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Braz J Biol ; 84: e263386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350949


Any solid, unprotected, and undefended surface in the aquatic environment will be fouled. Fouling, on the other hand, can affect a wide range of species that can tolerate some epibiosis. Several others, on the other hand, aggressively keep the epibionts off their body surface (antifouling). Antifouling defenses are built into marine plants like seaweed and seagrass. They do have a distinctive surface structure with tightly packed needle-like peaks and antifouling coverings, which may hinder settling bacteria's ability to cling. Chemical antifouling resistance is most probably a biological reaction to epibiosis' ecological drawbacks, especially for organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. The goal of this study was to see how effective natural compounds derived from littoral seaweeds were in preventing fouling. The brown mussel, an important fouling organism, was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against fifty-one populations' crude organic extracts including fort-two macroalgae species. Antifouling activity, exhibited a distinct phylogenetic pattern, with red macroalgae having the largest share of active species, subsequently brown macroalgae. Antifouling action in green seaweeds has never been significant. Seven species showed some level of induced antifouling defense. Our findings appear to back up previous findings about secondary metabolite synthesis in seaweeds, indicating that in the hunt for novel antifoulants, researchers should concentrate their efforts on tropical red macroalgae.

Bivalves , Alga Marinha , Animais , Alga Marinha/química , Filogenia , Verduras
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260092, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674602


Ground beetles (Carabid beetles) may be found in virtually all of the world's habitats. They are one of the three most diverse families of extant beetles, with 34,275 species documented, and they serve as vital ecological markers in all environments. Edaphic living beetles catch and eat a wide variety of arthropods that live in the soil. In the case of weeds, most of the ground beetles eat their seeds and help regulate their populations. The findings of a field study in agrocenoses in South-East Kazakhstan from 2019 to 2020 are presented in this article. Twenty-seven ground beetle species from 9 genera were discovered as a consequence of the study. 670 soil traps yielded a total of 1012 beetles. Polytopic mesophilic beetles provide the foundation of the agrocenoses fauna. Hygrophils, mesophiles, and eurybionts are among the beetles found in irrigated areas, as are mixed and herbivorous species. The Carabidae family of beetles is the most numerous in fields and steppe settings. As a result, mixed-diet beetles can be found depending on the habitat and air temperature. The species of beetles in all fields in the investigation area are in accordance with the insects' complex. During the growth season, the diet of beetles shifts: predatory beetles take precedence initially, followed by mixed-diet beetles.

Besouros , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Cazaquistão , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Solo
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260090, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613214


Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.

Geodia , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260091, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584460


Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting most social, economic and biological aspects of human life. Most patients with epilepsy have uncontrolled seizures and drug side effects despite the medications. Patients with epilepsy often have problems with attention, memory, and information processing speed, which may be due to seizures, underlying causes, or anticonvulsants. Therefore, improving seizure control and reducing or changing the anti-epileptic drugs can solve these problems, but these problems will not be solved in most cases. In this work, we looked at the effects of pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. The Racine scale was used to classify pilocarpine-induced convulsions. After that, all of the animals were beheaded, and the brain and hippocampus were dissected. Finally, biochemical techniques were used to determine the levels of Malondialdehyde and Catalase activity, as well as Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Reductase in the hippocampus. The results of this investigation suggest that pioglitazone's antioxidant action may play a key role in its neuroprotective properties against pilocarpine-induced seizure neuronal damage.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Epilepsia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pilocarpina/uso terapêutico , Pilocarpina/toxicidade , Pioglitazona/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico