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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
4.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(6): 1209-1218, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thyroid dysfunction in patients with cardiac disease is associated with worse outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and analyse predictors and outcomes of thyroid dysfunction in patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: A prospective multicentre observational study of patients recruited from six acute hospitals within the North of England. Consecutive patients without previous thyroid disease presenting with both ST-elevation AMI (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation AMI (NSTEMI) were recruited to the Thyroxine in Acute Myocardial Infarction 1 (ThyrAMI-1) cohort study between December 2014 and 2016. Thyroid profile, standard biochemistry measurements and demographic information were obtained within 12 h of admission to hospital. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictors of thyroid dysfunction and Cox proportional hazards analyses were utilised to compare all-cause mortality by categories of thyroid dysfunction up to June 2019. RESULTS: Of the 1802 participants analysed, 1440 (79.9%) were euthyroid, 312 (17.3%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 22 (1.2%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) and 25 (1.3%) had low T3 syndrome (LT3S). Predictors for SCH were increasing age, female sex, higher thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels, higher serum creatinine levels and early morning sampling time (between 00:01-06:00 h). The predictors of SHyper were lower body mass index and afternoon sampling time (between 12:01 and 18:00 h). Predictors of LT3S were increasing age, higher creatinine levels and presence of previous ischaemic heart disease. Compared to the euthyroid group, patients with LT3S had higher all-cause mortality; adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 2.02 (1.03-3.95), p = 0.04, whereas those with SCH and SHyper did not exhibit significantly increased mortality; adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) of 1.05 (0.74-1.49), p = 0.79 and 0.27 (0.04-1.95), p = 0.19, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid dysfunction is common in AMI patients on admission to hospital and our data provide an understanding regarding which factors might influence thyroid dysfunction in these patients. Furthermore, the negative association between LT3S and increased mortality post-AMI has once again been highlighted by this study. More research is required to assess if treatment of thyroid dysfunction improves clinical outcomes.

5.
Zootaxa ; 4851(2): zootaxa.4851.2.3, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056727

RESUMO

A phylogenetic analysis of the genera of the strongyloid sub-family Cloacininae from macropodoid marsupials in Australasia was undertaken based on morphological characteristics and analysis of concatenated sequences (ITS+) of the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Neither approach provided a robust phylogeny, but similarities between the two methods in terms of generic groupings suggested that substantial revision is needed of the current phenetic classification, with some of the key morphological characteristics currently used to define genera and tribes proving to be homoplasious.


Assuntos
Macropodidae , Nematoides , Animais , Filogenia , Potoroidae , Ratos , Strongyloidea
7.
J Immunol Methods ; 450: 27-33, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735760

RESUMO

Efficacious typhoid vaccines for young children will significantly reduce the disease burden in developing world. The Vi polysaccharide based conjugate vaccines (Vi-rEPA) against Salmonella Typhi Vi positive strains has shown high efficacy but may be ineffective against Vi negative S. Typhi. In this study, for the first time, we report the synthesis and evaluation of polysaccharide-protein conjugates of Vi negative S. Typhi as potential vaccine candidates. Four different conjugates were synthesized using recombinant exoprotein A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (rEPA) and human serum albumin (HSA) as the carrier proteins, using either direct reductive amination or an intermediate linker molecule, adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH). Upon injection into mice, a significantly higher antibody titer was observed in mice administrated with conjugate-1 (OSP-HSA) (P=0.0001) and conjugate 2 (OSP-rEPA) (P≤0.0001) as compared to OSP alone. In contrast, the antibody titer elicited by conjugate 3 (OSPADH-HSA) and conjugate 4 (OSPADH-rEPA) were insignificant (P=0.1684 and P=0.3794, respectively). We conclude that reductive amination is the superior method to prepare the S. Typhi OSP glycoconjugate. Moreover, rEPA was a better carrier protein than HSA. Thus OSP-rEPA conjugate seems to be efficacious typhoid vaccines candidate, it may be evaluated further and recommended for the clinical trials.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Exotoxinas/imunologia , Antígenos O/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Salmonella typhi/imunologia , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Fatores de Virulência/imunologia , ADP Ribose Transferases/administração & dosagem , ADP Ribose Transferases/química , Aminação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Toxinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Exotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Exotoxinas/química , Feminino , Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Antígenos O/administração & dosagem , Antígenos O/química , Oxirredução , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Albumina Sérica/imunologia , Albumina Sérica Humana , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/química , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Fatores de Virulência/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Virulência/química
8.
Parasitology ; 144(13): 1828-1840, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28697818

RESUMO

Sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 + ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were employed to determine whether the congeneric assemblages of species of the strongyloid nematode genus Cloacina, found in the forestomachs of individual species of kangaroos and wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae), considered to represent species flocks, were monophyletic. Nematode assemblages examined in the black-striped wallaby, Macropus (Notamacropus) dorsalis, the wallaroos, Macropus (Osphranter) antilopinus/robustus, rock wallabies, Petrogale spp., the quokka, Setonix brachyurus, and the swamp wallaby, Wallabia bicolor, were not monophyletic and appeared to have arisen by host colonization. However, a number of instances of within-host speciation were detected, suggesting that a variety of methods of speciation have contributed to the evolution of the complex assemblages of species present in this genus.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Macropodidae , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Strongyloidea/genética , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Strongyloidea/fisiologia
9.
Diabet Med ; 32(6): 819-28, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581456

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the characteristics and management of patients with diabetes who chose to fast during Ramadan in 2010. METHODS: This was a multi-country, retrospective, observational study, supplemented with physician and patient questionnaires, with data captured before, during and after Ramadan. A total of 508 physicians in 13 countries enrolled 3777 patients and a total of 3394 evaluable cases were analysed. We report on the subset of patients with Type 2 diabetes, which included 3250 patients (95.8%). RESULTS: Oral anti-hyperglycaemic therapy was the predominant pre-Ramadan therapy for most patients (76.6%). The treatment regimen was modified before Ramadan for 39.3% of all patients (34.9% for patients on oral drugs alone, 47.1% for patients on injectable drugs alone). Almost all physicians (96.2%) reported providing fasting-specific advice to patients and 62.6% report using guidelines or recommendations for the management of diabetes during Ramadan. In all, 64% of patients reported fasting everyday of Ramadan and 94.2% fasted for at least 15 days. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians have increasingly adopted multiple approaches to the management of fasting during Ramadan, including the adoption of international and/or national guidelines, providing fasting-specific advice and adjusting treatment regimens, such that patients are able to fast for a greater number of days without acute complications. Additional research is needed to explore physician and patient beliefs and practices to inform the evidence-based management of diabetes while fasting, both during and outside of Ramadan, and to identify and address barriers to the universal uptake of techniques to facilitate that management.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Jejum , Islamismo , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Osteoporos Int ; 24(3): 1057-62, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22572965

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and calcium absorption was assessed before and after cholecalciferol using Strontium as a surrogate. Increase in 25OHD, lowering of iPTH with no effect on Sr absorption was seen, suggesting the possibility that maximal Ca absorption had already been achieved in these volunteers. INTRODUCTION: This paper discusses the determination of calcium (Ca) absorption, using strontium (Sr) as a surrogate, before and after a single IM injection of vitamin D(3) (600,000 IU). METHODS: Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), Sr, Ca, P, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were determined in 53 fasting volunteers, followed by administrating (PO) 0.03 mM (4.8 mg/kg) SrCl(2) and collecting blood at 0.5, 1 and 4 h to determine the absorption (AUC(0 → t )) of Sr. Following the initial absorption test, volunteers received a single IM injection of 600,000 IU vitamin D(3). Two months later, the fasting serum and the Sr absorption test were repeated, as described above. RESULTS: The IM injection of vitamin D(3) caused a significant increase in fasting 25OHD (from 43.5 ± 19 to 66.1 ± 19.1 nmol/L (p < 0.001)) and a trend toward lower serum iPTH (from 59.8 ± 27.8 to 53 ± 31 ng/L). Fasting serum Ca and P remained unchanged. A higher 25OHD level failed (p = 0.32) to translate into a higher rate of Sr absorption. AUC(0 → 4 h) were almost identical before and after the IM injection of vitamin D(3). CONCLUSION: A single vitamin D(3) injection of 600,000 IU significantly increase mean 25OHD concentration and tended to lower iPTH concentrations in volunteers with initially low 25OHD status, suggesting to utilize this simple form of treatment to improve vitamin D status and to have a possible biological effect on Ca homeostasis. However, we found no obvious effect on Sr absorption, suggesting the possibility that maximal vitamin D-dependent Ca absorption had already been achieved in these volunteers at a lower vitamin D status.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/farmacocinética , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Estrôncio , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 153(3): 352-60, 2013 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22798275

RESUMO

This paper presents the finding of a study undertaken to determine the naturally occurring radionuclides present in commonly used building materials for dwellings and workplaces in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. A total of 80 samples of building materials were collected from various manufacturers and suppliers of the studied area. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in building samples, and results ranged from minimum values of 9 ± 1, 9 ± 2 and 27 ± 8 Bq kg(-1) to maximum values of 106 ± 5, 133 ± 5 and 914 ± 21 Bq kg(-1) with mean values of 42 ± 3, 48 ± 3 and 376 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From the measured activity concentrations, equivalent radium (Ra(eq)), terrestrial absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated and found to range from 52 ± 7 to 274 ± 15 Bq kg(-1), 23 ± 3 to 130 6 nGy h(-1), 0.15 ± 0.02 to 0.80 ± 0.03 mSv, 0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.2 ± 0.02 to 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively. These results were comparable to the results of similar studies undertaken locally and in other countries. The samples considered were safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção/análise , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Tório/análise , Geografia , Habitação , Modelos Estatísticos , Paquistão , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Segurança , Espectrometria gama/métodos
12.
Parasite ; 19(1): 53-61, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22314240

RESUMO

A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the worm control practices and anthelmintic usage of 150 key respondents involved in sheep and goat production in the arid Thal area of Pakistan. The information was collected by visiting farms, and interviewing the key respondents which included veterinary officers (n = 15), veterinary assistants (n = 51), traditional practitioners (n = 24), and small and large scale sheep/goat farm herders and owners (n = 60). Among all interviewed animal healthcare providers, the veterinary officers had the highest level of awareness of parasitic infection and advocated the use of modern available anthelmintics according to the predefined schedule. The farmers on the other hand, had the lowest level of knowledge about parasitic infections. They used modern anthelmintics at low frequencies (every six months) following an unusual practice of diluting the medicine. Veterinary assistants had a medium level of awareness about the parasitic infections using anthelmintic treatments when they deemed necessary rather than following a predefined treatment schedule. Traditional practitioners were also aware of parasitic infections and used traditional anthelmintics or a combination of the traditional and modern anthelmintics. The animal health providers had a different awareness and knowledge of parasitic infections which resulted in contrasting proposals for its' control. The farmers used worm control measures in accordance with their own views and those of animal healthcare advisors, combining modern and traditional treatments. This study provides the first insight into the differing views of those animal healthcare providers who form the basis for effective parasitic control within the sheep and goat industry of an arid region.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Clima Desértico , Escolaridade , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Abrigo para Animais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Paquistão , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Médicos Veterinários
14.
Parasitology ; 138(1): 89-99, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20663253

RESUMO

Immunohistochemistry and immunogold labelling techniques were used to localize the EG95 vaccine antigen in Echinococcus granulosus oncospheres. In non-activated oncospheres, the cytoplasm of 2 pairs of bilateral cells exhibited specific positive labelling for the presence of EG95. No surface localization was seen in non-activated or recently activated oncospheres. Besides the staining of 2 pairs of bilateral cells, there was also a generalized distribution of specific staining for EG95 throughout the parenchyma of activated oncospheres. Immunogold labelling of non-activated oncosphere revealed specific reactivity for EG95 involving 2 pairs of bilateral cells and the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells were consistent with them being penetration gland cells. No other oncospheral structures stained specifically for the presence of EG95. The absence of surface location of EG95 in oncospheres suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody and complement mediated attack until some post-oncospheral development has occurred. Further studies would be required to determine when the EG95 antigen associates with the parasite's surface, thus making them susceptible to immune attack.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Echinococcus granulosus/citologia , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/genética , Austrália , Equinococose/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ovinos
15.
Parasite Immunol ; 32(9-10): 684-95, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20691020

RESUMO

Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy were used to localize the host-protective antigens of Taenia saginata (TSA9 and TSA18) and Taenia solium (TSOL16, TSOL18 and TSOL45). In nonactivated oncospheres, TSA9 and TSOL45 antigens were found primarily in the cytoplasm of the penetration gland type one (PG1) cell. A similar pattern of staining was seen for TSOL45 in oncospheres of T. solium that remained within the oncospheral membrane. In addition, there was less intense staining of TSA9 and TSOL45 in the quadri-nucleate penetration gland type 2 (PG2) cell. TSA18, TSOL16 and TSOL18 were predominantly found in the PG2 cell. In activated oncospheres that had escaped the oncospheral membrane, the antigens (other than TSA9) were seen both in the penetration gland cell locations and throughout the oncospheral parenchyma. Co-localization analyses revealed that only TSOL16 and TSOL18 antigens were co-localized in the PG2 cell of oncospheres that had not escaped the oncospheral membrane. However, in activated oncospheres that escaped the oncospheral membrane, all three antigens of T. solium were co-localized as they were present throughout the parenchyma. No positive staining was observed on the surface of nonactivated or recently activated oncospheres of T. saginata or T. solium.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Taenia saginata/imunologia , Taenia solium/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Citoplasma/imunologia , Imunofluorescência , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Confocal
16.
Parasitology ; 137(3): 521-35, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19835645

RESUMO

Taeniid eggs contain an infective larval form of the parasite, known as the oncosphere, which has been found to be highly susceptible to attack by the host's immune system and this fact has been exploited in the development of highly effective vaccines. Relatively little is known about the structure of taeniid oncospheres and the localization of host-protective antigens within or on the oncosphere. Here, we briefly review the current state of knowledge of the structure of the oncosphere and present preliminary data on the localization of a host-protective antigen within the oncospheres of Taenia ovis. The precise localization of the antigens, in the context of a detailed knowledge of the ultrastructure of the parasite, may reveal the immune mechanisms by which the taeniid parasites are killed by vaccine-induced immune responses, which, in turn, may provide clues about how vaccines could be developed against other parasitic helminths.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Taenia/imunologia , Taenia/ultraestrutura , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/imunologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Taenia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 168(1-2): 141-5, 2010 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19939567

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate three Pakistani sheep breeds (Kachhi, Lohi and Thalli) for their natural resistance against artificial infection of Haemonchus contortus. Lambs were weaned at 3 months of age, housed in separate pens and treated with Avermectin to eliminate gastrointestinal nematode infection. Each lamb was infected orally with approximately 10,000 third stage larvae of H. contortus. Selected breeds were compared on the basis of parasitological, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters over a period of 9 weeks. Faecal egg counts were measured weekly while packed cell volume, total serum protein, serum albumin and live weight were determined fortnightly. At 9th-week post-infection, 10 animals of each breed were randomly selected and slaughtered for worm, eosinophil and mast cell counts from the abomasum of each animal. Faecal egg counts and worm burden were significantly lower (P<0.05) in Lohi sheep than Kachhi and Thalli breeds. Furthermore, the Lohi breed also exhibited the highest levels of packed cell volume, total serum protein, albumin as well as eosinophils and mast cell counts. Breed x week interaction also remained significant (P<0.05) in most of the parameters for Lohi breed. The results suggested that Lohi breed expressed a significant innate resistance to artificial infection of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Hemoncose/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/genética , Hemoncose/imunologia , Haemonchus , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Ovinos
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 168(3-4): 342-5, 2010 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19963323

RESUMO

This paper describes the in vivo anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta indica seeds to justify their use in South-Asia by traditional animal healers. Seeds of A. indica were administered as crude powder (CP), crude aqueous (CAE) and crude methanolic extracts (CME) at the doses of 1 and 3g/kg of body weight to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. The study design also included untreated as well as treated controls. Faecal egg count reduction and larval counts from coprocultures were performed pre- and post-treatments to assess the anthelmintic activity. Crude powder and CME did not show significant activity (P>0.05) at the lower dose used but were found effective at 3g/kg and the maximum anthelmintic effect was observed at the 15 days post-treatment with both crude powder and CME (P<0.01) with a maximum reduction of 29.3% and 40.2%, respectively in eggs per gram of faeces. Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus species were found susceptible (P<0.01) to higher doses of CP and CME of A. indica. However, CAE did not exhibit any considerable reduction in EPG as well as larval counts. Levamisole (7.5mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent, exhibited 99.2% reduction in EPG (P<0.001). Though of low efficacy compared with levamisole, the use of A. indica seeds against gastrointestinal nematodes may be justified in some situations, depending on the nature and intensity of the helminth infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Azadirachta/química , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Dracunculus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 12(16): 1152-5, 2009 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19899327

RESUMO

Alkaloids are important sources of drug that's why we have conducted our research to find out the biological activity of the alkaloids of a plant that is the Amlaki. Alkaloids were extracted from the methanolic extract of the fresh ripe fruits of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis) through solvent-solvent partitioning method with n-hexane and chloroform. The chloroform soluble fraction of the crude methanolic extract of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids was subjected to antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for observing cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against some Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and strong cytotoxicity having a LC50 of 10.257 +/- 0.770 microg mL(-1). It is concluded that the chloroform soluble fraction of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids are biologically active.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Phyllanthus emblica/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Phyllanthus emblica/anatomia & histologia
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 47(6): 1205-8, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19233243

RESUMO

To determine radiological impact of composite food served at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) on its worker, cooked meals were collected during 2000-2007 and analysed by gamma and beta radiometry techniques for naturally occurring radionuclides and fission fragments. The only measurable radionuclide was naturally occurring (40)K. Its activity range was 40+/-1.5 to 182.4+/-3.8 Bq kg(-1) with cumulative average value of 89.4+/-35.1 Bq kg(-1). Based on annual meals taken by the worker in cafeteria, the measured value gives committed effective dose of 74 microSv and estimated cancer risk factor of 1.5 x 10(-4) that is a minor fraction of the total risk of 5 x 10(-3). It depicts that food served at PINSTECH cafeteria is radiologically safe for consumption.


Assuntos
Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Algoritmos , Partículas beta , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Alimentos , Raios gama , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fissão Nuclear , Reatores Nucleares , Exposição Ocupacional , Ocupações , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Radiometria , Medição de Risco
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