leveraging individual patient data from relevant phase III trials across different MS phenotypes. METHODS: One siponimod trial in patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), four fingolimod trials (three in relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], and one in primary progressive MS [PPMS]), and two ofatumumab trials in relapsing MS (RMS) were considered. The suitability of ITCs was evaluated based on trial design, patient eligibility criteria, baseline patient characteristics, placebo response, and outcome definitions for each trial. Analyses deemed feasible were conducted using one-to-one propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: An ITC between siponimod in SPMS and either fingolimod in RRMS or ofatumumab in RMS was not feasible because of insufficient overlap in key patient characteristics (e.g. disability level and relapse history) and differences in placebo response. However, a comparison between siponimod in SPMS and fingolimod in PPMS was feasible because of sufficient overlap in eligibility criteria and baseline characteristics. One-to-one PSM demonstrated siponimod was favored relative to fingolimod for time to 6- and 3-month confirmed disability progression though not significantly different (hazard ratio 0.76 [95% confidence interval 0.48-1.20; p-value = .240] and hazard ratio 0.80 [95% confidence interval 0.52-1.22; p-value = .300], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: For trials in MS, clinical phenotype is an important determinant of ITC feasibility. An ITC between siponimod in SPMS and either fingolimod in RRMS or ofatumumab in RMS was not feasible. The only feasible comparison was between siponimod in SPMS and fingolimod in PPMS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Azetidinas , Compostos de Benzil , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Cloridrato de Fingolimode , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Pontuação de Propensão
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320050

RESUMO

Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Animais , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
18.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(10): 1779-1788, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study estimated the comparative efficacy of ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel) versus the approved idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel) dose range of 300-460 × 106 CAR-positive T-cells for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who were previously treated with a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory drug, and an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (i.e. triple-class exposed) using matching-adjusted indirect treatment comparisons (MAICs). METHODS: MAICs were performed with individual patient data for cilta-cel (CARTITUDE-1; NCT03548207) and published summary-level data for ide-cel (KarMMa; NCT03361748). Treated patients from CARTITUDE-1 who satisfied the eligibility criteria for KarMMa were included in the analyses. The MAIC adjusted for unbalanced baseline covariates of prognostic significance identified in the literature and by clinical expertise. Comparative efficacy was estimated for overall response rate (ORR), complete response or better (≥CR) rate, duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Cilta-cel was associated with statistically significantly improved ORR (odds ratio [OR]: 94.93 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.86, 412.25; p < .0001]; relative risk [RR]: 1.34), ≥CR rate (OR: 5.49 [95% CI: 2.47, 12.21; p < .0001]; RR: 2.21), DoR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.50 [95% CI: 0.29, 0.87; p = .0137]), and PFS (HR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.22, 0.62; p = .0002]) when compared with ide-cel. For OS, the results were in favor of cilta-cel and clinically meaningful but with a CI overlapping one (HR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.29, 1.05; p = .0702]). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses demonstrate improved efficacy with cilta-cel versus ide-cel for all outcomes, highlighting its therapeutic potential in patients with triple-class exposed RRMM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Mieloma Múltiplo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos
19.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803763

RESUMO

Breeding for polled animals is deemed the most practical solution to eradicate horns naturally and circumvent management costs and risks on health and welfare. However, there has been a historical reluctance by some farmers to select polled animals due to perceived lower productivity of their calves. This study has compared estimated breeding values (EBVs) between horned and polled animals (N = 2,466,785) for 12 production and carcass traits to assess historical (before 2000) and recent (2000-2018) genetic implications of poll breeding. Older generations of the polled animals in most breeds had significantly lower (Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.05) genetic merits for live (birth to maturity) and carcass weights, milk, meat quality, and fat content traits. Substantial gains of genetic potential were achieved during 2000 to 2018 in each breed, such that polled animals have significantly improved for the majority of traits studied. Generally, polled cohorts showed advantageous EBVs for live and carcass weights irrespective of the lower birth weights in some breeds. While Polled Brahman showed inferior production parameters, the poll genetics' effect size (d) and correlation (r) were very small on recent birth weight (d = -0.30, r = -0.08), 200 days (-0.19, -0.05), 400 days (-0.06, -0.02), 600 days (-0.05, -0.01), mature cow live weight (-0.08, -0.02), and carcass weight (-0.19, -0.05). In conclusion, although there is some evidence that historical selection for polled breeding animals may have reduced productivity, there is strong evidence that more recent selection for polled genotypes in the breeds studied has not resulted in any adverse effects on genetic merit.

20.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13709, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833923

RESUMO

Purpose It is often difficult for the clinician to isolate the etiology of pain occurring either in the neck or shoulder because of the reason that neck pain can refer to the shoulder and vice versa. Concordance research has found that around one in 10 patients who were referred for cervical radiculopathy had comorbid shoulder pathology. The goal of this research is to analyze and correlate risk factors for persistent shoulder pain (non-dermatomal) following cervical spine surgery. Methods This was a single-center, retrospective study. The medical records of patients admitted for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) were reviewed from August 2018 to Feb 2021. Patients of both sexes and age more than 18 years who underwent ACDF (single/multiple levels) were included and the medical record was checked for whether they had persistent shoulder pain following ACDF. The proportion of patients undergoing shoulder surgery for associated rotator cuff tears and subacromial impingement were recorded. Results Seventy patients presenting with cervical prolapsed intervertebral disc (PID) were studied. A majority of our patients were females (n=48, 68.6%) and males (n=22, 31.4%) with an M:F ratio of 1:2 and the majority of patients were between the ages of 40 to 60 years (n=34, 48.6%). After surgical intervention (ACDF), 48 patients (68.6%) noted the cessation of shoulder symptoms (pain, weakness, and numbness) during their last visit. Rotator cuff tear (supraspinatus mainly) was the predominant finding in MRI in those who didn't improve after ACDF (n=18, 25.7%, p-value: 0.001). Twenty patients (28.6%) underwent acromioplasty and rotator cuff tendon repair and four patients responded well to subacromial injection. The C6-7 level was most commonly affected (n=48, 68.6%) followed by C5-6 level (n=19, 27.1%). No significant association was found between cervical levels with shoulder pathologies (p-0.171), though a significant association between a visual analog scale (VAS) score >7 after surgery with shoulder pathologies (p-0.001) was found. The C6-7 level was commonly affected in females (p=0.038) but no significant association between gender and shoulder pathologies was found (p=0.332). Conclusion Dual pathologies in patients with cervical PID are very common. It needs careful attention by doing thorough clinical examination and correlating patient symptoms with radiological investigations. A patient who presents with persistent shoulder pain after cervical spine surgery had a higher chance of having concurrent shoulder pathology, and they should be properly investigated and managed to alleviate the suffering of the patient.

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