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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256425, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364525

RESUMO

Abstract Using inventory data, this study evaluates the species composition, growing stock volume (GSV), and biomass carbon (BMC) of the five major timber species in the sub-tropical, and temperate/sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. It was found that the stem density varies between 50 and 221 trees ha -1, with a mean of 142 trees ha-1 (13.68 million trees for entire forest area). Among the species, Pinus wallichiana showed a high species composition (27.80%) followed by Picea smithiana (24.64%). The GSV was found in the range of 67.81 to 425.94 m3 ha-1, with a total GSV value of 20.68 million m3 for the entire region. Similarly, The BMC ranged from 27.04 to 169.86 Mg ha-1, with a mean BMC value of 86.80 Mg ha-1. The total amount of stored carbon was found at 8.69 million tons for a total of 95842 ha of commercially managed forest. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between the basal area (BA) and GSV and BMC showed that BA is the best predictor of GSV and BMC. The findings provide insights to the policy makers and forest managers regarding the sustainable commercial forest management as well as forest carbon management in the recent global carbon management for climate change mitigation.


Resumo Usando dados de inventário, este estudo avaliou a composição de espécies, volume de estoque crescente (GSV) e carbono de biomassa (BMC) das cinco principais espécies madeireiras nas regiões subtropicais e temperadas/subalpinas do Paquistão. Constatou-se que a densidade do caule variou entre 50 e 221 árvores ha-1, com média de 142 árvores ha-1 (13,68 milhões de árvores para toda a área florestal). Entre as espécies, Pinus wallichiana apresentou alta composição de espécies (27,80%), seguida de Picea smithiana (24,64%). O GSV foi encontrado na faixa de 67,81 a 425,94 m3 ha-1, com um valor total de 20,68 milhões de m3 para toda a região. Da mesma forma, o BMC variou de 27,04 a 169,86 mg ha-1, com valor médio de 86,80 mg ha-1. A quantidade total de carbono armazenado foi de 8,69 milhões de toneladas para um total de 95.842 ha de floresta manejada comercialmente. Além disso, a análise de correlação entre área basal (BA), GSV e BMC mostrou que BA é o melhor preditor de GSV e BMC. As descobertas fornecem insights para os formuladores de políticas e gestores florestais sobre o manejo florestal comercial sustentável, bem como o manejo florestal de carbono no recente gerenciamento global de carbono para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas.

2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-9, 2023. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765451

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.(AU)


O timerosal é um composto organomercurial, utilizado na preparação de imunoglobulina intramuscular, antivenenos, tintas de tatuagem, antígenos de teste cutâneo, produtos nasais, gotas oftálmicas e vacinas como conservante. Na maioria das espécies animais e nos humanos, o rim é um dos principais locais de deposição de compostos de mercúrio e órgãos-alvo de toxicidade. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a nefrotoxicidade induzida pelo timerosal em ratos machos. Vinte e quatro ratos albinos machos adultos foram categorizados em quatro grupos. O primeiro grupo era um grupo de controle. Ratos do Grupo II, Grupo III e Grupo IV receberam 0,5µg / kg, 10µg / kg e 50µg / kg de timerosal uma vez ao dia, respectivamente. A administração de timerosal diminuiu significativamente as atividades de catalase (CAT), superóxido dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutationa redutase (GR), glutationa (GSH) e conteúdo de proteína, enquanto aumentou as substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2) níveis dependentes da dose. Os níveis de nitrogênio ureico no sangue (BUN), creatinina, urobilinogênio, proteínas urinárias, molécula de lesão renal-1 (KIM-1) e lipocalina associada à gelatinase de neutrófilos (NGAL) aumentaram substancialmente. Em contraste, a albumina urinária e a depuração da creatinina foram reduzidas de forma dependente da dose nos grupos tratados com timerosal. Os resultados demonstraram que o timerosal aumentou significativamente os indicadores de inflamação, incluindo fator nuclear kappaB (NF-κB), fator de necrose tumoral-α (TNF-α), interleucina-1β (IL-1β), níveis de interleucina-6 (IL-6) e atividades da ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2), DNA e danos histopatológicos dependentes da dose. Portanto, os presentes achados verificaram que o timerosal exerceu nefrotoxicidade em ratos albinos machos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Timerosal/efeitos adversos , Timerosal/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Ratos Wistar
3.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566291

RESUMO

Herein, a distinctive dihydroxy ionic liquid ([Py-2OH]OAc) was straightforwardly assembled from the sonication of pyridine with 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol by employing sodium acetate as an ion exchanger. The efficiency of the ([Py-2OH]OAc as a promoter for the sono-synthesis of a novel library of condensed products through DABCO-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation process of adequate active cyclic methylenes and ninhydrin was next investigated using ultimate greener conditions. All of the reactions studied went cleanly and smoothly, and the resulting Knoevenagel condensation compounds were recovered in high yields without detecting the aldol intermediates in the end products. Compared to traditional strategies, the suggested approach has numerous advantages including mild reaction conditions with no by-products, eco-friendly solvent, outstanding performance in many green metrics, and usability in gram-scale synthesis. The reusability of the ionic liquid was also studied, with an overall retrieved yield of around 97% for seven consecutive runs without any substantial reduction in the performance. The novel obtained compounds were further assessed for their in vitro antitumor potential toward three human tumor cell lines: Colo-205 (colon cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and A549 (lung cancer) by employing the MTT assay, and the findings were evaluated with the reference Doxorubicin. The results demonstrated that the majority of the developed products had potent activities at very low doses. Compounds comprising rhodanine (5) or chromane (12) moieties exhibited the most promising cytotoxic effects toward three cell lines, particularly rhodanine carboxylic acid derivative (5c), showing superior cytotoxic effects against the investigated cell lines compared to the reference drug. Furthermore, automated docking simulation studies were also performed to support the results obtained.

4.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485872

RESUMO

Marine micro-organisms are a promising source for novel natural compounds with many medical and biotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate limitations and recent strategies for investigating the marine microbial community for novel bioactive metabolites, specifically those of antimicrobial potential. These strategies include culture-dependent methods such as modifying the standard culture media, including changing the gelling agent, dissolving vehicle, media supplementation and preparation to access a broader range of bacterial diversity from marine samples. Furthermore, we discuss strategies such as in situ cultivation, dilution-to-extinction cultivation and long-term incubation. We are presenting recent applications of culture-independent methods such as genome mining, proteomics profiling and the application of metagenomics as a novel strategy for structure confirmation in the discovery of the marine micro-organism for novel antimicrobial metabolites. We present this review as a simple guide and a helpful resource for those who seek to enter the challenging field of applied marine microbiology.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271211

RESUMO

This paper proposes a single-stage three-phase modular flyback differential inverter (MFBDI) for medium/high power solar PV grid-integrated applications. The proposed inverter structure consists of parallel modules of flyback DC-DC converters based on the required power level. The MFBDI offers many features for renewable energy applications, such as reduced components, single-stage power processing, high-power density, voltage-boosting property, improved footprint, flexibility with modular extension capability, and galvanic isolation. The proposed inverter has been modelled, designed, and scaled up to the required application rating. A new mathematical model of the proposed MFBDI is presented and analyzed with a time-varying duty-cycle, wide-range of frequency variation, and power balancing in order to display its grid current harmonic orders for grid-tied applications. In addition, an LPF-based harmonic compensation strategy is used for second-order harmonic component (SOHC) compensation. With the help of the compensation technique, the grid current THD is reduced from 36% to 4.6% by diminishing the SOHC from 51% to 0.8%. Moreover, the SOHC compensation technique eliminates third-order harmonic components from the DC input current. In addition, a 15% parameters mismatch has been applied between the flyback parallel modules to confirm the modular operation of the proposed MFBDI under modules divergence. In addition, SiC MOSFETs are used for inverter switches implementation, which decrease the inverter switching losses at high-switching frequency. The proposed MFBDI is verified by using three flyback parallel modules/phase using PSIM/Simulink software, with a rating of 5 kW, 200 V, and 50 kHz switching frequency, as well as experimental environments.

6.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267674

RESUMO

Oil spills and oily wastewater have become a major environmental problem in recent years, directly impacting the environment and biodiversity. Several techniques have been developed to solve this problem, including biological degradation, chemicals, controlled burning, physical absorption and membrane separation. Recently, biopolymeric aerogels have been proposed as a green solution for this problem, and they possess superior selective oil absorption capacity compared with other approaches. Several modification strategies have been applied to nanocellulose-based aerogel to enhance its poor hydrophobicity, increase its oil absorption capacity, improve its selectivity of oils and make it a compressible and elastic magnetically responsive aerogel, which will ease its recovery after use. This review presents an introduction to nanocellulose-based aerogel and its fabrication approaches. Different applications of nanocellulose aerogel in environmental, medical and industrial fields are presented. Different strategies for the modification of nanocellulose-based aerogel are critically discussed in this review, presenting the most recent works in terms of enhancing the aerogel performance in oil absorption in addition to the potential of these materials in near future.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 431: 128562, 2022 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248963

RESUMO

The reclamation of geogenic As-contaminated excavated soils as construction additives can reduce the post-disposal impact on the ecosystem and space. Although retaining soil characteristics while reducing contaminant load is a challenging task, washing remediation with biodegradable surfactants or chelators is a promising alternative to non-biodegradable counterparts. In this study, newly synthesized biodegradable surfactants (SDG: sodium N-dodecanoyl-glycinate, SDBA: sodium N-dodecanoyl-ß-alaninate, SDGBH: sodium N-dodecanoyl-α,γ-glutamyl-bis-hydroxyprolinate, SDT: sodium N-dodecanoyl-taurinate, and DCPC: N-dodecyl-3-carbamoyl-pyridinium-chloride) and biodegradable chelators (EDDS: ethylenediamine N,N'-disuccinic acid, GLDA: L-glutamate-N, N'-diacetic acid, and HIDS: 3-hydroxy-2,2'-imino disuccinic acid) are evaluated for the remediation of As-contaminated soil. The operating variables, such as washing duration, solution pH, and surfactant or chelator concentration, are optimized for maximum As extraction. SDT shows the highest As-extraction efficiency irrespective of solution pH and surfactant variants, while HIDS is the superior chelator under acidic or alkaline conditions. A binary blend of SDT and HIDS is evaluated for As extraction under varying operating conditions. The SDT-HIDS binary blend demonstrates 6.9 and 1.6-times higher As-extraction rates than the SDT and HIDS-only washing, respectively, under acidic conditions. The proposed approach with a binary blend of a biodegradable surfactant and chelator is a green solution for recycling As-contaminated excavated soils for geotechnical applications.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Isópodes , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Quelantes , Ecossistema , Metais Pesados/análise , Sódio , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tensoativos
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256425, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293534

RESUMO

Using inventory data, this study evaluates the species composition, growing stock volume (GSV), and biomass carbon (BMC) of the five major timber species in the sub-tropical, and temperate/sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. It was found that the stem density varies between 50 and 221 trees ha -1, with a mean of 142 trees ha-1 (13.68 million trees for entire forest area). Among the species, Pinus wallichiana showed a high species composition (27.80%) followed by Picea smithiana (24.64%). The GSV was found in the range of 67.81 to 425.94 m3 ha-1, with a total GSV value of 20.68 million m3 for the entire region. Similarly, The BMC ranged from 27.04 to 169.86 Mg ha-1, with a mean BMC value of 86.80 Mg ha-1. The total amount of stored carbon was found at 8.69 million tons for a total of 95842 ha of commercially managed forest. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between the basal area (BA) and GSV and BMC showed that BA is the best predictor of GSV and BMC. The findings provide insights to the policy makers and forest managers regarding the sustainable commercial forest management as well as forest carbon management in the recent global carbon management for climate change mitigation.


Assuntos
Carbono , Árvores , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 161: 112843, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101578

RESUMO

The extensive use of pesticides for better yield of crops have become major human concern over the decades. Pesticides are widely used in the fields to kill weeds and pests on the vegetable and crops to improve the quality and yield of the food knowing the fact that pesticides residue in food are very lethal for human being. Amongst, the hazardous pesticides, mancozeb is widely applied in the protection of crops. Thus the quantification of mancozeb residue is of great importance. This study reports the electrochemical monitoring of mancozeb through tungsten oxide reduced graphene oxide (WO3/rGO) nanocomposite. The engineered nanocomposite was characterized though different analytical tools such as FTIR, XRD and TEM to examine crystallinity, internal texture and the size. The FTIR result confirm the functionalities of GO and WO3/rGO nanocomposite in finger print and functional group region. Through XRD analysis, the size of the WO3/rGO nanocomposite was calculated as 31.6 nm. While the TEM analysis was also exploited to examine the 2D texture of GO and nanometric size of the WO3/rGO. To ensure the conductive nature of the WO3/rGO nanocomposite, the glassy carbon electrode was modified and exploited for cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under the optimal conditions, the modified sensor showed exceptional response for mancozeb. The linear dynamic range was set from 0.05 to 70 µM in BRB buffer of pH 4. The LOD and LOQ for proposed method was calculated as 0.0038 and 0.0115 µM. The analytical applicability of chemically modified sensor was investigated in real matrix of different vegetable samples and the recovery values were observed in acceptable range. The electrochemical examination of present work reveals that WO3/rGO nanocomposite can be an exceptional aspirant for the determination of mancozeb at commercial level.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Grafite/química , Maneb/química , Nanocompostos/química , Óxidos/química , Tungstênio/química , Zineb/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/instrumentação , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 167, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210547

RESUMO

KRAS/LKB1 (STK11) NSCLC metastatic tumors are intrinsically resistant to anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 immunotherapy. In this study, we use a humanized mouse model to show that while carboplatin plus pembrolizumab reduce tumor growth moderately and transiently, the addition of the tumor suppressor gene TUSC2, delivered systemically in nanovesicles, to this combination, eradicates tumors in the majority of animals. Immunoprofiling of the tumor microenvironment shows the addition of TUSC2 mediates: (a) significant infiltration of reconstituted human functional cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells; (b) induction of antigen-specific T cell responses; (c) enrichment of functional central and memory effector T cells; and (d) decreased levels of PD-1+ T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, Tregs, and M2 tumor associated macrophages. Depletion studies show the presence of functional central and memory effector T cells are required for the efficacy. TUSC2 sensitizes KRAS/LKB1 tumors to carboplatin plus pembrolizumab through modulation of the immune contexture towards a pro-immune tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/imunologia
11.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 51(3): 355-365, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35187692

RESUMO

The current study was performed on ten adult Egyptian donkeys of both sexes for anatomical and radiographic studies in addition to six other donkeys for enzymatic, biochemical and statistical analysis. The aim was to illustrate the normal hepatic arterial and biliary distribution using different anatomic techniques and radiographic imaging besides, establishing an accurate laboratory profile specific for donkeys that used as standard indicators for hepatobiliary dysfunction. The right branch of the hepatic artery in donkey forms a curved arch erupting five branches, unlike the left branch that erupts six branches, being the direct continuation of the main hepatic artery. The caudate lobe artery either originated from the hepatic artery or its right division. The common hepatic duct represented a very clear enlargement called 'gall tank' at its terminal pouring intestinal end and compensating absence of gall bladder, cystic and common bile ducts. The intrahepatic biliary distribution is characterized by a segmental ramification into dorsal, intermediate, and ventral branches of bile ductules especially noticed in the undivided right lobe and left lateral lobe. The quadrate lobe is divided according to its biliary drainage into right and left parts where the former is drained by the left hepatic duct while the latter is drained through a branch from R. lobi medialis sinistri. The serum enzymatic activity was slightly similar to that of the horse while some biochemical parameters differentiating the donkey from the horse such as lowered total bilirubin, serum bile acids, and higher triglycerides, blood urea and prolonged prothrombin time.

12.
Med J Malaysia ; 77(1): 20-25, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Snakebite envenomation is a medical emergency and cases continue to be encountered in Malaysian hospitals. This study aims to determine the prevalence of snakebite presentations and the associated factors with severe envenomation of snakebite in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, crosssectional study involving snakebite patients presented at the Emergency Department (ED), Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (HSAH), Kedah from 1 July 2015 to 30 June 2019. The cases were extracted from the computerized system and the case records of patients were retrieved from the Medical Record Unit. Patients that met the study criteria were included and their sociodemographic features, clinical presentations including use of anti-venom were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with severe envenomation. RESULTS: A total of 220 snakebite cases with the mean age of patients was 39.66 (SD±21.79) years old. Majority of them were Malay and males. 41.4% of snakebite cases occurred in late evenings and the mean time-lapsed to arrive at HSAH was 108.6 minutes. 81.4% of snakebite cases occurred while engaging in outdoor activities and 43.6% of the snakebite cases involved work-related incidents. 58.2% of the patients were bitten in the lower limb. 78.6% of patients were bitten by the identified snake species, predominantly from Viperidae family. The prevalence of severe envenomation was 50.9%. Malay ethnicity (adj. OR =2.549, 95% CI =1.277,5.089), bite to the upper limb (adj. OR =2.125, 95% CI =1.192, 3.790), and bite by snakes from Viperidae family (adj. OR =3.017, 95% CI =1.613, 5.642) were found to have significant associations with severe envenomation of snakebite. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe envenomation was more than 50% of snakebite cases. Malay ethnicity, upper limb snake bites, and snakebite from a Viperidae family had a higher chance of severe envenomation.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(20): 30697-30711, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994930

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATZ) is herbicide that has been widely used for different crops. This extensive use has resulted in severe deleterious effects in different species. In this work, we investigated the potentially harmful effect of atrazine herbicide on the brain and submandibular salivary gland. Our investigation was carried out on 20 adult male albino rats that were equally divided into two groups. The first group received distilled water as control, while the second group received ATZ at 200 mg/kg body weight/ day via stomach gavage for 30 successive days of the experiment; the oral LD50 for ATZ is 3090 mg/kg. Our findings revealed the ability of ATZ to cause damage to the cerebrum, hippocampus, and submandibular salivary gland. This damage resulted from the induced oxidative stress, which was indicated by a significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, DNA fragmentation, tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression, with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and reduction of B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), dopamine receptor D1 (Drd1), cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (Creb1) genes expression after ATZ exposure. Moreover, degeneration of cells, cytoplasmic vacuolation, congestion of blood vessels, a strong immune reaction to caspase 3, and negligible immune expression of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were also noticed in the ATZ-treated group. We concluded that ATZ induces oxidative stress and has a toxic and apoptotic effects on the cerebrum, hippocampus, and salivary gland of adult male albino rats.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 331-338, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the circulation of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses and the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in hospitalized children. METHODS: A total of 226 and 864 children admitted to the Children's City Clinical Hospital with acute respiratory infection in September to November of 2018 and 2020 in Moscow were tested for respiratory viruses using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae/Chlamydia pneumoniae using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The detection rate of non-SARS-CoV-2 viruses in 2020 was lower than in 2018, 16.9% versus 37.6%. An increase in the median age of children with respiratory viruses was observed during the pandemic (3 years vs 1 year). There was no significant difference in the frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admission in children with SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory virus infections (2.7% vs 2.9%). SARS-CoV-2 and human rhinoviruses, human metapneumoviruses, and human adenoviruses showed significantly lower than expected co-detection rates during co-circulation. An increase in body mass index (BMI) or bacterial coinfection leads to an increased risk of ICU admission and a longer duration of COVID-19 in children. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant changes in the epidemiological characteristics of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses during the autumn peak of the 2020 pandemic, compared with the same period in 2018.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos , COVID-19 , Coinfecção , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Moscou/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(3): 843-849, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075736

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to describe our transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) technique for ectopic pregnancy that can be performed using conventional laparoscopic equipment with the addition of a self-constructed pessary port and to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and outcomes of the technique. METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating outcomes of patients who underwent vNOTES for ectopic pregnancy (n = 21) between August 2019 and April 2021. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients underwent vNOTES as intended without any intraoperative complications. Three patients (14.3%) were nulliparous, 16 patients (76.2%) had no history of vaginal delivery, and 13 patients (61.9%) had a history of at least one cesarean delivery. Eight patients (38.1%) had a history of previous abdominal surgery other than cesarean section. The mean duration of surgery was 43.4 ± 12.6 min. The mean visual analog scale scores for pain were 2.45 ± 1.13 at 2 h after surgery, 0.45 ± 0.83 at 12 h after surgery, and 0.18 ± 0.36 at 24 h after surgery. The median duration of postoperative hospital stay was 1 day (range, 1-2). There were no postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: vNOTES can be performed in an existing laparoscopy setup with the addition of a self-constructed pessary port. vNOTES is a safe and effective surgical treatment option for ectopic pregnancy, even in patients who have not had a vaginal delivery and have had multiple abdominal surgeries.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Gravidez Ectópica , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vagina/cirurgia
16.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(6): 2851-2864, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131430

RESUMO

Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent, having inhibitory potential against wide range of viral infections. It has also been found to hamper SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, and its precise mechanism of action against SARS-CoV-2 is yet to be understood. IVM is known to interact with host importin (IMP)α directly and averts interaction with IMPß1, leading to the prevention of nuclear localization signal (NLS) recognition. Therefore, the current study seeks to employ molecular docking, molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) analysis and molecular dynamics simulation studies for decrypting the binding mode, key interacting residues as well as mechanistic insights on IVM interaction with 15 potential drug targets associated with COVID-19 as well as IMPα. Among all COVID-19 targets, the non-structural protein 9 (Nsp9) exhibited the strongest affinity to IVM showing -5.30 kcal/mol and -84.85 kcal/mol binding energies estimated by AutoDock Vina and MM-GBSA, respectively. However, moderate affinity was accounted for IMPα amounting -6.9 kcal/mol and -66.04 kcal/mol. Stability of the protein-ligand complexes of Nsp9-IVM and IMPα-IVM was ascertained by 100 ns trajectory of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation. Structural conformation of protein in complex with docked IVM exhibited stable root mean square deviation while root mean square fluctuations were also found to be consistent. In silico exploration of the potential targets and their interaction profile with IVM can assist experimental studies as well as designing of COVID-19 drugs. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ivermectina , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2 , alfa Carioferinas
17.
Acad Radiol ; 29 Suppl 2: S108-S117, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714665

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Research on implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology workflows and its impact on reports remains scarce. In this study, we aim to assess if an AI platform would perform better than clinical radiology reports in evaluating noncontrast chest computed tomography (CT) scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who had undergone noncontrast chest CT were retrospectively identified. The radiology reports were reviewed in a binary fashion for reporting of pulmonary lesions, pulmonary emphysema, aortic dilatation, coronary artery calcifications (CAC), and vertebral compression fractures (VCF). CT scans were then processed using an AI platform. The reports' findings and the AI results were subsequently compared to a consensus read by two board-certificated radiologists as reference. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (mean age: 64.2 ± 14.8 years; 57% males) were included in this study. Aortic segmentation and calcium quantification failed to be processed by AI in 2 and 3 cases, respectively. AI showed superior diagnostic performance in identifying aortic dilatation (AI: sensitivity: 96.3%, specificity: 81.4%, AUC: 0.89) vs (Reports: sensitivity: 25.9%, specificity: 100%, AUC: 0.63), p <0.001; and CAC (AI: sensitivity: 89.8%, specificity: 100, AUC: 0.95) vs (Reports: sensitivity: 75.4%, specificity: 94.9%, AUC: 0.85), p = 0.005. Reports had better performance than AI in identifying pulmonary lesions (Reports: sensitivity: 97.6%, specificity: 100%, AUC: 0.99) vs (AI: sensitivity: 92.8%, specificity: 82.4%, AUC: 0.88), p = 0.024; and VCF (Reports: sensitivity:100%, specificity: 100%, AUC: 1.0) vs (AI: sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 63.7%, AUC: 0.82), p <0.001. A comparable diagnostic performance was noted in identifying pulmonary emphysema on AI (sensitivity: 80.6%, specificity: 66.7%. AUC: 0.74) and reports (sensitivity: 74.2%, specificity: 97.1%, AUC: 0.86), p = 0.064. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that incorporating AI support platforms into radiology workflows can provide significant added value to clinical radiology reporting.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão , Radiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
18.
J Craniofac Surg ; 33(2): e130-e133, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320590

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In Somalia, which is located in the horn of Africa, a fragile and insecure state structure allowed the strengthening of terrorist groups provoking armed conflicts. Stray bullet injuries can be defined as an accidental bullet wound caused by an anonymous attacker and are usually associated with celebratory gunfire or urban violence. The anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is complex and penetrating foreign body injuries pose even a greater challenge for the surgeon to operate in this area. Endoscopic approaches facilitate the removal of foreign bodies from the paranasal sinuses, orbital cavity, and aerodigestive system, minimizing potential risks. This study presents a series of removal of stray bullets found in the PPF, as a result of urban violence in Somalia in a period of 6 months. Patient demographics, foreign body origin, treatment modalities, and surgery details were evaluated and assessed. All patients were male and aged 16, 2, and 24 years, respectively. The surgeries were quite straightforward with surgery times recorded as 25, 44, and 22 minutes, respectively. The endoscopic endonasal approach proved to provide safe and sufficient access for removal. Surprisingly, even the foreign body in the PPF of a 2-year-old patient could be removed with an endoscopic endonasal approach and did not require an external approach. The management of foreign body removal in the PPF is challenging due to the potential risks of iatrogenic vascular and nervous tissue injury. The endoscopic endonasal approach for removal proved efficient in 3 cases regardless of age and anatomical dimensions.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos , Cavidade Nasal , Pré-Escolar , Endoscopia/métodos , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Cavidade Nasal/cirurgia , Fossa Pterigopalatina/cirurgia , Somália
19.
Health Educ Res ; 36(5): 554-567, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191009

RESUMO

This study explored the implementation of the Centrally Procured School Food Program (CPSFP)-a free, universal, volunteer-led snack program for elementary school children. To assess participants' perceptions and experiences with the CPSFP, interviews were conducted in school-level participants (n = 33) using a semi-structured interview guide. Fifteen on-site visits also were conducted at each school to observe implementation practices. Quantitative data were obtained through a general information form where participants provided school characteristics and weekly logbooks where they described program operations and food quality. Most participants expressed positive perceptions of the CPSFP, identifying it as a valuable program for their students. Successful program implementation was associated with an appreciation for the CPSFP and the participation of the school community. Challenges to program implementation included concerns with the volume and types of food provided, issues with classroom food delivery and distribution and communication challenges. Suggestions for improvement included building capacities and enhancing student engagement in the program. Participants provided an in-depth assessment of the implementation of the CPSFP. The lessons learned and suggestions provided may help not only enhance the reach, feasibility and fidelity of the CPSFP, but inform the best practices for similar programs.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Criança , Humanos , Ontário , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
20.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated risk factors. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted to hospital with confirmed COVID-19. Children admitted between 2 April 2020 and 26 August 2020 were included. Telephone interviews used the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 Health and Wellbeing Follow-up Survey for Children. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved. RESULTS: 518 out of 853 (61%) eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) age was 10.4 (3-15.2) years and 270 (52.1%) were girls. Median (IQR) follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223-271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms, among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age "6-11 years" (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.37-5.75) and "12-18 years" (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.41-5.4), and a history of allergic diseases (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67). CONCLUSIONS: A quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalisation with acute COVID-19 infection, with almost one in 10 experiencing multisystem involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
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