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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244966, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360197

RESUMO

Abstract Dengue fever (DF) is increasingly recognized as one of the world's major mosquito borne diseases and causes significant morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue fever is endemic in most part of Pakistan and continues to be a public health concern. Knowledge, attitude and practices can play an important role in management of the disease. Current study was aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding dengue fever among health practitioners, to study the level of knowledge and attitude with preventive practices for dengue fever. A cross sectional study was carried out in medical practitioners of the four districts of Malakand region during October to November 2019. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from medical practitioners. Data was analyzed using Graph Pad version 5. Significant value was considered when less than 0.05 (at 95% confidence of interval). The results revealed that most of participants have seen dengue vector (62%), the media being the most quoted source of information. Nearly 81.2% participants were aware from transmission of dengue fever is by mosquito bite. Practices based upon preventive measures were found to be predominantly focused towards prevention of mosquito bites rather than elimination of breeding places. Although the knowledge regarding DF and mosquito control measure was quite high among the medical practitioners but this knowledge was not put into practice. Further studies are required to aware the people about dengue and its vector in order to get prevention and control.


Resumo A dengue (DF) é cada vez mais reconhecida como uma das principais doenças transmitidas por mosquitos do mundo e causa significativa morbidade e mortalidade em países tropicais e subtropicais. A dengue é endêmica na maior parte do Paquistão e continua a ser um problema de saúde pública. Conhecimento, atitude e práticas podem desempenhar papel importante no manejo da doença. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o nível de conhecimento, atitude e práticas em relação à dengue entre os profissionais de saúde, para estudar o nível de conhecimento e atitude com as práticas preventivas da dengue. Um estudo transversal foi realizado com médicos dos quatro distritos da região de Malakand de outubro a novembro de 2019. Um questionário pré-estruturado foi usado para coletar dados de médicos. Os dados foram analisados no Graph Pad versão 5. Valor significativo foi considerado quando menor que 0,05 (com intervalo de confiança de 95%). Os resultados revelaram que a maioria dos participantes já viu o vetor da dengue (62%), sendo a mídia a fonte de informação mais citada. Quase 81,2% dos participantes sabiam que a transmissão da dengue é por picada de mosquito. Constatou-se que as práticas baseadas em medidas preventivas se concentravam predominantemente na prevenção de picadas de mosquitos, e não na eliminação de criadouros. Embora o conhecimento sobre DF e medidas de controle de mosquitos fosse bastante elevado entre os médicos, esse conhecimento não foi colocado em prática. Mais estudos são necessários para conscientizar a população sobre a dengue e seu vetor, a fim de se obter prevenção e controle.

2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 281-288, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383739

RESUMO

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is the most severe form of protein energy malnutrition (PEM). Few studies found serum electrolyte, serum calcium level changes as important factors of poor outcome. Hypoglycemia is already established as a risk factor for death in severe acute malnutrition. Edema, diarrhea and vomiting are commonly present in severe acute malnutrition which has impact on electrolyte balance and blood sugar level in healthy children. Their impact in severe acute malnutrition is not clearly established. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Pediatrics, MMCH from March 2018 to October 2019 to estimate serum electrolyte, serum calcium and random blood sugar level in severe acute malnutrition and their relationship with edema, vomiting and diarrhea. Forty-one (41) cases of SAM were enrolled in this study. Test samples were collected before starting the treatment. Case record form was used to collect information. Cases were divided into Group A and Group B based on the presence or absence of vomiting or diarrhea, respectively. Again, all cases were divided into Group C and Group D based on presence or absence of edema, respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics version 23. Mean age was 9.71±10.4 months with 85.36% having age less than 1 year. Twenty-four (58.5%) were male and 17(41.5%) were female. Parents had low level of education with 48.8% mother and 51.2% father having primary education or no education. Higher number of serum electrolyte, serum calcium and blood sugar were found with hyperglycemia present in 29.3%, hypocalcemia in 22%, hypokalemia in 22% and hyponatremia in 19.5% cases. Hypokalemia was present more in SAM with vomiting or diarrhea (p=0.008). Other disturbances do not vary on presence or absence of edema and vomiting or diarrhea. Result of the present study shows hypokalemia is associated with SAM with vomiting/diarrhea. Hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia and hypernatremia were also present in high number. These changes should be detected early and treated accordingly.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Desnutrição Aguda Grave , Glicemia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/etiologia , Edema/complicações , Eletrólitos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Vômito/etiologia
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 333-336, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383746

RESUMO

Recent COVID-19 pandemic has changed health resource disposal plan and urged relocation of work force to defend the world from devastation of this emerging disease. This cross-sectional observational study aims to categorize and rationalize COVID-19 testing of all patients attending flu corner of One Stop Service (OSS) in the department of Emergency and Casualty (E&C) in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) during 15th April 2021 to 14th May 2021 on 2627 patients as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Out of 2627 patients 920(35%) were symptomatic cases and 1707(65%) attended for testing without symptom. Out of 920 symptomatic cases 175(19%) were confirmed COVID-19 cases. Among the confirmed cases 38(21.71%) was admitted whereas, from suspected cases 100(13.42%) got admitted, remaining patients from both categories were advised for home isolation. Coverage and justification of COVID-19 testing should be done precisely to ensure proper disease control and COVID care during this pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137836

RESUMO

Dengue fever (DF) is increasingly recognized as one of the world's major mosquito borne diseases and causes significant morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue fever is endemic in most part of Pakistan and continues to be a public health concern. Knowledge, attitude and practices can play an important role in management of the disease. Current study was aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding dengue fever among health practitioners, to study the level of knowledge and attitude with preventive practices for dengue fever. A cross sectional study was carried out in medical practitioners of the four districts of Malakand region during October to November 2019. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from medical practitioners. Data was analyzed using Graph Pad version 5. Significant value was considered when less than 0.05 (at 95% confidence of interval). The results revealed that most of participants have seen dengue vector (62%), the media being the most quoted source of information. Nearly 81.2% participants were aware from transmission of dengue fever is by mosquito bite. Practices based upon preventive measures were found to be predominantly focused towards prevention of mosquito bites rather than elimination of breeding places. Although the knowledge regarding DF and mosquito control measure was quite high among the medical practitioners but this knowledge was not put into practice. Further studies are required to aware the people about dengue and its vector in order to get prevention and control.


Assuntos
Dengue , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005986

RESUMO

This study dealt with the development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol of Tor tor. Sperm was collected from hormone-induced males and the concentration and pH of sperm were estimated as 4.3 ± 0.1 × 1010 cells/mL and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively. Activation of sperm motility was evaluated in different osmolalities of NaCl solution where motility of sperm decreased with increasing osmolality of extenders, and was completely inhibited at 319 mOsmol/kg. Similarly, the swimming duration of activated sperm was affected as the osmolality of the extender increased. The duration of initial motility of sperm was recorded as 8.4 ± 0.4 minutes at 48 mOsmol/kg, while the highest motility was recorded as 68.0 ± 7.2 minutes at 128 mOsmol/kg. To evaluate the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sperm was incubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol at 5%, 10%, and 15% concentrations, respectively, for 5-45 minutes. Alsever's solution with 5% and 10% DMSO produced better motility during 5-10 minutes of incubation and 15% DMSO seemed toxic to sperm. For the cryopreservation of sperm, Alsever's solution, egg yolk citrate, and urea egg yolk were used as extenders with DMSO and methanol. Alsever's solution with 10% DMSO provided the highest equilibration (90.0% ± 3.5%) and post-thaw (80.0% ± 3.5%) motility followed by that of 87.0% ± 2.0% and 79.0% ± 1.9% with egg yolk citrate plus DMSO, and 82.0% ± 2.6% and 78.0% ± 2.0% with urea egg yolk plus DMSO, respectively. The sperm cryopreservation protocol developed through this study can be applied for long-term preservation of genetic materials of the critically endangered T. tor, and eventually, it will be an effective tool for protecting them from extinction.

6.
J Theor Biol ; 536: 110997, 2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990640

RESUMO

Model-aided understanding of the mechanism of vegetation patterns and desertification is one of the burning issues in the management of sustainable ecosystems. A pioneering model of vegetation patterns was proposed by C. A. Klausmeier in 1999 (Klausmeier, 1999) that involves a downhill flow of water. In this paper, we study the diffusive Klausmeier model that can describe the flow of water in flat terrain incorporating a diffusive flow of water. It consists of a two-component reaction-diffusion system for water and plant biomass. The paper presents a numerical bifurcation analysis of stationary solutions of the diffusive Klausmeier model extensively. We numerically investigate the occurrence of diffusion-driven instability and how this depends on the parameters of the model. Finally, the model predicts some field observed vegetation patterns in a semiarid environment, e.g. spot, stripe (labyrinth), and gap patterns in the transitions from bare soil at low precipitation to homogeneous vegetation at high precipitation. Furthermore, we introduce a two-component reaction-diffusion model considering a bilinear interaction of plant and water instead of their cubic interaction. It is inspected that no diffusion-driven instability occurs as if vegetation patterns can be generated. This confirms that the diffusive Klausmeier model is the minimal reaction-diffusion model for the occurrence of vegetation patterns from the viewpoint of a two-component reaction-diffusion system.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Biomassa , Difusão , Modelos Biológicos
7.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-10, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-33392

RESUMO

Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.(AU)


Os vegetais crus são a principal fonte de transmissão de formas infecciosas de parasitas internos patogênicos entre os seres humanos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada de abril a outubro de 2017 para avaliar a contaminação parasitária de vegetais vendidos nos principais mercados de vegetais nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, Paquistão. Oitocentos exemplares de diferentes vegetais foram adquiridos e embebidos em solução salina fisiológica, agitados em agitador mecânico por 20 minutos e processados pelo método de concentração por sedimentação. Os resultados revelaram que apenas 19,7% (n = 158/800) das hortaliças estavam contaminadas com uma ou várias espécies de parasitas. Ascaris lumbricoides (o verme redondo grande) 12,3% (n = 99/800) foi o patógeno mais comumente detectado e Taenia saginata (a tênia da carne) 1,62% (n = 13/800) foi o menos freqüentemente detectado. Curiosamente, valor de p significativo (p> 0,05 em IC de 95%) entre o número de examinados e contaminados para todas as variáveis estudadas incluindo escolaridade dos vendedores, localização dos mercados, tipo de vegetais, meios de exposição, lavado antes da exposição, fonte de lavagem de água e tipo de mercado. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que o consumo de vegetais crus possui grande risco de contrair infecções parasitárias nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, no Paquistão. Instruir os vendedores e o público sobre a transferência de doenças parasitárias e sua higiene pode reduzir a taxa de infecção de parasitas de origem humana.(AU)


Assuntos
Plantas/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidade , Taenia saginata/patogenicidade , Helmintos
8.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-8, 2022. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-33386

RESUMO

Present study was conducted among school children to recognize the prevalence of IPIs in rural communities of district Dir Lower, Pakistan. A sum of 324 samples of stool were collected (210 boys and 114 girls). Used direct smear method and formol ether sedimentation concentration technique for processing the samples. The result shows that 82% (n=266) were found infected comprised 64.8% male and 35.1% females. Children of the age group 10 to 12 years were found extremely infected 94.2% while 4-6 year age group were having minimum ratio of infection 72%. Current study shows mono parasitism in 50.6% of the students while 22.2% were infected with 2 species and 7.40% were infected with three species of parasites. Seven species of intestinal parasites were reported include Ascaris lumbricoid in male (n=122) 58.0% and in female (n=65) 57.0% followed by Hook worm (n=88) 41.9% and (n=44) 38.5%; Tania saginata (n=44) 20.9% and (n=24) 21.0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n=32) 15.2% and (n=16) 14.0%; Trichuris trichura (n=25) 11.9% and (n=22) 19.2%; Hymenolepis nana (n=24) 11.4% and (n=18) 15.7% and Entameoba histolytica (n=16) 7.61% and (n=14) 12.2% in male and females respectively. The study indicates that most occurring intestinal parasite in the current study were Ascaris lumbricoides 58.0% (n=122) followed by hookworms 41.9% (n=88). Male students were more infected than females in the present study.(AU)


O presente estudo foi conduzido entre crianças em idade escolar para reconhecer a prevalência de IPIs em comunidades rurais do distrito de Dir Lower, Paquistão. Foram coletadas 324 amostras de fezes (210 meninos e 114 meninas). Método de esfregaço direto usado e técnica de concentração de sedimentação de formol éter para processar as amostras. O resultado mostra que 82% (n = 266) dos infectados eram 64,8% do sexo masculino e 35,1% do feminino. Crianças da faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos foram encontradas extremamente infectadas 94,2%, enquanto a faixa etária de 4 a 6 anos apresentava proporção mínima de infecção de 72%. O estudo atual mostra monoparasitismo em 50,6% dos alunos, enquanto 22,2% estavam infectados com 2 espécies e 7,40% estavam infectados com três espécies de parasitas. Sete espécies de parasitas intestinais foram relatadas incluindo Ascaris lumbricoid em machos (n = 122) 58,0% e em fêmeas (n = 65) 57,0% seguido por anzol (n = 88) 41,9% e (n = 44) 38,5%; Tania saginata (n = 44) 20,9% e (n = 24) 21,0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n = 32) 15,2% e (n = 16) 14,0%; Trichuris trichura (n = 25) 11,9% e (n = 22) 19,2%; Hymenolepis nana (n = 24) 11,4% e (n = 18) 15,7% e Entameoba histolytica (n = 16) 7,61% e (n = 14) 12,2% em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. O estudo indica que os parasitas intestinais que mais ocorreram no presente estudo foram Ascaris lumbricoides 58,0% (n = 122), seguidos por ancilóstomos 41,9% (n = 88). Estudantes do sexo masculino foram mais infectados do que do sexo feminino no presente estudo.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Ascaris , Taenia saginata , Trichuris , Hymenolepis , Entamoeba
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242614, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350297

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Resumo Os vegetais crus são a principal fonte de transmissão de formas infecciosas de parasitas internos patogênicos entre os seres humanos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada de abril a outubro de 2017 para avaliar a contaminação parasitária de vegetais vendidos nos principais mercados de vegetais nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, Paquistão. Oitocentos exemplares de diferentes vegetais foram adquiridos e embebidos em solução salina fisiológica, agitados em agitador mecânico por 20 minutos e processados ​​pelo método de concentração por sedimentação. Os resultados revelaram que apenas 19,7% (n = 158/800) das hortaliças estavam contaminadas com uma ou várias espécies de parasitas. Ascaris lumbricoides (o verme redondo grande) 12,3% (n = 99/800) foi o patógeno mais comumente detectado e Taenia saginata (a tênia da carne) 1,62% (n = 13/800) foi o menos freqüentemente detectado. Curiosamente, valor de p significativo (p> 0,05 em IC de 95%) entre o número de examinados e contaminados para todas as variáveis ​​estudadas incluindo escolaridade dos vendedores, localização dos mercados, tipo de vegetais, meios de exposição, lavado antes da exposição, fonte de lavagem de água e tipo de mercado. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que o consumo de vegetais crus possui grande risco de contrair infecções parasitárias nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, no Paquistão. Instruir os vendedores e o público sobre a transferência de doenças parasitárias e sua higiene pode reduzir a taxa de infecção de parasitas de origem humana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Parasitos , Verduras/parasitologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nematoides , Paquistão , Saúde Pública , Parasitologia de Alimentos
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243150, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339334

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted among school children to recognize the prevalence of IPIs in rural communities of district Dir Lower, Pakistan. A sum of 324 samples of stool were collected (210 boys and 114 girls). Used direct smear method and formol ether sedimentation concentration technique for processing the samples. The result shows that 82% (n=266) were found infected comprised 64.8% male and 35.1% females. Children of the age group 10 to 12 years were found extremely infected 94.2% while 4-6 year age group were having minimum ratio of infection 72%. Current study shows mono parasitism in 50.6% of the students while 22.2% were infected with 2 species and 7.40% were infected with three species of parasites. Seven species of intestinal parasites were reported include Ascaris lumbricoid in male (n=122) 58.0% and in female (n=65) 57.0% followed by Hook worm (n=88) 41.9% and (n=44) 38.5%; Tania saginata (n=44) 20.9% and (n=24) 21.0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n=32) 15.2% and (n=16) 14.0%; Trichuris trichura (n=25) 11.9% and (n=22) 19.2%; Hymenolepis nana (n=24) 11.4% and (n=18) 15.7% and Entameoba histolytica (n=16) 7.61% and (n=14) 12.2% in male and females respectively. The study indicates that most occurring intestinal parasite in the current study were Ascaris lumbricoides 58.0% (n=122) followed by hookworms 41.9% (n=88). Male students were more infected than females in the present study.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido entre crianças em idade escolar para reconhecer a prevalência de IPIs em comunidades rurais do distrito de Dir Lower, Paquistão. Foram coletadas 324 amostras de fezes (210 meninos e 114 meninas). Método de esfregaço direto usado e técnica de concentração de sedimentação de formol éter para processar as amostras. O resultado mostra que 82% (n = 266) dos infectados eram 64,8% do sexo masculino e 35,1% do feminino. Crianças da faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos foram encontradas extremamente infectadas 94,2%, enquanto a faixa etária de 4 a 6 anos apresentava proporção mínima de infecção de 72%. O estudo atual mostra monoparasitismo em 50,6% dos alunos, enquanto 22,2% estavam infectados com 2 espécies e 7,40% estavam infectados com três espécies de parasitas. Sete espécies de parasitas intestinais foram relatadas incluindo Ascaris lumbricoid em machos (n = 122) 58,0% e em fêmeas (n = 65) 57,0% seguido por anzol (n = 88) 41,9% e (n = 44) 38,5%; Tania saginata (n = 44) 20,9% e (n = 24) 21,0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n = 32) 15,2% e (n = 16) 14,0%; Trichuris trichura (n = 25) 11,9% e (n = 22) 19,2%; Hymenolepis nana (n = 24) 11,4% e (n = 18) 15,7% e Entameoba histolytica (n = 16) 7,61% e (n = 14) 12,2% em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. O estudo indica que os parasitas intestinais que mais ocorreram no presente estudo foram Ascaris lumbricoides 58,0% (n = 122), seguidos por ancilóstomos 41,9% (n = 88). Estudantes do sexo masculino foram mais infectados do que do sexo feminino no presente estudo.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Parasitos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Prevalência , Fezes
11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816974

RESUMO

Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Nematoides , Parasitos , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Paquistão , Saúde Pública
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1183-1186, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605495

RESUMO

Self-inflicted wound can present with various scenarios. It is well known that the purpose of a self-inflicted wound is to avoid obligatory duties. During war, soldiers get self-inflicted wounds to seek medical leave in the hope to save their lives from deadly battle. Self-induced pneumomediastinum from oral lesion with valsalva maneuver was a rare practice among prisoners to get rid of that imprisoned life and to stay in the hospital. Self-inflicted wound is also commonly seen in patient with psychosomatic disorders. It relates observations from forensic medicine and psychiatry to specific clinical symptoms, toxicological circumstances and social influences e.g. stress incurred by everyday life, war, imprisonment etc. In particular cases, it clears up criminal and civil jurisdiction. It also gives importance to private insurers about cases of self-mutilation. There is also concern about insurers, forensic scientists and psychiatrist about their responsibilities and the procedure they follow in the examination, their jurisdiction and the treatment involving the cases of self-inflected injuries. To our knowledge, self-inflicted subcutaneous emphysema causing pneumomediastinum by a normal young boy out of curiosity and without any apparent ill motive, is an unusual finding and possibly no such case report was published before.


Assuntos
Enfisema Mediastínico , Automutilação , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia
13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243150, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644727

RESUMO

Present study was conducted among school children to recognize the prevalence of IPIs in rural communities of district Dir Lower, Pakistan. A sum of 324 samples of stool were collected (210 boys and 114 girls). Used direct smear method and formol ether sedimentation concentration technique for processing the samples. The result shows that 82% (n=266) were found infected comprised 64.8% male and 35.1% females. Children of the age group 10 to 12 years were found extremely infected 94.2% while 4-6 year age group were having minimum ratio of infection 72%. Current study shows mono parasitism in 50.6% of the students while 22.2% were infected with 2 species and 7.40% were infected with three species of parasites. Seven species of intestinal parasites were reported include Ascaris lumbricoid in male (n=122) 58.0% and in female (n=65) 57.0% followed by Hook worm (n=88) 41.9% and (n=44) 38.5%; Tania saginata (n=44) 20.9% and (n=24) 21.0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n=32) 15.2% and (n=16) 14.0%; Trichuris trichura (n=25) 11.9% and (n=22) 19.2%; Hymenolepis nana (n=24) 11.4% and (n=18) 15.7% and Entameoba histolytica (n=16) 7.61% and (n=14) 12.2% in male and females respectively. The study indicates that most occurring intestinal parasite in the current study were Ascaris lumbricoides 58.0% (n=122) followed by hookworms 41.9% (n=88). Male students were more infected than females in the present study.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Criança , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
Iran J Microbiol ; 13(4): 525-536, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Monosomy of chromosome 5 associated with utilization of non-canonical sugar L-sorbose is one of the well-studied aneuploidies in Candida albicans. Stress-induced ploidy changes are crucial determinants for pathogenicity and genetic diversity in C. albicans. The five scattered regulatory regions (A, B, C, 135, and 139) comprising of two functionally redundant pathways (SUR1 and SUR2) were found to be responsible for the growth on L-sorbose. So far, three genes such as CSU51, CSU53 and CSU57 have been identified in region A, region 135 and region C, respectively. In this study we have verified the role of region B in this regulatory pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed a combinatorial gene deletion approach to verify the role of region B followed by co-over expression studies and qRT-PCR to identify the regulatory role of this region. RESULTS: We confirmed the role of region B in the regulation of SOU1 gene expression. The qRT-PCR results showed that regulation occurs at transcriptional level along with other two regions in SUR1 pathway. A previously uncharacterized open reading frame in region B has been implicated in this regulation and designated as CSU52. Integrating multiple copies of CSU52 in the genome at tandem, suppresses the growth of recipient strain on L-sorbose, establishing it as a repressor of SOU1 gene. CONCLUSION: This finding completes the identification of regulators in SUR1 pathway. This result paves the way to study the underlying molecular mechanisms of SOU1 gene regulation that in-turn helps to understand stress induced aneuploidy.

15.
MicroPubl Biol ; 20212021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377964

RESUMO

CCT (Chaperonin containing TCP-1) is a constitutively expressed eukaryotic chaperonin complex involved in the proper folding of proteins like actin and tubulin. Temperature sensitive mutants of CCT complex have been employed in various genetic screens, acting as models to study human CCT, the defects of which are implicated in disease conditions like neurodegeneration. Mutants of CCT complex are sensitive to cell wall stress agents. In this study, we have tested the effects of sorbitol and protein kinase C overexpression on the temperature sensitivity of cct mutants. We report that both the factors alleviated temperature sensitivity of cct mutants, indicating the possible role of CCT in maintaining cell wall integrity in S. cerevisiae.

16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363589

RESUMO

Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was used in this present research to identify the elements present in selected vegetable samples to show the possible influence in the metal absorption by the vegetables grown in a saline region of Rampal area of Munshiganj District, Bangladesh. The data acquisition setup is calibrated using a 2.5-MeV proton beam in the current ranges of 5nA to 15nA. The detector was used to measure the X-rays emitted during the irradiation. Data acquisition system MAESTRO-32 was used to measure the spectrum picks, and concentration calculation has been done by GUPIX/DAN-32 software. The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of heavy and trace elements in these samples and to give current information on their safety for consumption. The result shows that K, Ca, and Fe have the highest concentrations, while lead exhibits the lowest but alarming rates compared to reference materials. The findings were likened to IAEA-V-10, IAEA-359, SRM 1515 (apple leaf), and SRM 1573a (tomato leaf). The outcomes of the present investigation demonstrate that these samples are not devoid of health risks in intake.

17.
Int J Vet Sci Med ; 9(1): 22-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277842

RESUMO

To evaluate the odour reduction potential of four different bacterial species such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Acetobacter tropicalis, and Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis that were isolated from fresh faeces of pigs and identified based on16S rDNA gene sequence analyses. Faecal slurry in anaerobic salt medium with 1% soluble starch (which was served as control group) and the addition of four different isolated bacterial cultures (1.0 × 107CFU/mL), designated as M1, M2, M3, and M4, respectively, were incubated anaerobically for 12 and 24 h. Total gas production was increased with the incubation period (p < 0.05). M1 and M4 had decreased pattern (p < 0.05) of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide gas from 12 to 24 h. The lowest total volatile fatty acids (p < 0.05), highest lactate, and moderate butyrate concentration was observed in the M1 group at 24 h of incubation. Likewise, M1 group had the lowest total biogenic amine, histamine, ethylamine, putrescine, methylamine, and cadaverine compared to the other groups (p < 0.05) at 24 h of incubation. Overall results suggest that E. faecium can be used as a potent odour reducer in pigs production.

18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 789-795, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226469

RESUMO

Curriculum is the road map of any course and an instrument for developing the competencies of the human resources. The MBBS curriculum in our country was last updated in 2012 during the period of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since then it has been under implementation in different government, non-government and Army medical colleges in association with different universities. "Health Professional for a New Century" now asks for a transformation of the education to strengthen the health systems for meeting the challenges of the 21st century. Curriculum reform is an important issue in transformative education and need assessment is the first and essential task to review and update any curriculum. The objective of the study was to assess the need to review and update the MBBS curriculum 2012 of Bangladesh. Review and updating of MBBS curriculum was organized by Centre for Medical Education (CME) and supported by World Health Organization (WHO). CME, DGHS, Dean offices, MOH&FW, BM&DC and all the government and non-government medical colleges were involved in this activity. Duration of study was 7 months from April 2019 to October 2019. Data were collected from academic councils of 102 medical colleges through structured questionnaire and through FGD with teachers and interns. Around 90(88.2%) academic councils agreed and 12(12%) disagreed about the appropriateness of existing four phases of MBBS curriculum. About 80(84.2%) academic councils agreed with 1.5 years duration of Phase I, 84(88.4%) agreed with one year duration of Phase II, 84(94.4%) agreed with one year duration of Phase III and 77(84.6%) agreed with 1.5 years duration of Phase IV. The study suggested the subjects for 2nd phase are, Pharmacology 74(84.1%), Pathology 53(60.3%), Forensic Medicine 46(52.3%), and for 3rd phase are Community Medicine 60(69.8%), Microbiology 54(62.8%). The study revealed that the subjects of overloaded contents are, Anatomy - 24(50%), Community Medicine - 35(72.9%) and Pathology - 19(39.6%). The study suggested incorporation of organized teaching-learning for behavioral science, communication skills, ethics and development of attitude by most of the academic councils. The study suggested that the increased duration of ambulatory care (outdoor/emergency) teaching. The study revealed around 84(83.2%) academic councils recommended that Single Best Answer (SBA) type of questions should be included in MCQ part for all subjects along with multiple true-false response and around 82(81.2%) academic councils recommended that Structured Essay Question (SEQ) should be included in written part along with Short Answer Question (SAQ). The study revealed that 58(58.6%) academic councils recommended that carry-on system should not be in Phase I and 53(53.5%) academic councils opined to introduce grading system in MBBS course. Most of the academic councils agreed about the appropriateness of existing four phases of MBBS curriculum. The subjects for 2nd phase are, Pharmacology - 84.1%, Pathology - 60.3%, Forensic Medicine - 52.3%, and for 3rd phase are Community Medicine - 69.8%, Microbiology - 62.8%. Most of the participants are in favour of the present curriculum components, grading system for assessment but not the carry-on system in Phase I. The study recommended for national level consultations involving the concerned persons for finalization of the MBBS curriculum.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica , Bangladesh , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 19(1): 92, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen responsible for superficial and systemic life-threatening infections. Treating these infections is challenging as many clinical isolates show increased drug resistance to antifungals. Chromosome (Chr) 4 monosomy was implicated in a fluconazole-resistant mutant. However, exposure to fluconazole adversely affects Candida cells and can generate numerous mutations. Hence, the present study aimed to truncate Chr4 and challenge the generated Candida strains to antifungals and evaluate their role in drug response. RESULTS: Herein, Chr4 was truncated in C. albicans using the telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation method. The resulting eight Candida strains carrying one truncated homolog of Chr4 were tested for response to multiple antifungals. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for these strains was determined against three classes of antifungals. The MIC values against fluconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin were closer to that of the wild type strain. Microdilution assay against fluconazole showed that the mutants and wild type strains had similar sensitivity to fluconazole. The disc diffusion assay against five azoles and two polyenes revealed that the zones of inhibition for all the eight strains were similar to those of the wild type. Thus, none of the generated strains showed any significant resistance to the tested antifungals. However, spot assay exhibited a reasonably high tolerance of a few generated strains with increasing concentrations of fluconazole. CONCLUSION: This analysis suggested that Chr4 aneuploidy might not underlie drug resistance but rather drug tolerance in Candida albicans.

20.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(9): 1735-1745, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of the mutation in conserved G412E in Cct7p subunit of CCT complex on its cellular fate. RESULTS: TriC/CCT is a dynamic multimeric protein that assists in protein folding in an energy-dependent manner. A point mutation in the ATP binding pocket in the equatorial domain of the Cct7p subunit delays the doubling time. The cell size was twice the wild type, and the formation of protein aggregates suggests disturbed folding of the proteins. Upon growing in stressful conditions of arsenous acid and cadmium chloride, the mutant was lethal in As3+ but grew well in Cd2+ with 10.5 µg cadmium uptake mg-1 compared to the wild type. The increased expression of vacuole transporters YCF1 and BPT1 by ten-fold and two-fold in mutant indicates the metal transportation to the vacuole. CONCLUSION: CCT complex was vulnerable to the mutation in G412E in the Cct7p subunit of protein folding molecular machinery. Interestingly, already stressed cells provided robustness against oxidative stress and cadmium sequestration in the vacuole.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Cloreto de Cádmio/farmacologia , Chaperoninas/genética , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arsenitos/farmacologia , Arsenitos/uso terapêutico , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Chaperoninas/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
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