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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246322, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285614

RESUMO

Abstract A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Resumo Um total de 10 espécimes foi capturado em locais selecionados da Bajaur Agency FATA, Paquistão, usando redes de neblina. Os espécimes capturados foram identificados morfologicamente e várias medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento da cabeça e do corpo (HB) de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n = 10) foi de 43 ± 0,11 mm e 45 ± 1,1, respectivamente. Pipistrellus kuhlii identificado morfologicamente e confirmado como Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus com base em sequências de rRNA 16S. As sequências de DNA foram submetidas ao GenBank e os números de acesso foram obtidos (MN 719478 e MT430902). As sequências do gene 16S rRNA disponíveis de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram recuperadas do NCBI e incorporadas na análise da árvore N-J. No geral, as variações genéticas interespecíficas entre Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram de 8% e 1%, respectivamente. Em nossa recomendação, uma identificação molecular abrangente de morcegos precisa de uma hora para relatar mais espécies crípticas e novas do Paquistão.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339338

RESUMO

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade is an objective measure of liver function for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib is approved for patients with advanced HCC who have received prior sorafenib based on the phase 3 CELESTIAL trial (NCT01908426). Cabozantinib improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo in patients with previously treated HCC. METHODS: Patients were randomised 2:1 to receive cabozantinib 60 mg or placebo orally every day. Clinical outcomes in patients with ALBI grade 1 or 2 at baseline were evaluated in CELESTIAL. ALBI scores were retrospectively calculated based on baseline serum albumin and total bilirubin, with an ALBI grade of 1 defined as ≤ -2.60 score and a grade of 2 as a score of > -2.60 to ≤ -1.39. RESULTS: Cabozantinib improved OS and PFS versus placebo in both ALBI grade 1 (hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI]: 0.63 [0.46-0.86] and 0.42 [0.32-0.56]) and ALBI grade 2 (HR [95% CI]: 0.84 [0.66-1.06] and 0.46 [0.37-0.58]) subgroups. Adverse events were consistent with those in the overall population. Rates of grade 3/4 adverse events associated with hepatic decompensation were generally low and were more common among patients in the ALBI grade 2 subgroup. DISCUSSION: These results provide initial support of cabozantinib in patients with advanced HCC irrespective of ALBI grade 1 or 2. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01908426.

4.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622654

RESUMO

The outbreak of e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) has been cause for concern to the medical community, particularly given that this novel illness has coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, another cause of severe pulmonary illness. Though cannabis e-cigarettes tainted with vitamin E acetate were primarily associated with EVALI, acute lung injuries stemming from cannabis inhalation were reported in the literature prior to 2019, and it has been suggested that cannabis components or additives other than vitamin E acetate may be responsible. Despite these concerning issues, novel cannabis vaporizer ingredients continue to arise, such as Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ10-tetrahydrocannabinol, hexahydrocannabinol, and cannabichromene. In order to address cannabis e-cigarette safety and vaping in an effective manner, we provide a comprehensive knowledge of the latest products, delivery modes, and ingredients. This perspective highlights the types of cannabis vaping modalities common to the United States cannabis market, with special attention to cartridge-type cannabis e-cigarette toxicology and their involvement in the EVALI outbreak, in particular, acute lung injurious responses. Novel ingredient chemistry, origins, and legal statuses are reviewed, as well as the toxicology of known cannabis e-cigarette aerosol components.

5.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17508, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603884

RESUMO

A 38-year-old woman presented with sudden-onset painful lid swelling, proptosis and external ophthalmoplegia on the right side for 20 days, associated with loss of vision for nine days. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), a retrobulbar mass was noted involving intraconal and extraconal spaces, extending up to the orbital foramina with enhancement and thickening of meninges. CT arteriography further revealed multiple feeding vessels from the maxillary artery. Embolization of feeding vessels followed by right orbital exenteration with primary reconstruction using forehead flap was done. This is an unusual case of orbital cavernous hemangioma (OCH) which emphasizes the importance of CT arteriography in specific cases of OCH, where routine neuroimaging may be inconclusive.

6.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17531, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603898

RESUMO

The pandemic of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) infection has presented the clinicians with a challenge never experienced on this scale before. Although coagulopathy has been well described in association with COVID-19 infection, some recommendations have emerged so far for the potential role of empiric anticoagulation in specific situations. We describe a case of a middle-aged male with extensive acute lower limb ischemia and severe pneumonia related to COVID-19 infection. This case highlights the role of prophylactic anticoagulation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection regardless of co-morbidities and D- dimer levels.

7.
ACS Omega ; 6(38): 25076-25088, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604686

RESUMO

The release of untreated tannery effluents comprising biotoxic heavy metal (HM) compounds into the ecosystem is one of our society's most serious environmental and health issues. After discharge, HM-containing industrial effluents reach agricultural soils and thus negatively affect the soil microbial diversity. Considering these, we assessed the effect of HMs on identified soil beneficial bacteria. Here, the effects of four heavy metals (HMs), viz., chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb), on cellular growth, physiology, cell permeability, and biofilm formation of Enterobacter cloacae MC9 (accession no.: MT672587) were evaluated. HMs in a concentration range of 25-200 µg mL-1 were used throughout the study. Among HMs, Cd in general had the maximum detrimental effect on bacterial physiology. With increasing concentrations of HMs, bacterial activities consistently decreased. For instance, 200 µgCr mL-1 concentration greatly and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by 70% over control. Furthermore, 200 µg mL-1 Cd maximally and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA), salicylic acid (SA), 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, and extra polymeric substances (EPSs) of E. cloacae MC9 by 80, 81, 77, and 59%, respectively, over control. While assessing the toxic effect of HMs on the P-solubilizing activity of E. cloacae, the toxicity pattern followed the order Cr (mean value = 94.6 µg mL-1) > Cd (mean value = 127.2 µg mL-1) > Pb (mean value = 132.4 µg mL-1) > Ni (mean value = 140.4 µg mL-1). Furthermore, the colony-forming unit (CFU) count (Log10) of strain MC9 was completely inhibited at 150, 175, and 200 µg mL-1 concentrations of Cr and Cd. The confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis of HM-treated bacterial cells showed an increased number of red-colored dead cells as the concentration of HMs increased from 25 to 200 µg mL-1. Likewise, the biofilm formation ability of strain MC9 was maximally (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited at higher concentrations of Cd. In summary, the present investigation undoubtedly suggests that E. cloacae strain MC9 recovered from the HM-contaminated rhizosphere endowed with multiple activities could play an important role in agricultural practices to augment crop productivity in soils contaminated with HMs. Also, there is an urgent need to control the direct discharge of industrial waste into running water to minimize heavy metal pollution. Furthermore, before the application of HMs in agricultural fields, their appropriate field dosages must be carefully monitored.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19595, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599214

RESUMO

Habitat loss due to climate change may cause the extinction of the clonal species with a limited distribution range. Thus, determining the genetic diversity required for adaptability by these species in sensitive ecosystems can help infer the chances of their survival and spread in changing climate. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of Sambucus wightiana-a clonal endemic plant species of the Himalayan region for understanding its possible survival chances in anticipated climate change. Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to study the allelic/genetic diversity and population structure. In addition, ITS1-ITS4 Sanger sequencing was used for phylogeny and SNP detection. A total number of 73 alleles were scored for 37 genotypes at 17 loci for 8 SSRs markers. The population structural analysis using the SSR marker data led to identifying two sub-populations in our collection of 37 S. wightiana genotypes, with 11 genotypes having mixed ancestry. The ITS sequence data show a specific allele in higher frequency in a particular sub-population, indicating variation in different S. wightiana accessions at the sequence level. The genotypic data of SSR markers and trait data of 11 traits of S. wightiana, when analyzed together, revealed five significant Marker-Trait Associations (MTAs) through Single Marker Analysis (SMA) or regression analysis. Most of the SSR markers were found to be associated with more than one trait, indicating the usefulness of these markers for working out marker-trait associations. Moderate to high genetic diversity observed in the present study may provide insurance against climate change to S. wightiana and help its further spread.

9.
Adv Respir Med ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612504

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19-associated pulmonary sequalae have been increasingly reported after recovery from acute infection. Therefore, we aim to explore the charactersitics of persistent lung parenchymal abnormalities in patients with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study was conducted in patients with post-COVID lung parenchymal abnormalities from April till September 2020. Patients ≥18 years of age with COVID-19 who were diagnosed as post-COVID lung parenchymal abnormality based on respiratory symptoms and HRCT chest imaging after the recovery of acute infection. Data was recorded on a structured pro forma, and descriptive analysis was performed using Stata version 12.1. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients with post-COVID lung parenchymal abnormalities were identified. The mean age of patients was 59.1 (SD 12.6), and 27 (90.0%) were males. Four HRCT patterns of lung parenchymal abnormalities were seen; organizing pneumonia in 10 (33.3%), nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis in 17 (56.7%), usual interstitial pneumonitis in 12 (40.0%) and probable usual interstitial pneumonitis in 14 (46.7%). Diffuse involvement was found in 15 (50.0%) patients, while peripheral predominance in 15 (50.0%), and other significant findings were seen in 8 (26.7%) patients. All individuals were treated with corticosteroids. The case fatality rate was 16.7%. Amongst the survivors, 32.0% recovered completely, 36.0% improved, while 32.0% of the patients had static or progressive disease. CONCLUSION: This is the first study from Southeast Asia that identified post-COVID lung parenchymal abnormalities in patients who had no pre-existing lung disease highlighting the importance of timely recognition and treatment of this entity that might lead to fatal outcome.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127309, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600383

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is a cost-effective and environment friendly method for cleaning metal(loid)s from contaminated soils. Species with exceptionally higher shoot metal concentrations (hyperaccumulators) seem ideal for phytoremediation, though some metal tolerant species with 'above normal' values with higher translocation factor (TF) may also serve the purpose. Halophytes not only remove salts and metalloids from soils but may also be cultivated as non-conventional crops. Nurturing halophytes requires precise understanding of their nature and efficient management for sustainable use. Species with low metal concentrations in their edible parts (especially leaves) may be grown as forage and fodder, but those with metal hyperaccumulation could prove fatal due to their serious health hazards. Like other metallophytes, redundant use of the term 'metal hyperaccumulation' among halophytes needs to be revisited for its ambiguity and potential pitfalls. Similarly, understanding of metal tolerance and shoot accumulation nature of halophytes is needed prior to their use. This review is an attempt to compare halophytes with potential of metal bioindication, phytostabilization and hyperaccumulation (as per definition) as well as their 'obligate' and 'facultative' nature for appropriate uses.

11.
Clin Biochem ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carnitine-acylcarnitine Translocase (CACT) deficiency (OMIM 212138) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT2) deficiency (OMIM 60065050) are rare inherited disorders of mitochondrial long chain fatty acid oxidation. The aim of our study is to review the clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics in children diagnosed with CACT and CPT2 deficiencies in Malaysia. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study. We reviewed medical records of six patients diagnosed with CACT and CPT2 deficiencies. They were identified from a selective high-risk screening of 50,579 patients from January 2010 until Jun 2020. RESULTS: All six patients had either elevation of the long chain acylcarnitines and/or an elevated (C16 + C18:1)/C2 acylcarnitine ratio. SLC25A20 gene sequencing of patient 1 and 6 showed a homozygous splice site mutation at c.199-10 T > G in intron 2. Two novel mutations at c.109C > T p. (Arg37*) in exon 2 and at c.706C > T p. (Arg236*) in exon 7 of SLC25A20 gene were found in patient 2. Patient 3 and 4 (siblings) exhibited a compound heterozygous mutation at c.638A > G p. (Asp213Gly) and novel mutation c.1073 T > G p. (Leu358Arg) in exon 4 of CPT2 gene. A significant combined prevalence at 0.01% of CACT and CPT2 deficiencies was found in the symptomatic Malaysian patients. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the (C16 + C18:1)/C2 acylcarnitine ratio in dried blood spot in our experience improves the diagnostic specificity for CACT/CPT2 deficiencies over long chain acylcarnitine (C16 and C18:1) alone. DNA sequencing for both genes aids in confirming the diagnosis.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640129

RESUMO

The applications of coated mild steels are gaining significant attention in versatile industrial areas because of their better mechanical properties, anticorrosive behavior, and reproducibility. The life period of this steel reduces significantly under relative motion in the presence of friction, which is associated with the loss of billion-dollar every year in industry. Productivity is hampered, and economic growth is declined. Several pieces of research have been conducted throughout the industries to seeking the processes of frictional reduction. This study is attributed to the tribological behavior of electroplated mild steel under various operating parameters. The efficiency of commercial lubricant and self-lubrication characteristics of coated layer plays a significant role in the reduction of friction. The reciprocating and simultaneous motion in relation to pin as well as disc are considered during experimentation. The lubricating effects in conjunction with motions are responsible for compensating the friction and wear at the desired level. During frictional tests, the sliding velocity and loads are changed differently. The changes in roughness after frictional tests are observed. The coated and rubbing surfaces are characterized using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) analysis. The coating characteristics are analyzed by EDS (Energy Disperse Spectroscopy), FTIR (Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy), and XRD (X-ray diffraction analysis) methods. The lubrication, reciprocating motion, and low velocity result in low friction and wear. The larger the imposed loads, the smaller the frictional force, and the larger the wear rate. The machine learning (ML) concept is incorporated in this study to identify the patterns of datasets spontaneously and generate a prediction model for forecasting the data, which are out of the experimental range. It can be desired that the outcomes of this research will contribute to the improvement in versatile engineering fields, such as automotive, robotics, and complex motion-based mechanisms where multidimensional motion cannot be ignored.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640238

RESUMO

Various conventional approaches have been reported for the synthesis of nanomaterials without optimizing the role of synthesis parameters. The unoptimized studies not only raise the process cost but also complicate the physicochemical characteristics of the nanostructures. The liquid-plasma reduction with optimized synthesis parameters is an environmentally friendly and low-cost technique for the synthesis of a range of nanomaterials. This work is focused on the statistically optimized production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using a liquid-plasma reduction process sustained with an argon plasma jet. A simplex centroid design (SCD) was made in Minitab statistical package to optimize the combined effect of stabilizers on the structural growth and UV absorbance of AgNPs. Different combinations of glucose, fructose, sucrose and lactose stabilizers were tested at five different levels (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2) in SCD. The effect of individual and mixed stabilizers on AgNPs growth parameters was assumed significant when p-value in SCD is less than 0.05. A surface plasmon resonance band was fixed at 302 nm after SCD optimization of UV results. A bond stretching at 1633 cm-1 in FTIR spectra was assigned to C=O, which slightly shifts towards a larger wavelength in the presence of saccharides in the solution. The presence of FCC structured AgNPs with an average size of 15 nm was confirmed from XRD and EDX spectra under optimized conditions. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was checked against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains by adopting the shake flask method. The antibacterial study revealed the slightly better performance of AgNPs against Staph. aureus strain than Escherichia coli.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640274

RESUMO

Water pipe surface deterioration is the result of continuous electrochemical reactions attacking the surface due to the interaction of the pipe surface with environments through the time function. The study presents corrosion characterization at the surface and sub-surface of damaged ductile iron pipe (DIP) and galvanized steel (GS) pipes which served for more than 40 and 20 years, respectively. The samples were obtained from Addis Ababa city water distribution system for the analysis of corrosion morphology patterns at different surface layers. Mountains 8.2 surface analysis software was utilized based on the ISO 25178-2 watershed segmentation method to investigate corrosion features of damaged pipe surface and to evaluate maximum pit depth, area, and volume in-situ condition. Based on the analysis maximum values of pit depth, area and volume were 380 µ m, 4000 µm2, and 200,000 µm3, respectively, after 25% loss of the original 8 mm thickness of DIP. Similarly, the pit depth of the GS pipe was 390 µm whereas the maximum pit area and volume are 4000 µm2 and 16,000 µm3, respectively. In addition, characterizations of new pipes were evaluated to study microstructures by using an optical microscope (OM), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze corrosion morphologies. Based on the SEM analysis, cracks were observed at the sub-surface layer of the pipes. The results show that uniform corrosion attacked the external pipe surface whereas pitting corrosion damaged the subsurface of pipes. The output of this study will be utilized by water suppliers and industries to investigate corrosion phenomena at any damage stage.

15.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641424

RESUMO

Minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (MCM7) is involved in replicative licensing and the synthesis of DNA, and its overexpression is a fascinating biomarker for various cancer types. There is currently no effective agent that can prevent the development of cancer caused by the MCM7 protein. However, on the molecular level, inhibiting MCM7 lowers cancer-related cellular growth. With this purpose, this study screened 452 biogenic compounds extracted from the UEFS Natural Products dataset against MCM protein by using the in silico art of technique. The hit compounds UEFS99, UEFS137, and UEFS428 showed good binding with the MCM7 protein with binding energy values of -9.95, -8.92, and -8.71 kcal/mol, which was comparatively higher than that of the control compound ciprofloxacin (-6.50). The hit (UEFS99) with the minimum binding energy was picked for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation investigation, and it demonstrated stability at 30 ns. Computational prediction of physicochemical property evaluation revealed that these hits are non-toxic and have good drug-likeness features. It is suggested that hit compounds UEFS99, UEFS137, and UEFS428 pave the way for further bench work validation in novel inhibitor development against MCM7 to fight the cancers.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, proteinuria, and hepatic dysfunction have been described as manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are generally accepted as poor prognostic factors. However, these same findings can also occur in pregnant women with preeclampsia, thus creating a diagnostic challenge. CASE: We report a case of COVID-19 infection in an otherwise healthy pregnant patient with secondary hypertension, proteinuria, and significant hepatic dysfunction. Maternal placental growth factor (PlGF) testing was used to rule out preeclampsia. The patient received supportive care and improved significantly. She went on to have a spontaneous vaginal term delivery of a healthy male baby. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection in pregnancy may present as preeclampsia-like syndrome. PlGF testing can be used to differentiate preeclampsia from COVID-19 and facilitate appropriate management.

17.
Front Robot AI ; 8: 676814, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651017

RESUMO

While earlier research in human-robot interaction pre-dominantly uses rule-based architectures for natural language interaction, these approaches are not flexible enough for long-term interactions in the real world due to the large variation in user utterances. In contrast, data-driven approaches map the user input to the agent output directly, hence, provide more flexibility with these variations without requiring any set of rules. However, data-driven approaches are generally applied to single dialogue exchanges with a user and do not build up a memory over long-term conversation with different users, whereas long-term interactions require remembering users and their preferences incrementally and continuously and recalling previous interactions with users to adapt and personalise the interactions, known as the lifelong learning problem. In addition, it is desirable to learn user preferences from a few samples of interactions (i.e., few-shot learning). These are known to be challenging problems in machine learning, while they are trivial for rule-based approaches, creating a trade-off between flexibility and robustness. Correspondingly, in this work, we present the text-based Barista Datasets generated to evaluate the potential of data-driven approaches in generic and personalised long-term human-robot interactions with simulated real-world problems, such as recognition errors, incorrect recalls and changes to the user preferences. Based on these datasets, we explore the performance and the underlying inaccuracies of the state-of-the-art data-driven dialogue models that are strong baselines in other domains of personalisation in single interactions, namely Supervised Embeddings, Sequence-to-Sequence, End-to-End Memory Network, Key-Value Memory Network, and Generative Profile Memory Network. The experiments show that while data-driven approaches are suitable for generic task-oriented dialogue and real-time interactions, no model performs sufficiently well to be deployed in personalised long-term interactions in the real world, because of their inability to learn and use new identities, and their poor performance in recalling user-related data.

18.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) is the most harmful pest of potato in potato cultivation regions globally. Although it is an economically important agricultural pest, the population structure and colonization route of this species in Turkey are uncertain. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to obtain information about the population source, structure and bio-invasion route of CPB populations in Turkey. RESULTS: The common single mtDNA haplotype in European CPB populations was obtained in all Turkish CPB populations based on mtDNA data analysis. However, microsatellites revealed a low level of genetic variation in CPB populations. The results of microsatellite analysis [factorial correspondence analysis (FCA), Bayesian analysis of genetic population structure (BAPS), unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, F-statistics and Nei's distances] indicated three groups for invasive CPB: Thrace-Marmara and Aegean; Black Sea, Central Anatolia and Mediterranean; Northeastern Anatolia. Region-specific alleles have been identified in regions, where commercial potato cultivation and insecticide use are intensive. CONCLUSION: The detection of a single fixed European haplotype in all Turkish populations has proved that CPB in Turkey originated from Europe as a result of a founder event occurred in European populations. Low genetic variation was due to the short time period since the spread of CPB from America to Europe. The highest number of private alleles were found in the top commercial potato cultivation region-Central Anatolia from where the CPB populations spread to other parts of Turkey.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617635

RESUMO

The increased demand for cheese and the limited availability of calf rennet justifies the search for milk-clotting enzymes from alternative sources. Trypsin-like protease by Penicillium roqueforti was produced by solid-state fermentation using cocoa shell waste as substrate. The production of a crude enzyme extract that is rich in this enzyme was optimized using a Doehlert-type multivariate experimental design. The biochemical characterization showed that the enzyme has excellent activity and stability at alkaline pH (10-12) and an optimum temperature of 80°C, being stable at temperatures above 60°C. Enzymatic activity was maximized in the presence of Na+ (192%), Co2+ (187%), methanol (153%), ethanol (141%), and hexane (128%). Considering the biochemical characteristics obtained and the milk coagulation activity, trypsin-like protease can be applied in the food industry, such as in milk clotting and in the fabrication of cheeses.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639559

RESUMO

Background: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in social distancing and isolation which leads to insufficient physical activity and thereby increases sedentary behaviors. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of insufficient physical activity and sedentary behaviors among medical students during the COVID-19 lockdown in Pakistan, and to determine their associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among 407 medical students from the Punjab and Sindh provinces between May and June 2020. To collect data, an e-questionnaire was sent to obtain informed consent along with questions concerning socio-demographics as well as an International Physical Activity Questionnaires-Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Results: As per the IPAQ, almost five in ten participants were physically inactive (48.2%), and 45.2% reported sedentary behaviors. Participants with insufficient physical activity were more likely to report sedentary behaviors than their counterparts (AOR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.66-3.85, p < 0.001). The odds of insufficient physical activity were higher among the participants who did not strictly follow the COVID-19 preventive measures (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.35-4.69, p = 0.004); similarly, there were increased odds of sedentary behaviors observed among participants within a normal weight range compared to those who were underweight (AOR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.76-4.11, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Insufficient physical activity and sedentary behavior are prevalent among medical students in Pakistan during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings indicate the importance of establishing tailored policies and programs to encourage young adults to engage in physical activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Paquistão , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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