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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339413

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231509, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249242

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tamanho do cérebro de mahseer (Tor putitora) em relação ao seu peso corporal e comprimento padrão, para investigar o impacto potencial do ambiente de criação no desenvolvimento do cérebro em peixes. O peso do cérebro e três de suas subdivisões — cerebelo (CB), tectum óptico (OT) e telencéfalo (TC) — foram medidos para peixes selvagens e criados em incubadoras. Os dados foram analisados usando análise múltipla de covariância (MANCOVA), análise de covariância (ANCOVA) e análise de função discriminante (DFA). Descobrimos que os peixes criados em condições de incubação apresentam menor tamanho do cérebro em relação ao peso corporal quando comparados aos selvagens. Uma diferença significativa (p <0,5) foi observada no comprimento do CB e OT em relação ao comprimento corporal padrão, enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no CT dos peixes de ambas as origens. Os resultados do estudo atual destacam uma suposição lógica de que a deficiência neural afeta o comportamento dos peixes. É por isso que os peixes criados em cativeiro mostram uma resposta mal adaptativa e enfrentam declínio de aptidão quando liberados no ambiente natural para o aprimoramento do estoque selvagem. O estudo atual concluiu que os peixes criados em incubadoras exibem variações na morfologia cerebral bruta em comparação com suas contrapartes selvagens.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273

RESUMO

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:


Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241110, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278500

RESUMO

Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3βgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3β genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3βgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Resumo O Plasmodium vivax é o parasita da malária humana mais comum nos países asiáticos, incluindo o Paquistão. O presente estudo foi desenhado para explorar a diversidade genética de genótipos de Plasmodium vivax baseados nos genes Pvmsp-3α e Pvmsp-3β, usando marcadores de ensaios alélicos nested PCR e RFLP de isolados de campo no distrito de Mardan, Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 200 pacientes com malária por P. vivax foram coletadas após assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. A diversidade genética em produtos de PCR nested foi determinada por polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição (RFLP) utilizando as enzimas de restrição Alu1 e PstI para a digestão dos produtos dos genes alfa e beta, respectivamente. Para análise da diversidade genética das variantes subalélicas dos genes Pvmsp3α e Pvmsp3β, o teste Qui-quadrado foi realizado utilizando o software de programação Minitab 18. O valor P = 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Para os genes Pvmsp-3α, após eletroforese em gel de produtos digeridos, quatro genótipos distintos foram obtidos de um total de 50 amostras; tipo A: 35 (70%) (1,5-2,0 kb), 12 do tipo B (24%) (1,5-1,7 kb), 2 do tipo C (4%) (0,5-1,5) e um para o tipo D (2%) (0,5-0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em nove padrões alélicos (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), em que A3 permaneceu como o mais predominante. Para Pvmsp-3βgenes, três genótipos distintos foram obtidos a partir de 50 amostras; 40 (80%) do tipo A (1,5-2,5 kb), 9 (18%) do tipo B (1,0-1,5 kb) e 1 (2%) do tipo C (0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em seis padrões alélicos (A1-A3, B1-B2 e C1). Os mais dominantes no tipo A foram o alelo A1, observados em 46%, enquanto, no tipo B, os mais dominantes foram B1 (10%). Este estudo é o primeiro relato de epidemiologia molecular e variação genética em Pvmsp-3α. Os genes Pvmsp-3β de isolados de P. vivax utilizando PCR/RFLP do Distrito Mardan mostraram um nível notável de diversidade genética nos genes estudados de parasitas circulantes na área de estudo. Os resultados desse estudo contribuirão em estudos futuros sobre a estrutura genética do parasita e o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a malária.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243283, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


RESUMO Agentes infecciosos causam doenças graves em humanos em todo o mundo, e são responsáveis pelo alto índice de morbimortalidade. A prevalência e a epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas no hospital que atendeu pacientes encaminhados pelos médicos por meio dos achados iniciais e seus fatores de risco associados foram estudadas em Peshawar. Os dados de 174 pacientes infectados foram coletados durante o período de 2015 a 2017 oriundos de dois laboratórios clínicos de Tehsil Matta Swat. O formulário de consentimento informado foi obtido antes da coleta de sangue. Após a obtenção do consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e foi realizado o teste ICT e, em seguida, os casos ICT positivos foram confirmados por PCR. Um total de 174 amostras ICT positivas [106 homens e 68 mulheres] foi incluído neste estudo. A idade considerada foi de 10 a 72 anos. Das 174 tiras de ICT positivas, 99 casos [63 homens, 36 mulheres] foram confirmados por PCR. A taxa de prevalência foi de 56,89%. A injeção IV / IM foi registrada em 100% dos indivíduos. A visita à barbearia foi relatada em (58%) dos indivíduos, os números de casados foram (81,0%), e a operação cirúrgica foi relatada em (44,8%), o compartilhamento de escova de dente foi observado em (29,9%), o piercing foi relatado em (39,7%), antecedentes familiares foram relatados em (26,4%), tratamento odontológico em (21,8%), icterícia (13,2%) e tatuagem em (1,7%). Transfusão de sangue, operações cirúrgicas, icterícia, histórico familiar e tratamento odontológico foram fatores de risco significativos para adquirir infecção por Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC). Concluiu-se que a implementação adequada de medidas de precaução deve ser necessária para controlar a propagação do VHC em um futuro próximo.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762561

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495157

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais , RNA Ribossômico 16S
11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161423

RESUMO

The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Paquistão
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161427

RESUMO

Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161428

RESUMO

For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta
14.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e241110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133560

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3ßgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3ß genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3ßgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3ß genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Assuntos
Plasmodium vivax , Proteínas de Protozoários , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Paquistão , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e231509, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076158

RESUMO

The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo , Meio Ambiente
16.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076166

RESUMO

Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978080

RESUMO

Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia
19.
Am Heart J ; 200: 37-43, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is known to be a risk marker following acute myocardial infarction (MI). More recently, truncated molecular forms of the BNP molecule have been identified, with the association of these forms and outcome in acute MI not known. The present study investigated their use as risk stratifying biomarkers of this condition. METHODS: BNP molecular forms (BNP 5-32, BNP 4-32 and BNP 3-32) were measured in plasma from 1078 acute MI patients using immunocapture followed by MALDI-ToF-mass spectrometry. Associations of molecular forms with short-term and long-term adverse outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: BNP molecular forms were independent predictors of mortality/reinfarction, mortality/rehospitalization due to heart failure, and a composite of all events at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years and showed prognostic ability comparable with conventional BNP measurements (P<.001-0.026 vs. N-terminal [NT]-proBNP P<.001-0.020, respectively). Reclassification analyses showed BNP molecular forms successfully reclassified patient risk when used in addition to the GRACE clinical risk score (P≤.005). BNP 5-32 showed utility as a secondary risk stratification biomarker when used in combination with the GRACE score and NT-proBNP by successful down-classification of high-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: BNP molecular forms were associated with poor prognosis at 6 months, 1 year and at 2 years in patients with acute MI. BNP 5-32 showed successful utility as a secondary marker in combination with NT-proBNP after GRACE scoring. This study suggests a potential role for BNP molecular forms in prognosis and risk stratification after acute MI.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Conformação Molecular , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/análise , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/classificação , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Reino Unido
20.
Clin Chem ; 63(4): 880-886, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) molecular forms 5-32, 4-32, and 3-32 are known to be present in the circulation of heart failure (HF) patients. This study investigated the prognostic role of circulating BNP molecular forms on risk prediction for patients with acute HF. METHODS: BNP molecular forms were measured in plasma using an immunocapture MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry (MS) method. Associations of molecular BNP forms with adverse outcome of all-cause mortality (death) and a composite of all-cause mortality and rehospitalization due to HF (death/HF) at 6 months and 1 year were investigated. RESULTS: BNP molecular forms 5-32, 4-32, and 3-32 were detected in 838 out of 904 patient samples. BNP molecular forms were all able to independently predict death and death/HF at 6 months and 1 year. BNP 5-32 was the superior form with strongest predictive qualities for death at 6 months [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.31, P = 0.005] and 1 year (adjusted HR 1.29, P = 0.002) and death/HF at 1 year (adjusted HR 1.18, P = 0.011). BNP 5-32, 4-32, and 3-32 showed decreased survival rates across increasing tertiles of circulating concentrations (P ≤ 0.004). BNP molecular forms showed prognostic ability comparable with conventional BNP measurements across all end points (P = 0.002-0.032 vs P = 0.014-0.039, respectively) and reduced associations with renal dysfunction (blood urea; Spearman correlation rs = 0.187-0.246 vs rs = 0.369, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: BNP molecular forms, notably BNP 5-32, showed association with poor prognosis at 6 months and 1 year in patients with acute HF. This is the first study reporting the prognostic ability of molecular BNP forms in HF patients and demonstrated comparable qualities to conventional BNP measurements.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/química , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
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