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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339367

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238874, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249231

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p<0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p<0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p=< 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 ​​espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p <0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p <0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = <0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no ​​intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762575

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formolether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P 0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P 0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762574

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p 0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p 0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p= 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p 0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p 0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = 0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762572

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762073

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 1067-1072, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605478

RESUMO

The timing of milestone is influenced by many factors. Sex and socioeconomic status has significant effect to some psycomotor milestones. The study was conducted to determine the pattern of milestones of development of infants in our country and to compare it in different sex and socioeconomic condition. It was a hospital based prospective study done in Sir Sallimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October 2014 to November 2015. Healthy term newborn infants with average birth weight were included in this study and milestones of this birth cohort were assessed monthly from birth to 12 months of age by using a set of 60 milestones. Total number of 217 babies was enrolled but during follow up 0.9% developed meningitis, 43.7% was lost to follow up and 55.2% of the cohort was followed up to 12 months of age. Among 120 babies 51.7% were male, 48.3% were female babies and 51.7% belong to lower, 32.5% middle and 15.8% upper socioeconomic group. There was no significant difference between male and female infants achieving most of the milestones of development except in language development in which female infants were little bit higher than male infants.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Classe Social , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 66(6): 897-916, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699042

RESUMO

Recent advancement in manipulation techniques of gut microbiota either ex vivo or in situ has broadened its plausible applicability for treating various diseases including cardiovascular disease. Several reports suggested that altering gut microbiota composition is an effective way to deal with issues associated with managing cardiovascular diseases. However, actual translation of gut microbiota manipulation-based techniques into cardiovascular-therapeutic approach is still questionable. This review summarized the evidence on challenges, opportunities, recent development, and future prospects of gut microbiota manipulation for targeting cardiovascular diseases. Initially, issues associated with current cardiovascular diseases treatment strategy, association of gut microbiota with cardiovascular disease, and its influence on cardiovascular drugs were discussed, followed by applicability of gut microbiota manipulation as a cardiovascular disease intervention strategy along with its challenges and future prospects. Despite the fact that the gut microbiota is rugged, interventions like probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, fecal virome transplantation, antibiotics, diet changes, and exercises could manipulate it. Advanced techniques like administration of engineered bacteriophages and bacteria could also be employed. Intensive exploration revealed that if sufficiently controlled approach and proper monitoring were applied, gut microbiota could provide a compelling answer for cardiovascular therapy.

12.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; : e2100258, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467546

RESUMO

Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) with small inhibitor molecules has been validated as a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer therapy. Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine is a versatile scaffold that has been exploited for developing potential anticancer agents. On the basis of fragment-based drug discovery, considering the essential pharmacophoric features of potent EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors, herein, we report the design and synthesis of new hybrid molecules of the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine scaffold linked with diverse pharmacophoric fragments with reported anticancer potential. These fragments include hydrazone, indoline-2-one, phthalimide, thiourea, oxadiazole, pyrazole, and dihydropyrazole. The synthesized molecules were evaluated for their anticancer activity against the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. The obtained results revealed comparable antitumor activity with that of the reference drugs doxorubicin and toceranib. Docking studies were performed along with EGFR-TK and ADMET profiling studies. The results of the docking studies showed the ability of the designed compounds to interact with key residues of the EGFR-TK through a number of covalent and noncovalent interactions. The obtained activity of compound 25 (IC50 = 2.89 µM) suggested that it may serve as a lead for further optimization and drug development.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495163

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Caramujos
14.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(10): 1245-1258, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465900

RESUMO

Respiratory failure is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. There are no validated lower airway biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections were associated with poor clinical outcome of COVID-19 in a prospective, observational cohort of 589 critically ill adults, all of whom required mechanical ventilation. For a subset of 142 patients who underwent bronchoscopy, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analysed the lower respiratory tract microbiome using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics and profiled the host immune response. Acquisition of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. Poor clinical outcome was associated with lower airway enrichment with an oral commensal (Mycoplasma salivarium). Increased SARS-CoV-2 abundance, low anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and a distinct host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Our data provide evidence that secondary respiratory infections do not drive mortality in COVID-19 and clinical management strategies should prioritize reducing viral replication and maximizing host responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Carga Viral
15.
Front Chem ; 9: 694870, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458233

RESUMO

A series of bis-thiazoles 5a-g were synthesized from bis-thiosemicarbazone 3 with hydrazonoyl chlorides 4a-g. Reaction of 3 with two equivalents of α-halocarbonyl compounds 6-8, 10, and 12a-d afforded the corresponding bis-thiazolidines 9, 11, and 13a-d, respectively. Condensation of bis-thiazolidin-4-one 9 with different aromatic aldehydes furnished bis-thiazolidin-4-ones 14a-d. Compounds 5a-g, 9, and 13a,c,d were screened in vitro for their cytotoxic activities in a panel of cancer cell lines. Compounds 5a-c, 5f-g, and 9 exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities, especially compound 5c with potent IC50 value 0.6 nM (against cervical cancer, Hela cell line) and compound 5f with high IC50 value 6 nM (against ovarian cancer, KF-28 cell line). Compound 5f-induced appreciated apoptotic cell death was measured as 82.76% associated with cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. The apoptotic pathways activated in KF-28 cells treated with 5a, 5b, and 5f were further investigated. The upregulation of some pro-apoptotic genes, bax and puma, and the downregulation of some anti-apoptotic genes including the Bcl-2 gene were observed, indicating activation of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Together with the molecular docking studies of compounds 5a and 5b, our data revealed potential Pim-1 kinase inhibition through their high binding affinities indicated by inhibition of phosphorylated C-myc as a downstream target for Pim-1 kinase. Our study introduces a set of bis-thiazoles with potent anti-cancer activities, in vitro.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388028

RESUMO

Background: It is unclear if a history of mesh explantation for infection is predictive of future microbiology after subsequent hernia operations. We investigated how often the same causative organism is cultured in the initial explantation and subsequent repairs. Patients and Methods: We obtained data on patients undergoing ventral/incisional, umbilical, and inguinal hernia repairs from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program during 2008-2015. Manual review was performed for all patients with an administrative code indicative of mesh explantation and those with explantation for infection were retained. We then obtained data on cultured organisms from the mesh site at the time of index explantation and at any re-repair or subsequent explantation during a follow-up period ending in December 2020. Results: We identified 332 patients undergoing mesh explantation because of infection (64.8% ventral, 18.7% umbilical, 16.6% inguinal). Mean age was 60.3 years (standard deviation [SD], 9.7) and 93.9% were male. The same organism was cultured at re-infection in 23 of 59 (39%) cases. Gram-positive micro-organisms were the most prevalent in 20 of 23 (87%). Among the gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen and was cultured in 18 of 20 (90%) cases, of which 14 of 18 (77.8%) were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 4 of 18 (22.2%) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Three of 23 (13%) gram-negative organisms were the same at both re-infection and index explantation consisting of Escherichia coli in 2 of 3 (66.7%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in one of three (33.3%). Conclusions: Identification of organisms at time of prosthetic infection is helpful not only in treating the initial infection, but also in prevention of infection with the same organisms after subsequent repairs. Same organism re-infection should not be underestimated, particularly when Staphylococcus aureus is isolated.

17.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; : 1-25, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232805

RESUMO

Introduction: Bipyrazole is constituted from two pyrazole units either in their fully aromatic or partially hydrogenated forms. Pyrazoles are widely available in pharmaceutical and agrochemical products. Some pyrazoles are essential parts of commercial drugs in the market. This inspired us to collect the pharmacological activities of bipyrazoles that have potential therapeutic behaviors in several biological aspects but none of them were included in commercial drugs.Areas covered: This review covers all biological and pharmacological potentials of bipyrazole derivatives during 2010-2021. The topics of this review comprised anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitubercular, antimalarial, insecticidal activities as well as enzymatic inhibitions.Expert opinion: Bipyrazoles demonstrated a wide array of potent activities against various diseases such as anticancer, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Those are of great benefits for medicinal researchers to develop promising building blocks of bipyrazoles for treatment of diseases. The SAR studies showed that metallated bipyrazoles had better biological activities than bipyrazole ligands. For example, gold(III) and iridium(II) complexes of bipyrazoles were proved to be anticancer agents, and copper(I) as well as silver(I) complexes had excellent antibacterial activities. Several bipyrazoles were reported as antimalarial inhibitors better than chloroquine, the possible COVID-19 drug.

18.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(7): 1033-1035, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265240

RESUMO

Mounting a robust immune response against SARS-CoV-2 requires neutralization as well as effector T cell functions. In this issue of Cell Host Microbe, Tauzin et al. characterize the humoral and T cell responses after a single dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in individuals with or without previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Vacinação
19.
ESMO Open ; 6(4): 100178, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cavity is the most prevalent site of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Most often diagnosed at a locally advanced stage, treatment is multimodal with surgery as the cornerstone. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular landscape of a homogenous cohort of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCCs), and to assess the prognostic value of tumor mutational burden (TMB), along with classical molecular and clinical parameters. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-one consecutive patients with OCSCC treated with upfront surgery at the Institut Curie were analyzed. Sequencing of tumor DNA from frozen specimens was carried out using an in-house targeted next-generation sequencing panel (571 genes). The impact of molecular alterations and TMB on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Pathological tumor stage, extranodal spread, vascular emboli, and perineural invasion were associated with both DFS and OS. TP53 was the most mutated gene (71%). Other frequent molecular alterations included the TERT promoter (50%), CDKN2A (25%), FAT1 (17%), PIK3CA (14%), and NOTCH1 (15%) genes. Transforming growth factor-ß pathway alterations (4%) were associated with poor OS (P = 0.01) and DFS (P = 0.02) in univariate and multivariate analyses. High TMB was associated with prolonged OS (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, in the highest 10% and 20% TMB values, respectively), but not with DFS. Correlation of TMB with OS remained significant in multivariate analysis (P = 0.01 and P = 0.005 in the highest 10% and 20% TMB values, respectively). Pathological tumor stage combined with high TMB was associated with good prognosis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a high TMB is associated with a favorable prognosis in patients with OCSCC treated with upfront surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia
20.
Med Care ; 59(10): 864-871, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life and psychosocial determinants of health, such as health literacy and social support, are associated with increased health care utilization and adverse outcomes in medical populations. However, the effect on surgical health care utilization is less understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the effect of patient-reported quality of life and psychosocial determinants of health on unplanned hospital readmissions in a surgical population. RESEARCH DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study using patient interviews at the time of hospital discharge from a Veterans Affairs hospital. SUBJECTS: We include Veterans undergoing elective inpatient general, vascular, or thoracic surgery (August 1, 2015-June 30, 2017). MEASURES: We assessed unplanned readmission to any medical facility within 30 days of hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 736 patients completed the 30-day postoperative follow-up, and 16.3% experienced readmission. Lower patient-reported physical and mental health, inadequate health literacy, and discharge home with help after surgery or to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility were associated with an increased incidence of readmission. Classification regression identified the patient-reported Veterans Short Form 12 (SF12) Mental Component Score <31 as the most important psychosocial determinant of readmission after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health concerns, inadequate health literacy, and lower social support after hospital discharge are significant predictors of increased unplanned readmissions after major general, vascular, or thoracic surgery. These elements should be incorporated into routinely collected electronic health record data. Also, discharge plans should accommodate varying levels of health literacy and consider how the patient's mental health and social support needs will affect recovery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Readmissão do Paciente , Pacientes/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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