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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260090, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374700

RESUMO

Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.


Ophiactis savignyi pode ser descoberta em todo o mundo em ambientes marinhos tropicais. A população pode ter contribuído para a propagação de O. savignyi, particularmente as populações ocidentais e orientais do istmo do Panamá. A estrela-quebradiça O. savignyi, muitas vezes conhecida como estrela-quebradiça de Savignyi, coexiste com a esponja Geodia corticostylifera. O foco desta pesquisa foi avaliar a relevância funcional dos metabólitos secundários de G. corticostylifera como anti-incrustante contra mexilhões, proteção contra peixes generalistas e sinais químicos para estrelas-quebradiças afiliadas. Em estudos de laboratório com fluxo contínuo e estático de água do mar, O. savignyi, que anteriormente havia se ligado a esponjas, recebeu mimetizadores tratados e controle ao mesmo tempo. O extrato de esponja também foi testado por sua capacidade de proteger os peixes contra predadores e incrustações. Testes de dissuasão usando produtos químicos indicaram que o nível normal de extrato de esponja também pode suprimir a predação de peixes generalistas no campo, bem como a fixação normal do mexilhão Perna perna em ambientes clínicos. De acordo com os achados, o extrato bruto de G. corticostylifera tem diversas funções em ambientes aquáticos, aparentemente responsáveis ​​pela relação mais próxima dessa esponja com O. savignyi, protegendo o ofiuroide e inibindo os epibiontes.


Assuntos
Animais , Poríferos/parasitologia , Simbiose , Bactérias , Geodia/parasitologia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260091, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374650

RESUMO

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting most social, economic and biological aspects of human life. Most patients with epilepsy have uncontrolled seizures and drug side effects despite the medications. Patients with epilepsy often have problems with attention, memory, and information processing speed, which may be due to seizures, underlying causes, or anticonvulsants. Therefore, improving seizure control and reducing or changing the anti-epileptic drugs can solve these problems, but these problems will not be solved in most cases. In this work, we looked at the effects of pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. The Racine scale was used to classify pilocarpine-induced convulsions. After that, all of the animals were beheaded, and the brain and hippocampus were dissected. Finally, biochemical techniques were used to determine the levels of Malondialdehyde and Catalase activity, as well as Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Reductase in the hippocampus. The results of this investigation suggest that pioglitazone's antioxidant action may play a key role in its neuroprotective properties against pilocarpine-induced seizure neuronal damage.


A epilepsia é um dos distúrbios neurológicos mais comuns que afetam a maioria dos aspectos sociais, econômicos e biológicos da vida humana. A maioria dos pacientes com epilepsia tem convulsões não controladas e apresenta efeitos colaterais de medicamentos. Pacientes com epilepsia, geralmente, têm problemas de atenção, memória e velocidade de processamento de informações, ocasionados por convulsões, causas subjacentes ou anticonvulsivantes. Portanto, melhorar o controle das crises e reduzir ou alterar as drogas antiepilépticas pode resolver esses problemas, mas, na maioria dos casos, eles não serão resolvidos. Neste trabalho, analisamos os efeitos da pioglitazona, um agonista do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma usado para tratar diabetes tipo 2, em convulsões induzidas por pilocarpina em camundongos. A escala de Racine foi usada para classificar as convulsões induzidas pela pilocarpina. Em seguida, todos os animais foram decapitados, e o cérebro e o hipocampo foram dissecados. Finalmente, técnicas bioquímicas foram utilizadas para determinar os níveis de atividade do malondialdeído e da catalase, bem como da superóxido dismutase e glutationa redutase no hipocampo. Os resultados desta investigação sugerem que a ação antioxidante da pioglitazona pode desempenhar um papel fundamental em suas propriedades neuroprotetoras contra o dano neuronal convulsivo induzido pela pilocarpina.


Assuntos
Camundongos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260092, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374644

RESUMO

Ground beetles (Carabid beetles) may be found in virtually all of the world's habitats. They are one of the three most diverse families of extant beetles, with 34,275 species documented, and they serve as vital ecological markers in all environments. Edaphic living beetles catch and eat a wide variety of arthropods that live in the soil. In the case of weeds, most of the ground beetles eat their seeds and help regulate their populations. The findings of a field study in agrocenoses in South-East Kazakhstan from 2019 to 2020 are presented in this article. Twenty-seven ground beetle species from 9 genera were discovered as a consequence of the study. 670 soil traps yielded a total of 1012 beetles. Polytopic mesophilic beetles provide the foundation of the agrocenoses fauna. Hygrophils, mesophiles, and eurybionts are among the beetles found in irrigated areas, as are mixed and herbivorous species. The Carabidae family of beetles is the most numerous in fields and steppe settings. As a result, mixed-diet beetles can be found depending on the habitat and air temperature. The species of beetles in all fields in the investigation area are in accordance with the insects' complex. During the growth season, the diet of beetles shifts: predatory beetles take precedence initially, followed by mixed-diet beetles.


Os besouros terrestres (besouros carabídeos) podem ser encontrados em praticamente todos os hábitats do mundo. Eles são uma das três famílias mais diversas de besouros existentes, com 34.275 espécies documentadas, e servem como marcadores ecológicos vitais em todos os ambientes. Os besouros vivos edáficos capturam e comem uma grande variedade de artrópodes que vivem no solo. No caso de ervas daninhas, os besouros terrestres, em sua maioria, comem sementes delas e ajudam a regular suas populações. Os resultados do estudo de campo em agrocenoses no sudeste do Cazaquistão de 2019 a 2020 são apresentados neste artigo. Foram descobertas 27 espécies de besouros terrestres de 9 gêneros como consequência do estudo. As 670 armadilhas de solo renderam um total de 1.012 besouros. Besouros mesófilos politópicos fornecem a base para a fauna de agrocenoses. Higrófilos, mesófilos e euribiontes estão entre os besouros encontrados em áreas irrigadas, assim como espécies mistas e herbívoras. Em campos e estepes, a família Carabidae de besouros é a mais numerosa. Como resultado, dependendo do hábitat e da temperatura do ar, podem ser encontrados besouros de dieta mista. As espécies de besouros em todos os campos da área de investigação estão de acordo com o complexo dos insetos. Durante a estação de crescimento, a dieta dos besouros muda: os besouros predadores têm precedência, seguidos dos besouros de dieta mista.


Assuntos
Animais , População , Besouros , Cultivos Agrícolas , Meio Ambiente , Plantas Daninhas , Biodiversidade
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260092, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674602

RESUMO

Ground beetles (Carabid beetles) may be found in virtually all of the world's habitats. They are one of the three most diverse families of extant beetles, with 34,275 species documented, and they serve as vital ecological markers in all environments. Edaphic living beetles catch and eat a wide variety of arthropods that live in the soil. In the case of weeds, most of the ground beetles eat their seeds and help regulate their populations. The findings of a field study in agrocenoses in South-East Kazakhstan from 2019 to 2020 are presented in this article. Twenty-seven ground beetle species from 9 genera were discovered as a consequence of the study. 670 soil traps yielded a total of 1012 beetles. Polytopic mesophilic beetles provide the foundation of the agrocenoses fauna. Hygrophils, mesophiles, and eurybionts are among the beetles found in irrigated areas, as are mixed and herbivorous species. The Carabidae family of beetles is the most numerous in fields and steppe settings. As a result, mixed-diet beetles can be found depending on the habitat and air temperature. The species of beetles in all fields in the investigation area are in accordance with the insects' complex. During the growth season, the diet of beetles shifts: predatory beetles take precedence initially, followed by mixed-diet beetles.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Cazaquistão , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Solo
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260091, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584460

RESUMO

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting most social, economic and biological aspects of human life. Most patients with epilepsy have uncontrolled seizures and drug side effects despite the medications. Patients with epilepsy often have problems with attention, memory, and information processing speed, which may be due to seizures, underlying causes, or anticonvulsants. Therefore, improving seizure control and reducing or changing the anti-epileptic drugs can solve these problems, but these problems will not be solved in most cases. In this work, we looked at the effects of pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, on pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. The Racine scale was used to classify pilocarpine-induced convulsions. After that, all of the animals were beheaded, and the brain and hippocampus were dissected. Finally, biochemical techniques were used to determine the levels of Malondialdehyde and Catalase activity, as well as Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Reductase in the hippocampus. The results of this investigation suggest that pioglitazone's antioxidant action may play a key role in its neuroprotective properties against pilocarpine-induced seizure neuronal damage.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Epilepsia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pilocarpina/uso terapêutico , Pilocarpina/toxicidade , Pioglitazona/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260090, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613214

RESUMO

Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.


Assuntos
Geodia , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
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