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1.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361442

RESUMO

The functional assessment of challenging behavior (e.g., self-injurious behavior) has evolved over many years of research and practice. This concise review summarizes the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of common procedural adaptations reported to improve functional assessment safety and efficiency. We conclude with suggestions for clinicians and researchers.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Assuntos
Animais , Lagartos , Paquistão , Filogenia , Variação Genética/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469261

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistans reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469265

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of birds enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469308

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.

8.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 57(1): 131-152, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158227

RESUMO

Behavioral readiness can take the form of communication and self-control skills during challenging situations that are correlated with the development of problem behavior. A skill-based approach can teach behavioral readiness using procedures that involve synthesized reinforcement, probabilistic reinforcement, and contingency-based delays; however, this approach is commonly used to address severe behavior under specific situations. There is limited research evaluating a skill-based approach to teaching behavioral readiness and addressing emerging problem behavior. Also, it is unclear whether teaching effects under specific situations transfer across other, functionally distinct, situations. We evaluated the generality of a skill-based approach by teaching skills systematically across primary challenging situations involving the interruption of play, presentation of instructions, and removal of reinforcers. Teaching increased communication and self-control skills, and most skills transferred to secondary challenging situations (treatment extension probes) and caregiver-implemented sessions. We discuss challenging situations that required teaching, the generality of teaching, and procedural considerations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Autocontrole , Humanos , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Comunicação , Reforço Psicológico
9.
J Circ Biomark ; 12: 34-43, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37744159

RESUMO

Purpose: Due to a lack of effective antiviral treatment, several vaccines have been put forth to curb SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection and to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate by eliciting a protective immune response, primarily through virus-neutralizing antibodies specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This longitudinal study was designed to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness and immune response following the administration of adenoviral vaccine, COVISHIELD, in Indian population who were previously uninfected with SARS-CoV-2 and to reveal the effect of various sociodemographic, inflammatory and biochemical factors on antibody response. Methods: Briefly, the total immunoglobulin G (IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid protein along with the immunological markers were estimated by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) technology. Biochemical parameters were estimated by spectrometry. Results: A total of 348 subjects received two doses of COVISHIELD (224 males, 124 females). The mean age of the study subjects was 42.03 ± 13.54 years. Although both the doses of COVISHIELD against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein induced a robust immune response that lasted for months in all the subjects, the total IgG titer against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was found significantly higher in subjects ≥50 years of age, and those with obesity, elevated triglycerides and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels. Conclusions: There is a definite effect of age and biochemical factors on the immunogenicity of COVISHIELD. An understanding of these factors could not only impact the design of vaccines and help improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy but also assist in decisions on vaccination schedules, in order to combat this deadly pandemic.

10.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5756, 2023 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750442

RESUMO

In this study, an analytical method was developed and validated for the assessment of pesticide residues in commonly consumed vegetables and fruits. Fresh samples of apple, green peas, tomatoes, and cucumbers were processed and subjected to analysis using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction technique. Subsequently, quantification of pesticide residues was conducted utilizing gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector. Extraction and cleanup parameters were meticulously optimized, resulting in a modification of the original QuEChERS method. This modification aimed to reduce solvent consumption, making the study more environmentally friendly. The developed method was validated in terms of selectivity, specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy by following the SANTE guidelines. Calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.99) within the test range. Precision was evaluated by intra- and inter-day experiments with an acceptable relative standard deviation (<20.0%). Recovery was assessed at the limit of quantification level and was observed to fall within the range of 70%-120%, with relative standard deviations below 5.45%. The validated method presented here can be applied to analyze pesticide residues in various other vegetables, fruits, and cereals. It is essential for ongoing monitoring of pesticide residues to ensure public safety.

11.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 37(10): e5705, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37525473

RESUMO

The present study on "acephate persistence on green pea" was conducted in SKUAST-Kashmir. The study aimed to determine the persistence, dissipation kinetics and waiting period of acephate on green pea. Acephate was sprayed at 75% soluble powder (SP) at 560 g a.i.ha-1 at the fruiting stage followed by another application at a 10 day interval. A rapid and accurate method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe, QuEChERS) was used for extraction and the residue was determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection on a CPSIL-8CB capillary column (0.25um film thickness, 0.25 mm i.d, 30 m length). At the fortification levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mg kg-1 , the percentage recovery of acephate on green pea was found in the range of 71-107%. The initial deposit of green pea was estimated to be 0.37 mg kg-1 . At the indicated dose, the residue of acephate on green pea dissipated below the limit of quantification of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 10 days. Acephate degradation was quick in green pea, with a half-life of 4.07 days. For safe eating of green peas, a 10 day waiting period is recommended. The gas chromatography-electron capture detection technique was validated by following the SANTE standards.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cinética , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Elétrons , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Medição de Risco
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 235: 115605, 2023 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37531734

RESUMO

Ion channels and transporters play key roles in various biological processes, including cell proliferation and programmed cell death. Recently, we reported that 2,4-dinitrobenzene-sulfonyl-protected N1,N3-dihexy-2-hydroxyisophthalamide (1) forms ion channels upon activation by glutathione (GSH) and results in the induction of apoptosis by depleting the intracellular GSH reservoir in cancer cells. However, the detailed molecular events leading to the induction of apoptosis by these synthetic transport systems in cancer cells still need to be uncovered. Along these lines, we investigated the alterations in cellular metabolites and the associated metabolic pathways by performing untargeted global metabolic profiling of breast cancer cells - MCF-7 - using 1H NMR-based metabolomics. The evaluation of spectral profiles from MCF-7 cells exposed to 1 and their comparison with those corresponding to untreated (control) cells identified 14 significantly perturbed signature metabolites. These metabolites belonged mostly to antioxidant defence, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and lipid metabolism pathways and included GSH, o-phosphocholine, malate, and aspartate, to name a few. These results would help us gain deeper insights into the molecular mechanism underlying 1-mediated cytotoxicity of MCF-7 cells and eventually help identify potential novel therapeutic targets for more effective cancer management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolômica/métodos , Células MCF-7 , Apoptose , Glutationa/metabolismo
13.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 37(8): e5647, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37052124

RESUMO

A modified quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of selected electronegative pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos-methyl (1), chlorpyrifos (2), quinolphos (3), profenofos (4), myclobutanil (5), ethion (6), fenpropathrin (7), and cypermethrin (8), in vegetables with high water content. The selected compounds and some of their metabolites have even been found in human body fluids. In addition, some of them are known or suspected carcinogens according to the World Health Organization. Extraction and cleanup parameters were optimized; thus, the original QuEChERS method was modified to minimize solvent usage by making the study eco-friendly. The developed method was validated for selectivity, specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy using SANTE guidelines. Calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.99) within the test range. Precision was evaluated by intra- and inter-day experiments with an acceptable range of less than 20.0% of relative standard deviation. Recovery was evaluated at limit of quantification and was found to be in the range of 70-120%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.21%. The proposed method is applicable for detection and monitoring of selected pesticides in one run not only in fruits and vegetables with high water content but also in samples containing large quantities of pigments/dyes.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Elétrons , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Água/análise , Limite de Detecção
14.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 37(8): e5645, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37052130

RESUMO

Herein, we report a novel, accurate and cost-effective validated analytical method for the quantification of losartan potassium and its active metabolite, EXP 3174, in rabbit plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Valsartan was used as an internal standard. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The analytes were extracted in rabbit plasma using liquid-liquid extraction technique and analyzed at 247 nm after separation through a reverse-phase C18 column. The isocratic mobile phase used is a mixture of acetonitrile, water and glacial acetic acid in the ratio of 60:40:1 v/v/v maintained at pH 3.4. All calibration curves showed a good linear relationship (r > 0.995) within the test range. Precision was evaluated by intra- and interday tests with RSDs <1.91% and accuracy showed validated recoveries of 86.20-101.11%. Based on our results, the developed method features good quantification parameters and can serve as an effective quality control method for the standardization of drugs.


Assuntos
Losartan , Animais , Coelhos , Losartan/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Valsartana , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 37(8): e5635, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37002804

RESUMO

This innovative study was carried out to determine the presence of the mineral oil Arbofine in apple and soil at four locations. Arbofine kills the vast majority of dormant insects and mites (mite and asphid eggs, scales and psyllids) on fruit trees (cherry, apple, plum and peach) and thus reduces the plant diseases in summer. In this study, the mineral oil was sprayed at recommended doses of 2.0 and 0.75%, and the doses were doubled to 4.0 and 1.5% in dormant and summer seasons, respectively. The soil samples were taken for observation during the dormant season, whereas both soil and apple samples were taken during the summer season after treatment for 0, 1, 3 and 5 days. The recovery study of all the 11 paraffinic constituents (n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane and n-pentadecane) in soil and apple samples which constitutes 60% of mineral oil in soil and apple was carried out at the fortification level of 1.0 µg/ml, which was found to be between 72.1% and 99.0%. No residue of all the 11 paraffinic compounds of Arbofine mineral oil was detected in soil and apple samples at day 0 after the recommended doses, and the recommended doses were doubled in both seasons at four locations. Therefore, mineral oil can be used on apples without any risk.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/química , Óleo Mineral , Solo/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Frutas/química
16.
Int J Anal Chem ; 2023: 6802782, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36741419

RESUMO

Globally growing demand for agricultural and farm foods has more or less become dependent on chemical pesticides to maintain the supply chain, which undoubtedly boosts agricultural production. However, pesticides not only impact the target pests but cause hazard to human health. Pesticides are ubiquitous and can be found in almost every component of the environment. They can therefore impair human and biota health when present over the threshold level. The present study assessed the concentration of commonly used pesticides for agricultural purposes but get mixed in different sources of water, as such fifteen sampling sites along the upper Jhelum basin of Kashmir valley were chosen. For the analysis, 60 water samples were obtained from different water sources. Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in water samples. Pesticide residues from 10 of the 26 commonly used pesticides were detected in water samples. Difenoconazole had the highest concentration among the pesticides detected, with a mean concentration of 0.412 ± 0.424 µg/L ranging from 0.0 µg/L to 0.8196 µg/L. The target hazards quotient (THQ) was used to quantify the possible noncarcinogenic health risks associated with drinking pesticide-contaminated water. Only chlorpyrifos and quinalphos were detected >1 in RWS3 (1.6571), RWS4 (1.0285), RWS14 (1.2571), and RWS15 (1.2000) sample sites, implying that the drinking water poses a health risk to humans. Hence, pesticide hazards should be mitigated and rigorous monitoring is needed to reduce pesticide residues in drinking water.

17.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 56(2): 302-322, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717983

RESUMO

Ecological validity refers to how closely an experiment aligns with real-world phenomena. In applied behavioral research, ecological validity may guide decisions about experimental settings, stimuli, people, and other design features. However, inconsistent use of the term ecological validity in the published literature has led to a somewhat disjointed technology. The purposes of this paper were to review current uses of the term "ecological validity" in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, propose ways to make a study more ecologically valid, and develop a checklist to assist in identifying the type and degree of ecological validity in any given study.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos
18.
Environ Res ; 219: 114997, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529326

RESUMO

Heavy metal toxicity affects aquatic plants and animals, disturbing biodiversity and ecological balance causing bioaccumulation of heavy metals. Industrialization and urbanization are inevitable in modern-day life, and control and detoxification methods need to be accorded to meet the hazardous environment. Microorganisms and plants have been widely used in the bioremediation of heavy metals. Sporosarcina pasteurii, a gram-positive bacterium that is widely known for its calcite precipitation property in bio-cementing applications has been explored in the study for its metal tolerance ability for the first time. S. pasteurii SRMNP1 (KF214757) can tolerate silver stress to form nanoparticles and can remediate multiple heavy metals to promote the growth of various plants. This astounding property of the isolate warranted extensive examinations to comprehend the physiological changes during an external heavy metal stress condition. The present study aimed to understand various physiological responses occurring in S. pasteuriiSRMNP1 during the metal tolerance phenomenon using electron microscopy. The isolate was subjected to heavy metal stress, and a transmission electron microscope examination was used to analyze the physiological changes in bacteria to evade the metal stress. S. pasteurii SRMNP1 was tolerant against a wide range of heavy metal ions and can withstand a broad pH range (5-9). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) examination of S. pasteurii SRMNP1 followed by 5 mM nickel sulfate treatment revealed the presence of nanovesicles encapsulating nanosized particles in intra and extracellular spaces. This suggests that the bacteria evade the metal stress by converting the metal ions into nanosized particles and encapsulating them within nanovesicles to efflux them through the vesicle budding mechanism. Moreover, the TEM images revealed an excessive secretion of extracellular polymeric substances by the strain to discharge the metal particles outside the bacterial system. S. pasteurii can be foreseen as an effective bioremediation agent with the potential to produce nanosized particles, nanovesicles, and extracellular polymeric substances. This study provides physiological evidence that, besides calcium precipitation applications, S. pasteurii can further be explored for its multidimensional roles in the fields of drug delivery and environmental engineering.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Solo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/química , Prata , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bactérias , Íons , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246322, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285614

RESUMO

Abstract A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Resumo Um total de 10 espécimes foi capturado em locais selecionados da Bajaur Agency FATA, Paquistão, usando redes de neblina. Os espécimes capturados foram identificados morfologicamente e várias medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento da cabeça e do corpo (HB) de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n = 10) foi de 43 ± 0,11 mm e 45 ± 1,1, respectivamente. Pipistrellus kuhlii identificado morfologicamente e confirmado como Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus com base em sequências de rRNA 16S. As sequências de DNA foram submetidas ao GenBank e os números de acesso foram obtidos (MN 719478 e MT430902). As sequências do gene 16S rRNA disponíveis de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram recuperadas do NCBI e incorporadas na análise da árvore N-J. No geral, as variações genéticas interespecíficas entre Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram de 8% e 1%, respectivamente. Em nossa recomendação, uma identificação molecular abrangente de morcegos precisa de uma hora para relatar mais espécies crípticas e novas do Paquistão.


Assuntos
Animais , Quirópteros/genética , Paquistão , RNA Ribossômico 16S
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Mel , Abelhas , Carboidratos
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