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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219

RESUMO

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Infertilidade , Mutação/genética
2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765531

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.(AU)


Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes/microbiologia , Microbiota , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Brachyspira/isolamento & purificação
3.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-7, 2023. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765490

RESUMO

To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T¹ of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.(AU)


Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis e nível de metais pesados de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.(AU)


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Esterco/análise , Chumbo/administração & dosagem , Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Tratamento do Solo/métodos
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-9, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765473

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.(AU)


Estudos anteriores sugeriram que o arsênio atravessa a placenta e afeta o desenvolvimento do feto. O estudo em consideração visa mostrar o efeito melhorador comparativo de extratos de folhas e flores de Moringa oleifera contra a toxicidade fetal induzida por arseniato de sódio em camundongos. Camundongos grávidas (N = 44) foram mantidos em laboratório e divididos em 11 grupos (de A a K) e foram administrados por via oral nas doses de 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg para arseniato de sódio, 150 mg/kg e 300 mg/kg para extratos de folhas de Moringa oleifera (MOLE) e 150 mg/kg e 300 mg/kg para extratos de flores de Moringa oleifera (MOFE) em comparação com o controle. A investigação revelou redução evidente no peso do feto, membro posterior, membro anterior, comprimento da cauda e focinho, coroa, nádega e circunferência da cabeça, bem como malformações na cauda, pés, braços, pernas, pele e olhos no grupo de controle negativo (apenas administrado com arseniato de sódio). A coadministração de arseniato de sódio com MOLE e MOFE melhora significativamente o efeito reverso do arseniato de sódio na forma, comprimento, peso corporal e dano ao DNA do feto, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. No entanto, o extrato da folha da Moringa oleifera apresentou resultados mais significativos em comparação ao extrato da flor da Moringa oleifera. Portanto, concluiu que o extrato da folha de Moringa oleifera melhorou os efeitos tóxicos do arseniato de sódio para o embrião e pode ser usado contra teratógenos ambientais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Camundongos , Moringa oleifera/embriologia , Ensaio Cometa/veterinária , Feto/anormalidades , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Pré-Natais/veterinária , Arseniatos/toxicidade
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-5, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765428

RESUMO

Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.(AU)


Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Linho , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pé Diabético
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Fezes
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Linho , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Biofilmes , Metanol
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256923, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137843

RESUMO

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 15 , Infertilidade , Ovinos , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 15/genética , Feminino , Infertilidade/veterinária , Mutação , Ovulação , Paquistão , Ovinos/genética
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378664

RESUMO

Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Linho , Biofilmes , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586192

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Escherichia coli , Fezes
12.
Food Funct ; 5(3): 545-56, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24473227

RESUMO

Natural products are currently gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats. Scientific evidence has been provided that dietary phytochemicals may play important roles as chemo-preventive or chemotherapeutic agents in the prevention of many diseases. Green tea has many biologically active moieties, like flavanols and polyphenols. Catechins are flavanols that constitute the majority of soluble solids of green tea; its major components are epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicatechin (EC). Among these, EGCG is the predominant component, contributing more than 50% of polyphenols. It has many health related characteristics, like hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, antiviral and antihypertensive activities. Ethanolic extracts of green tea was subjected to in vivo modeling. An efficacy trial was carried out on normal, hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic rats for 8 weeks. Control, functional and nutraceutical diets were used for each study. Drink and feed intake and body weight increased during the study period. Serum analysis showed that maximum reduction of cholesterol level was noted in hypercholesterolemic rats, up to 15.45%, due to the nutraceutical diet. It was a 21.51% reduction in the case of LDL and 12.92% for triglycerides. The serum glucose level was most reduced in hyperglycemic rats, up to 13.39% as a result of the nutraceutical diet. The functional diet resulted in a bit less reduction in the respective traits compared to the nutraceutical diet. Hematological analysis revealed that administration of green tea did not adversely affect the red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet count of the rats. The current research work enables us to conclude that green tea is effective against hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pós/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
13.
Nature ; 501(7465): 79-83, 2013 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23995683

RESUMO

A quantum point contact (QPC) is a basic nanometre-scale electronic device: a short and narrow transport channel between two electron reservoirs. In clean channels, electron transport is ballistic and the conductance is then quantized as a function of channel width with plateaux at integer multiples of 2e(2)/h (where e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant). This can be understood in a picture where the electron states are propagating waves, without the need to account for electron-electron interactions. Quantized conductance could thus be the signature of ultimate control over nanoscale electron transport. However, even studies with the cleanest QPCs generically show significant anomalies in the quantized conductance traces, and there is consensus that these result from electron many-body effects. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical studies, understanding these anomalies is an open problem. Here we report that the many-body effects have their origin in one or more spontaneously localized states that emerge from Friedel oscillations in the electron charge density within the QPC channel. These localized states will have electron spins associated with them, and the Kondo effect--related to electron transport through such localized electron spins--contributes to the formation of the many-body state. We present evidence for such localization, with Kondo effects of odd or even character, directly reflecting the parity of the number of localized states; the evidence is obtained from experiments with length-tunable QPCs that show a periodic modulation of the many-body properties with Kondo signatures that alternate between odd and even Kondo effects. Our results are of importance for assessing the role of QPCs in more complex hybrid devices and for proposals for spintronic and quantum information applications. In addition, our results show that tunable QPCs offer a versatile platform for investigating many-body effects in nanoscale systems, with the ability to probe such physics at the level of a single site.

14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(1): 22-29, Jan.-Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-571370

RESUMO

Kinetics of a lipase isolated from Bacillus sp. was studied. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 9 and temperature 60ºC. The Michaelis constant (K M 0.31 µM) obtained from three different plots i.e., Lineweaver-Burk, Hanes-Wolf and Hofstee, was found to be lower than already reported lipases that confirmed higher affinity of the enzyme for its substrate p-NPL (p-nitrophenyl laurate). Vmax of the enzyme was found to be 7.6 µM/mL/min. Energy of activation calculated from Arrhenius plot was found to be 20.607 kJmol-1. Activation enthalpy (ΔH*) had negative trend and the value for the hydrolysis of p-NPL by the enzyme at optimum temperature was -2.748 kJmol-1 . Activation entropy (ΔS*) and free energy of activation (ΔG*) of the enzyme were found to be 1.468 Jmol-1K-1 and -3.237 kJmol-1, respectively at optimum temperature. Low value of Q10 (0.04788) shows high catalytic activity of the enzyme. Mn2+, Fe2+ and Mg2+ enhanced the lipase activity whereas Cu2+, Na+ and Co2+ inhibited the enzyme activity. However, the enzyme activity was not affected significantly by K+ ions. EDTA and SDS also significantly inhibited the lipase activity. Activity of the enzyme was increased in n-hexane while decreased with increase in concentration of acetone, chloroform, ethanol and isopropanol.


Assuntos
Acetona/análise , Bacillus/enzimologia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Catalase/análise , Microbiologia Ambiental , Reativadores Enzimáticos , Curtume , Lipase/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos , Solventes , Ativação Enzimática , Cinética , Métodos , Métodos , Resíduos
15.
Braz J Microbiol ; 42(1): 22-9, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24031600

RESUMO

Kinetics of a lipase isolated from Bacillus sp. was studied. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 9 and temperature 60°C. The Michaelis constant (KM 0.31 mM) obtained from three different plots i.e., Lineweaver-Burk, Hanes-Wolf and Hofstee, was found to be lower than already reported lipases that confirmed higher affinity of the enzyme for its substrate p-NPL (p-nitrophenyl laurate). Vmax of the enzyme was found to be 7.6 µM/mL/min. Energy of activation calculated from Arrhenius plot was found to be 20.607 kJmol(-1). Activation enthalpy (ΔH*) had negative trend and the value for the hydrolysis of p-NPL by the enzyme at optimum temperature was -2.748 kJmol(-1). Activation entropy (ΔS*) and free energy of activation (ΔG*) of the enzyme were found to be 1.468 Jmol(-1)K(-1) and -3.237 kJmol(-1), respectively at optimum temperature. Low value of Q10 (0.04788) shows high catalytic activity of the enzyme. Mn(2+), Fe(2+) and Mg(2+) enhanced the lipase activity whereas Cu(2+), Na(+) and Co(2+) inhibited the enzyme activity. However, the enzyme activity was not affected significantly by K(+) ions. EDTA and SDS also significantly inhibited the lipase activity. Activity of the enzyme was increased in n-hexane while decreased with increase in concentration of acetone, chloroform, ethanol and isopropanol.

17.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 11 Suppl 1: i11-19, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19193960

RESUMO

Multigeneic QTL present significant problems to analysis. Resistance to soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme was partly underlain by QRfs2 that was clustered with, or pleiotropic to, the multigeneic rhg1 locus providing resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines). A group of five genes were found between the two markers that delimited the Rfs2/rhg1 locus. One of the five genes was predicted to encode an unusual diphenol oxidase (laccase; EC 1.10.3.2). The aim of this study was to characterize this member of the soybean laccase gene-family and explore its involvement in SDS resistance. A genomic clone and a full length cDNA was isolated from resistant cultivar 'Forrest' that were different among susceptible cultivars 'Asgrow 3244' and 'Williams 82' at four residues R/H168, I/M271, R/H330, E/K470. Additional differences were found in six of the seven introns and the promoter region. Transcript abundance (TA) among genotypes that varied for resistance to SDS or SCN did not differ significantly. Therefore the protein activity was inferred to underlie resistance. Protein expressed in yeast pYES2/NTB had weak enzyme activity with common substrates but good activity with root phenolics. The Forrest isoform may underlie both QRfs2 and rhg1.


Assuntos
Lacase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Soja/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Lacase/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nematoides/fisiologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/microbiologia , Soja/parasitologia , Síndrome
18.
Horm Metab Res ; 40(4): 262-8, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18548385

RESUMO

A number of human and animal studies using conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) or diacylglycerol (DAG) oil have shown positive physiological effects on abdominal adiposity, plasma triglycerides, plasma glucose, and insulin sensitivity. A novel DAG composition containing CLA called CLA diacylglyceride (CLA-DAG) may offer potential as a therapeutic agent in reducing some of the symptoms associated with the diabetic phenotype and metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to investigate the effect of CLA-DAG oil on the diabetic phenotype in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Animals were assigned to one of four groups: control (C), rosiglitazone (ROS), CLA-DAG, or CLA as free fatty acid (CLA-FFA). After 11 weeks, body weight was higher and kidney weight was lower in the CLA-DAG and ROS groups compared with the C group. The ROS treatment increased the percentage of body fat as compared with all other groups. Final fasting blood glucose was lower in the CLA-DAG and ROS groups than in the C group. Plasma cholesterol was lower in the CLA-DAG group, and plasma triglycerides were lower in the ROS group compared with the C group. We also observed changes in transcript abundance of PPAR-gamma, PPAR-alpha, FAS, LPL, UCP2, UCP3, CPT1, RxR, ObRb, ApoAII, ApoD, and IRS1 in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, suggesting treatment-induced effects on these genes. Collectively, these data suggest the need for further research on the therapeutic relevance of CLA-DAG oil in obesity and diabetes. Future research should also differentiate between CLA alone and DAG alone compared with the combination.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , DNA Complementar/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diglicerídeos/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Rim/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rosiglitazona , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Phytomedicine ; 14(10): 681-9, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17689944

RESUMO

Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and its close relative North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are perennial aromatic herbs that are widely used in Oriental medicine and have been acclaimed to have various health benefits including diabetes treatment. In this study, we compared the effects of a diet containing rosiglitazone to a diet containing ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Animals were assigned to one of three diets: control, rosiglitazone (0.1 g/1 kg diet), or ginseng (10 g/1 kg diet). During the 11-week study, body weight, food intake, organ weight, blood glucose, plasma cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride levels were evaluated. Animals treated with rosiglitazone or ginseng exhibited increased body weight (p<0.05) and decreased kidney weight (p<0.05) compared to control animals. The rosiglitazone group demonstrated decreased food intake and plasma triglyceride levels versus the other groups (p<0.05). The ginseng group revealed decreased cholesterol levels relative to the control group (p<0.05). Furthermore, ginseng and rosiglitazone had marked effects on the expression of genes involved in PPAR actions and triglyceride metabolism compared to controls. In conclusion, ginseng modified the diabetic phenotype and genes associated with diabetes in the male ZDF rat. These data are encouraging, and warrant further research to determine the therapeutic value of this medicinal herb in treating human diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Panax , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Primers do DNA , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Dieta , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , PPAR gama/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/genética , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Rosiglitazona , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 276(6): 503-16, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17024428

RESUMO

The rhg1 gene or genes lie at a recessive or co-dominant locus, necessary for resistance to all Hg types of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines I.). The aim here was to identify nucleotide changes within a candidate gene found at the rhg1 locus that were capable of altering resistance to Hg types 0 (race 3). A 1.5 +/- 0.25 cM region of chromosome 18 (linkage group G) was shown to encompass rhg1 using recombination events from four near isogenic line populations and nine DNA markers. The DNA markers anchored two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones 21d9 and 73p6. A single receptor like kinase (RLK; leucine rich repeat-transmembrane-protein kinase) candidate resistance gene was amplified from both BACs using redundant primers. The DNA sequence showed nine alleles of the RLK at Rhg1 in the soybean germplasm. Markers designed to detect alleles showed perfect association between allele 1 and resistance to soybean cyst nematode Hg types 0 in three segregating populations, fifteen additional selected recombination events and twenty-two Plant Introductions. A quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) [corrected] in the RLK at rhg1 was inferred that alters A87 to V87 in the context of H274 rather than N274. [corrected] Contiguous DNA sequence of 315 kbp of chromosome 18 (about 2 cM) contained additional gene candidates that may modulate resistance to other Hg-types including a variant laccase, a hydrogen-sodium ion antiport and two proteins of unknown function. A molecular basis for recessive and co-dominant resistance that involves interactions among paralagous disease-resistance genes was inferred that would improve methods for developing new nematode-resistant soybean cultivars.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Soja/genética , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Southern Blotting , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genômica , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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