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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 940-953, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153447

RESUMO

Abstract Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Resumo Hoje em dia, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são mais comuns em pessoas devido à sua natureza epidêmica. Essas doenças afetam o sistema digestivo humano por meio de bactérias, vírus e parasitas. Os agentes das doenças são transmitidos em nosso corpo por meio de diversos tipos de alimentos, água e crus. Os patógenos mostram mudanças drásticas em pessoas imunossupressoras. Esta revisão fornece uma visão geral da vida microbiana prejudicial. O Paquistão é um país desenvolvido e, devido ao seu manejo alimentar inadequado, muitos problemas gastrointestinais são observados em muitos pacientes. As bactérias são os agentes mais comuns para espalhar diarreia, infecção de vilosidades, obstipação e doença disentérica em humanos e induzem a rejeição de transplantes de órgãos. Melhoria de seu estilo de vida, alimentos devidamente cozidos devem ser utilizados e para superar o aparecimento de doenças.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247676, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669912

RESUMO

Development of insecticides resistance mainly hinge with managements techniques for the control of Jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Five insecticides were applied against field collected and laboratory rared jassid populations during the years of 2017 to 2019 to profile their resistance level against field population of jassid through leaf dip method. Very low resistance level was found in jassid against confidor whereas high level of resistance was observed by pyriproxyfen against other test insecticides. Gradual resistance was observed against diafenthiuron. It is concluded that for the management of Jassid repetition of same insecticide should be avoided. The use of confidor may be reduced to overcome resistance against Jassid.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Laboratórios
3.
Braz J Biol ; 81(4): 940-953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605364

RESUMO

Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Bactérias , Diarreia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(4): 99-103, out.-dez. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31535

RESUMO

Abstract Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.(AU)


Resumo Hoje em dia, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são mais comuns em pessoas devido à sua natureza epidêmica. Essas doenças afetam o sistema digestivo humano por meio de bactérias, vírus e parasitas. Os agentes das doenças são transmitidos em nosso corpo por meio de diversos tipos de alimentos, água e crus. Os patógenos mostram mudanças drásticas em pessoas imunossupressoras. Esta revisão fornece uma visão geral da vida microbiana prejudicial. O Paquistão é um país desenvolvido e, devido ao seu manejo alimentar inadequado, muitos problemas gastrointestinais são observados em muitos pacientes. As bactérias são os agentes mais comuns para espalhar diarreia, infecção de vilosidades, obstipação e doença disentérica em humanos e induzem a rejeição de transplantes de órgãos. Melhoria de seu estilo de vida, alimentos devidamente cozidos devem ser utilizados e para superar o aparecimento de doenças.(AU)


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Prevenção de Doenças
5.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 173: 113754, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837311

RESUMO

This study describes the screening of 13 commercially-available plant extracts for pharmacological activity modulating vascular function using an endothelial cell model. A French maritime pine bark extract (FMPBE) was found to have the greatest effect upon nitric oxide availability in control (181% ± 36% of untreated cells) and dysfunctional cells (132% ± 8% of untreated control cells). In healthy volunteers, the FMPBE increased plasma nitrite concentrations 8 h post-consumption compared to baseline (baseline corrected median 1.71 ± 0.38 (25% IQR) and 4.76 (75% IQR) µM, p < 0.05). This was followed by a placebo-controlled, healthy volunteer study, which showed no effects on plasma nitrite. It was confirmed that different batches of extract had been used in the healthy volunteer studies, and this second batch lacked bioactivity, assessed using the in vitro model. No difference in plasma catechin levels was seen at 8 h following supplementation between the studies (252 ± 194 nM versus 50 ± 64 nM, p > 0.05), however HPLC-UV fingerprinting showed that the new batch had a 5-15% in major constituents (including procyanidins A2, B1 and B2) compared to the original batch. This research describes a robust mechanism for screening bioactive extracts for vascular effects. It also highlights batch variability as a significant limitation when using complex extracts for pharmacological activity, and suggests the use of in vitro systems as a tool to identify this problem in future studies.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pinus/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Catequina/análise , Catequina/sangue , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitratos/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitritos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Int Med Res ; 45(6): 1708-1719, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856940

RESUMO

Objective Epidemiological studies suggest that adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) might increase the risk of death from cardiovascular causes. Methods This was a 6-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over trial followed by a 6-month open-label phase. Seventeen patients with AGHD received either recombinant human growth hormone (rGH) (0.4 mg injection daily) or placebo for 12 weeks, underwent washout for 2 weeks, and were then crossed over to the alternative treatment for a further 12 weeks. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed at baseline, 12 weeks, 26 weeks, and the end of the open phase (12 months). The results were compared with those of 16 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Results At baseline, patients with AGHD had a significantly higher systolic blood pressure, ejection fraction, and left ventricular mass than the control group, even when corrected for body surface area. Treatment with rGH normalised the insulin-like growth factor 1 concentration without an effect on exercise capacity, cardiac structure, or cardiac function. Conclusion Administration of rGH therapy for 6 to 9 months failed to normalise the functional and structural cardiac differences observed in patients with AGHD when compared with a control group.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Coração/fisiopatologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 67(8): 637-640, 2017 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535248

RESUMO

Background: Work-family conflict (WFC) and job insecurity are important determinants of workers' mental health. Aims: To examine the relationship between WFC and psychological distress, and the co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress in US working adults. Methods: This study used cross-sectional data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults aged 18-64 years. The 2010 NHIS included occupational data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored Occupational Health Supplement. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress. Results: The study group consisted of 12059 participants. In the model fully adjusted for relevant occupational, behavioural, sociodemographic and health covariates, WFC and job insecurity were independently significantly associated with increased odds of psychological distress. Relative to participants reporting WFC only, participants reporting no WFC and no job insecurity had lower odds of moderate and severe distress. Co-occurring WFC and job insecurity was associated with significantly higher odds of both moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.9] and severe (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 2.66-4.79) distress. Conclusions: Rates of WFC and job insecurity were influenced by differing factors in working adults; however, both significantly increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes, particularly when experienced jointly. Future studies should explore the temporal association between co-occurring WFC and job insecurity and psychological distress.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Conflito Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/normas
8.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 53(11): 552-5, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14738264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cost of acute stroke care and its determinants at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi and to find out predictors of high cost care. Acute stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Cost of care is the single most important determinant in availability of acute stroke care at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. It is also an important factor in development of public health policies and medical insurance plans. Average annual income in Pakistan is 4881 rupees (85 U dollars). METHODS: Medical and billing records of 443 patients with acute stroke were retrospectively reviewed from 1998-2001 at The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi. Acute stroke care at AKUH usually includes routine laboratory investigation including Lipid profile, Magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA), Echocardiogram, Carotid Doppler's ultrasound and medical management in the Stroke care unit. RESULTS: 443 patients were included in study. Age range was 25-98 years (Mean 58 years). 269 (61%) were male. Length of hospital stay was 1 day; 67 patients, 2 days; 83 patients, 3 days; 70 patients, 4-5 days; 87 patients, 6-10 days; 75 patients, 11-30 days; 49 patients and more than 30 days; 12 patients. Average length of stay was five days and median length was three days. Average total cost was 70,714 rupees (1179 U dollars) which included average radiology cost; 12,507 rupees (208 U dollars), average laboratory cost; 8365 rupees (139 U dollars), average pharmacy cost; 13,320 rupees (222 U dollars) and average bed/room charges; 27,552 rupees (459 U dollars). Length of hospital stay is the most important determinant of cost. Average total cost for patients who stayed for 1 day was 19,597 rupees (326 U dollars), 2-3 days; 25,568 rupees (426 U dollars), 4-7 days; 49,705 rupees (828 U dollars), 8-30 days; 153,586 rupees (2559 U dollars), more than 30 days; 588,239 rupees (9804 U dollars). Average cost for general ward was 60,574 rupees (1010 U dollars), private ward was 74,880 rupees (1248 U dollars) and intensive care unit was 155,010 rupees (2583 U dollars). CONCLUSION: Cost of acute stroke care is extremely high as compared to average national income at our hospital. Most important determinant of cost is length of hospital stay. Cost cutting measures and increased funding from state are necessary to increase the availability of acute stroke care.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hospitalização/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 95(19): 11400-5, 1998 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9736748

RESUMO

To identify genes expressed in the vertebrate inner ear, we have established an assay that allows rapid analysis of the differential expression pattern of mRNAs derived from an auditory epithelium-specific cDNA library. We performed subtractive hybridization to create an enriched probe, which then was used to screen the cDNA library. After digoxigenin-labeled antisense cRNAs had been transcribed from hybridization-positive clones, we conducted in situ hybridization on slides bearing cryosections of late embryonic chicken heads, bodies, and cochleae. One hundred and twenty of the 196 clones analyzed encode 12 proteins whose mRNAs are specifically or highly expressed in the chicken's inner ear; the remainder encode proteins that occur more widely. We identified proteins that have been described previously as expressed in the inner ear, such as beta-tectorin, calbindin, and type II collagen. A second group of proteins abundant in the inner ear includes five additional types of collagens. A third group, including Coch-5B2 and an ear-specific connexin, comprises proteins whose human equivalents are candidates to account for hearing disorders. This group also includes proteins expressed in two unique cell types of the inner ear, homogene cells and cells of the tegmentum vasculosum.


Assuntos
Orelha/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos da Audição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias , Embrião de Galinha , Clonagem Molecular , Cóclea/citologia , Cóclea/metabolismo , Conexinas/química , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Queratinas/química , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas/química , RNA Antissenso/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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