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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246062, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339355

RESUMO

Abstract A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world's most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.


Resumo Um grupo de defeitos sanguíneos hereditários é conhecido como talassemia e está entre as hemoglobinopatias mais prevalentes do mundo. As talassemias são de dois tipos, como talassemia alfa e beta. As causas desses defeitos são as mutações genéticas que levam a níveis baixos e/ou proteínas de globina com mau funcionamento, respectivamente. Em alguns casos, uma dessas proteínas pode estar completamente ausente. As cadeias de globina α e β formam uma dobra ou bolsa de globina para a fixação de heme (Fe ++) para transportar oxigênio. Os genes das proteínas alfa e beta globina estão presentes na forma de um cluster nos cromossomos 16 e 11, respectivamente. Diferentes genes de globina são usados ​​em diferentes estágios do curso de vida. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal, as proteínas γ globina se associam à α globina e, posteriormente, são substituídas pela proteína β globina. Os desequilíbrios da cadeia de globina resultam em hemólise e impedem a eritropoiese. Indivíduos que apresentam sintomas leves incluem portadores de talassemia alfa ou as pessoas com traços de talassemia alfa ou beta. A talassemia alfa causa condições como anemia hemolítica ou hidropsia fetal fatal, dependendo da gravidade da doença. A beta talassemia principal resulta em anemia hemolítica, retardo de crescimento e aberrações esqueléticas na primeira infância. As crianças afetadas por esse distúrbio precisam de transfusões de sangue regulares ao longo da vida. Os pacientes que dependem de transfusão de sangue geralmente desenvolvem sobrecarga de ferro que causa outras complicações nos sistemas do corpo, como insuficiência renal ou hepática, portanto as talassemias agora são classificadas como uma síndrome. A única cura para as talassemias seria um transplante de medula óssea ou terapia genética sem atualmente uma taxa de sucesso significativa. Uma compreensão completa da base molecular dessa síndrome pode fornecer novos insights e ideias para seu tratamento, já que os cientistas ainda não conseguiram encontrar uma cura permanente para essa doença mortal depois de mais de 87 anos desde que foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1925.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.

4.
Talanta ; 236: 122878, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635258

RESUMO

The development of diagnostic devices based on memetic molecular recognitions are becoming highly promising due to high specificity, sensitivity, stability, and low-cost comparing to natural molecular recognition. During the last decade, molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) and aptamer have shown dramatic enhancement in the molecular recognition characteristics for bio(chemical) sensing applications. Recently, MIP-aptamer, as an emerging hybrid recognition element, merged the advantages of the both recognition components. This dual recognition-based sensor has shown improved properties and desirable features, such as high sensitivity, low limit of detection, high stability under harsh environmental conditions, high binding affinity, and superior selectivity. Hybrid MIP-aptamer as dual recognition element, was used in the real sample analysis, such as detection of proteins, neurotransmitters, environmental pollutants, biogenic compounds, small ions, explosives, virus detections and pharmaceuticals. This review focuses on a comprehensive overview of the preparation strategies of various MIP-aptamer recognition elements, mechanism of formation of MIP-aptamer, and detection of various target molecules in different matrices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Impressão Molecular , Oligonucleotídeos , Polímeros
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240219, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285585

RESUMO

Abstract Snow leopard (Panthera unica) is a felid which lives in the highly rugged areas of alpine regions in different mountain ranges of South and Central Asia. This solitary animal needs large spaces for its ranges but due to climate change and relatively faster rate of global warming in South Asian mountain ranges, its habitat is going to shrink and fragment by tree-line shifts and change in hydrology of the area. Vegetative modification of montane flora and competition with domestic goats will create its prey's population to decline along with a chance of a direct conflict and competition with the common leopard. Common leopard being more adaptable, grouped, and larger in size can be a significant stressor for a smaller and solitary snow leopard. Habitat would shrink, and snow leopard can possibly move upslope or northward to central Asian ranges and their predicted migratory patterns are unknown.


Resumo O leopardo-das-neves (Panthera uncia) é um felídeo que vive nas áreas altamente acidentadas das regiões alpinas, em diferentes cadeias de montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. A revisão atual tem o objetivo de abordar a questão da possível perda de hábitat do leopardo da neve em razão da interferência humana nas montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. Esse animal solitário precisa de grandes espaços para suas faixas, mas, devido às mudanças climáticas e à taxa relativamente mais rápida de aquecimento global nas cadeias montanhosas do sul da Ásia, seu hábitat vai encolher e fragmentar-se por mudanças nas linhas de árvores e na hidrologia da área. Este artigo teve o objetivo de rever vários estudos sobre os impactos das mudanças climáticas em um futuro próximo e distante sobre os hábitats do leopardo-da-neve. O estudo revelou que a modificação vegetativa da flora da montanha e a competição com cabras domésticas poderiam ocasionar na diminuição da população de suas presas, com a chance de um conflito direto e competição com leopardo comum. Leopardo comum sendo mais adaptável, agrupado e maior em tamanho pode ser um estressor significativo para um leopardo-da-neve menor e solitário. Conclusão: devido ao encolhimento do hábitat, o leopardo-da-neve pode, possivelmente, mover-se para cima ou para o norte, para faixas da Ásia Central com padrões migratórios não previstos.

6.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 3225-3231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848967

RESUMO

Purpose: Artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology has been a subject of heated debate. The external perception is that algorithms and machines cannot offer better diagnosis than radiologists. Reluctance to implement AI maybe due to the opacity in how AI applications work and the challenging and lengthy validation process. In this study, Saudi radiology personnel's familiarity with AI applications and its usefulness in clinical practice were investigated. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi Arabia among radiology personnel from March to April 2021. Radiology personnel nationwide were surveyed electronically using Google form. The questionnaire included 12-questions related to AI usefulness in clinical practice and participants' knowledge about AI and their acceptance level to learn and implement this technology into clinical practice. Participants' trust level was also measured; Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine differences between groups. Results: A total of 224 respondents from various radiology-related occupations participated in the survey. The lowest trust level in AI applications was shown by radiologists (p = 0.033). Eighty-two percent of participants (n = 184) had never used AI in their departments. Most respondents (n = 160, 71.4%) reported lack of formal education regarding AI-based applications. Most participants (n = 214, 95.5%) showed strong interest in AI education and are willing to incorporate it into the clinical practice of radiology. Almost half of radiography students (22/46, 47.8%) believe that their job might be at risk due to AI application (p = 0.038). Conclusion: Radiology personnel's knowledge of AI has a significant impact on their willingness to learn, use and adapt this technology in clinical practice. Participants demonstrated a positive attitude towards AI, showed a reasonable understanding and are highly motivated to learn and incorporate it into clinical practice. Some participants felt that their jobs were threatened by AI adaptation, but this belief might change with good training and education programmes.

7.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19369, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786273

RESUMO

Panniculitis ossificans (PO) is a heterotopic ossification, benign recurring lesion, presenting in a variety of presentations anywhere in the body. The condition can sometimes be mistaken for a malignant bone tumor or long list of other differential diagnoses which have been mentioned in our report and that may lead to unnecessary wrong management. We report a case of a patient with subcutaneous ossification in the posterior aspect of the left knee. PO was confirmed histologically showing subcutaneous fat necrosis associated with osteoid material.

8.
Lipids ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800048

RESUMO

Enrichment of broiler meat with very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLCn-3 FA) is of interest because of their beneficial effects on human health. The ability of Ahiflower® (AHI) oil (Buglossoides arvensis), which naturally contains stearidonic acid (SDA), and a high-alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) flaxseed (FLAX) oil to enrich VLCn-3 FA contents in broilers tissues was investigated. Fifty-five Cobb 500 chicks were fed from days 12 to 35 of life either a control (CON) diet that contained 27.9 g/kg soybean oil or AHI or FLAX oils, each individually at 7.5 or 22.5 g/kg of the diet in substitution for soybean oil (all on an as fed basis). Total VLCn-3 FA contents were greater in breast, thigh, liver, adipose tissue, and plasma of all n-3 treatments compared to CON, with the greatest increase observed at the highest level of AHI and FLAX oils (p < 0.001). AHI oil at 7.5 g/kg promoted the most efficient synthesis and deposition of VLCn-3 in broiler tissues measured as deposition of VLCn-3 FA in tissues relative to intake of n3 FA. In conclusion, both ALA and SDA oils increased VLCn-3 FA deposition in tissues, but there were diminishing returns when increasing dietary levels of the oils.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112412, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768051

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia-arbitrated mitochondrial oxidative insult is key reason for cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyopathy. Sinapic acid (SA) is a hydroxycinnamic acid (a polyphenolic acid) present in multiple plants and possesses several pharmacological activities. In this study, we examined the cardio protective effects of SA on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cardiac insults. STZ and both STZ induced diabetes and normal control rats were administered with 20 and 40 mg/kg SA for 12 weeks. STZ rats demonstrated hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Additionally, STZ administered rats exhibited various histological changes in the cardiac muscles and significantly enhanced CK-MB and LDH. The significant enhancement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptotic markers, and the capacity to curb oxidative stress was significantly abridged in the STZ induced diabetic heart. Chronic treatment with SA (20-40 mg/kg) ameliorated the increased level of glucose, lipid, and cardiac function markers and curtailed histological changes in the cardiac muscles. Chronic treatment also repressed inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis thereby and restoring antioxidant defenses in the myocardium of STZ induced diabetic rats. STZ induced cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyopathy by promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. Sinapic acid ameliorates cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyopathy via improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Thus, SA possesses possible therapeutic value for the prevention of diabetic cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyopathy via the NRF2/HO-1 and NF-κB pathways.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118508, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793914

RESUMO

Contamination of heavy metals is a serious threat, which causes threats to the environment. Our study aimed to determine the role of endophytic bacteria in Cd phytoremediation and heavy metal ATPase gene expression. Cadmium (Cd) resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from Solanum nigrum on LB agar plates, contaminated with 0-30 mg/L Cd. The phosphate solubilization and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production of endophytes were estimated by growing them on Pikovskaya agar medium and GC-MS analysis, respectively. An experiment in a pot was performed to evaluate the effects of bacteria on rice plants contaminated with 5-25 mg/L of Cd. Expression of Cd response genes was quantified through qRT-PCR and Cd translocation from one part to another part of the plant was measured through the ICP. BLAST alignment of 16 S-rDNA gene sequences confirmed the bacterial isolates as Serratia sp. AI001 and Klebsiella sp. Strain AI002. Both strains tolerated Cd up to 25 mg/L and produced 27-30 µg/mL of IAA. Inoculation of AI001 and AI002 improved plant growth dynamics (i.e., plant length, biomass, chlorophyll contents), relieved electrolyte leakage, and improved reduced glutathione significantly (P < 0.05). The inoculation of AI001 and AI002 significantly (P < 0.05) induced the expression of heavy metal ATPase genes ie., "HMA2, HMA3, and HMA4" and Cd translocation compared to uninoculated plants. Both AI001 and AI002 exhibited very prominent plant-growth-promoting and Cd phytoremediation properties. The results revealed that isolates also contributed a lot to the expression of rice plant heavy metal ATPase genes and in the Cd translocation in the plant.

11.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(11)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834155

RESUMO

Critical adverse effects and frequent administration, three times per day, limit the use of flutamide (FLT) as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of prostate cancer. Therefore, our research aimed to develop new cholesterol-based nanovesicles for delivering FLT to malignant cells in an endeavor to maximize its therapeutic efficacy and minimize undesired adverse effects. Draper-Lin small composite design was used to optimize the critical quality attributes of FLT-loaded niosomes and ensure the desired product quality. The influence of the selected four independent variables on mean particle size (Y1), zeta potential (Y2), drug entrapment efficiency (Y3), and the cumulative drug release after 24 h (Y4) was examined. The optimized nanovesicles were assessed for their in vitro cytotoxicity, ex-vivo absorption via freshly excised rabbit intestine as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics on male rats. TEM confirmed nanovescicles' spherical shape with bilayer structure. Values of dependent variables were 748.6 nm, -48.60 mV, 72.8% and 72.2% for Y1, Y2, Y3 and Y4, respectively. The optimized FLT-loaded niosomes exerted high cytotoxic efficacy against human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) with an IC50 value of 0.64 ± 0.04 µg/mL whilst, it was 1.88 ± 0.16 µg/mL for free FLT. Moreover, the IC50 values on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were 0.27 ± 0.07 µg/mL and 4.07 ± 0.74 µg/mL for FLT-loaded niosomes and free FLT, respectively. The permeation of the optimized FLT-loaded niosomes through the rabbit intestine showed an enhancement ratio of about 1.5 times that of the free FLT suspension. In vivo pharmacokinetic study displayed an improvement in oral bioavailability of the optimized niosomal formulation with AUC and Cmax values of 741.583 ± 33.557 µg/mL × min and 6.950 ± 0.45 µg/mL compared to 364.536 ± 45.215 µg/mL × min and 2.650 ± 0.55 µg/mL for the oral FLT suspension. With these promising findings, we conclude that encapsulation of FLT in cholesterol-loaded nanovesicles enhanced its anticancer activity and oral bioavailability which endorse its use in the management of prostate cancer.

12.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834336

RESUMO

In this study, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded pollens of Phoenix dactylifera and their coating with ERS was done and evaluated for the colon-targeted delivery of 5-FU to treat colon cancer. Sporopollenin exine microcapsules (SEMC) from the pollens of Phoenix dactylifera were extracted by the reflux method and 5-FU into SEMC was encapsulated by the vacuum-assisted loading method. 5-FU loaded SEMC was coated with Eudragit® RS-100 (ERS) by the organic solvent-evaporation technique under vacuum to avoid the discharge of 5-FU in the stomach and small intestine. Morphological and physicochemical characterization of drug-loaded SEMC (coated/uncoated) was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, XRD, and DSC. The encapsulation and drug loading were determined by the direct method, and an in vitro release study was performed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF/SIF). The colon-specific delivery of 5-FU from the SEMC was assessed in terms of pharmacokinetics and gastrointestinal tract distribution after oral administration in rats. The successful encapsulation and loading of 5-FU into SEMC by a vacuum-assisted loading technique and its coating with ERS by a solvent-evaporation technique were achieved. SEM images of uncoated SEMC have shown porous structures, and coating with ERS reserved their morphology with a smooth surface and discrete microstructures and the 5% w/v ERS acetone solution. ERS-coated SEMC sustained the release of 5-FU until 24 h in SIF, while it was up to 12 h only from uncoated SEMC. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 5-FU from uncoated SEMC was 102.82 µg/mL after 1 h, indicating a rapid release of 5-FU in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This concentration decreased quickly with a half-life of 4 h, AUC0-t was 264.1 µg/mL.h, and MRT0-inf was 5.2 h. The Cmax of 5-FU from ERS-coated SEMC was 19.47 µg/mL at 16 h. The Cmax of 5-FU in small intestines was 406.2 µg/g at 1 h from uncoated SEMC and 1271.5 µg/g at 12 h from coated SEMC. Conclusively, a 249.9-fold higher relative bioavailability of 5-FU was achieved with the ERS-coated SEMC in colon tissues than that from uncoated SEMC.

13.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834675

RESUMO

The community health plans commonly use malathion (MAL), an organophosphate pesticide (OP), to eliminate pathogenic insects. The objective of the present research is to evaluate the consequences of Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil on MAL-intoxicated male rats. Six equal groups of animals were used for conducting this study (n = 10). Animals in group one were designated as control, animals belonging to group two were exposed to MAL in the measure of hundred mg per kg BW (body weight) for forty-nine days (seven weeks), rats in the third and fourth groups were administered with 400 mg/kg BW of Coffea arabica L. and Olea europaea L. oils, respectively, and the same amount of MAL as given to the second group. Groups five and six were administered with the same amount of Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil as given to group three. Exposure of rats to 100 mg/kg body weight of MAL resulted in statistical alteration of the serum lipid profile. A marked decline was noticed in the severe changes of these blood parameters when MAL-intoxicated rats were treated with Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil. Two compounds from Coffea arabica L. oil (Chlorogenic acid) and Olea europaea L. oil (Oleuropein) demonstrated good interaction with xanthine oxidase (XO) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) enzymes that are associated with cholesterol production. The present study indicated that Coffea arabica L. oil and Olea europaea L. oil could be considered prospective and potential healing agents against metabolic conditions induced by MAL.

14.
Chemotherapy ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba castellanii is a pathogenic free-living amoeba responsible for blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. However, treatments are not standardized but can involve the use of amidines, biguanides, and azoles. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to synthesize a variety of synthetic tetrazole derivatives and test their activities against A. castellanii. METHODS: A series of novel tetrazole compounds were synthesized by one-pot method and characterized by NMR and mass spectroscopy. These compounds were subjected to amoebicidal, and cytotoxicity assays against A. castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype and human keratinocyte skin cells respectively. Additionally, reactive oxygen species determination and electron microscopy studies were carried out. Furthermore, two of the seven compounds were conjugated with silver nanoparticles to study their antiamoebic potential. RESULTS: A series of seven tetrazole derivatives were synthesized successfully. The selected tetrazoles showed anti-amoebic activities at 10µM concentration against A. castellanii in vitro. The compounds tested caused increased reactive oxygen species generation in A castellanii, and significant morphological damage to amoebal membranes. Moreover, conjugation of silver nanoparticles enhanced antiamoebic effects of two tetrazoles. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that azole compounds hold promise in the development of new formulations of anti-Acanthamoebic agents.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conjunctival lesions are common with a wide spectrum of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions. Few histopathological studies have been conducted on conjunctival lesions with variable designs and results. Our aim in this study is to provide information on common conjunctival lesions seen in an ophthalmology tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study of all consecutive conjunctival tissue specimens sent for histopathological assessment to the pathology department from 2015 to 2019 were analyzed. Clinical data were collected from medical records, and the histopathological slides were reviewed by a single pathologist. RESULTS: A total of 110 conjunctival specimens from 108 patients were included (mean age: 53 years, 67 males and 43 females). Bilateral involvement was mostly found in inflammatory lesions (40%). Most lesions were benign (91%), with a significantly longer duration of symptoms in malignant lesions (p = 0.036*). The clinical diagnosis matched the final histopathological diagnosis in 75.5% of the total specimens. The most frequent category of benign lesions was fibrodegenerative and proliferative lesions (53.6%), with a significantly higher prevalence among adult males (p < 0.001). Melanocytic lesions were more common in children (33.3%) than adults (9.8%), and the mean age of children was significantly lower (p = 0.013). The most frequent malignant lesion was ocular surface squamous neoplasia (50%), with equal prevalence among males and females. The overall outcome was favorable in 89.4% and unfavorable in 10.6%, mostly due to surgical complications, further progression of the lesion, or recurrence. CONCLUSION: This study shows variability in the frequency of conjunctival lesions based on gender, age, geographical, racial, and environmental factors. There has been a shift in the gender-based prevalence of ocular squamous neoplasia over the last three decades, probably due to a change in lifestyle.

16.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-10, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634996

RESUMO

This work examined the influences of partial replacement of clover hay with 15 or 30% of untreated pruning peach trees by-products (UPPT) or those biologically treated (BTPPT) with effective microorganisms (EM1) on growing rabbit performance. Seventy-five NZW weaned rabbits (6-weeks-old; average body weight 657 g) were assigned randomly into five groups. Five pelleted diets were used, control and other four diets (15 or 30% UPPT or BTPPT were replaced of clover hay). The biological treatments improved the chemical composition of pruning peach trees by-product, in terms of increasing crude protein and decreasing crude fiber as compared to UPPT. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and performance index values were enhanced when rabbits fed either 15 or 30% BTPPT. Digestibilities of crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract, total digestible nutrients and digestible energy were increased with rabbits fed diets containing BTPPT. Carcass traits studied, moisture, crude protein (CP), ash, ether extract (EE) of rabbits meat, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, total cholesterol, creatinine and urea were not different between the applied treatments. Net revenue and economic efficiency were increased with the biological treatment. Conclusively, BTPPT could be used up to 30% with positive effects on growth performance, physiological functions and economic efficiency in NZW growing rabbits.

17.
Head Neck ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard of care for management of thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) is a Sistrunk procedure performed through a transcervical incision. We describe the first series of Sistrunk procedures performed through a transoral endoscopic vestibular approach, eliminating a visible external scar. METHODS: The transoral endoscopic vestibular approach to the Sistrunk (TEVAS) was performed in patients with TGDCs meeting inclusion criteria who desired a scarless approach. RESULTS: Six patients (five females and one male) underwent TEVAS, with a mean age of 38 years (range 16-56 years) and a mean TGDC size of 1.8 cm (range 1.1-2.4 cm). Mean operative time was approximately 5 h (range 2-8 h). There were no surgical complications or recurrences. CONCLUSIONS: For appropriately selected patients, the TEVAS is an alternative to open neck surgery that provides improved cosmesis while maintaining successful resection outcomes. More data on outcomes including complications and recurrences are needed as additional case information is collected.

18.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684026

RESUMO

This work aimed to develop a three-dimensional printed (3DP) tablet containing glimepiride (GLMP) and/or rosuvastatin (RSV) for treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes. Curcumin oil was extracted from the dried rhizomes of Curcuma longa and utilized to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Screening mixture experimental design was conducted to develop SNEDDS formulation with a minimum droplet size. Five different semi-solid pastes were prepared and rheologically characterized. The prepared pastes were used to develop 3DP tablets using extrusion printing. The quality attributes of the 3DP tablets were evaluated. A non-compartmental extravascular pharmacokinetic model was implemented to investigate the in vivo behavior of the prepared tablets and the studied marketed products. The optimized SNEDDS, of a 94.43 ± 3.55 nm droplet size, was found to contain 15%, 75%, and 10% of oil, polyethylene glycol 400, and tween 80, respectively. The prepared pastes revealed a shear-thinning of pseudoplastic flow behavior. Flat-faced round tablets of 15 mm diameter and 5.6-11.2 mm thickness were successfully printed and illustrated good criteria for friability, weight variation, and content uniformity. Drug release was superior from SNEDDS-based tablets when compared to non-SNEDDS tablets. Scanning electron microscopy study of the 3DP tablets revealed a semi-porous surface that exhibited some curvature with the appearance of tortuosity and a gel porous-like structure of the inner section. GLMP and RSV demonstrated relative bioavailability of 159.50% and 245.16%, respectively. Accordingly, the developed 3DP tablets could be considered as a promising combined oral drug therapy used in treatment of metabolic disorders. However, clinical studies are needed to investigate their efficacy and safety.

19.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686017

RESUMO

Four halophytic plants, Lycium shawii, Anabasis articulata, Rumex vesicarius, and Zilla spinosa, growing in the central Qassim area, Saudi Arabia, were phytochemically and biologically investigated. Their hydroalcoholic extracts' UPLC-ESIQ-TOF analyses demonstrated the presence of 44 compounds of phenolic acids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids chemical classes. Among all the plants' extracts, L. shawii showed the highest quantities of total phenolics, and flavonoids contents (52.72 and 13.01 mg/gm of the gallic acid and quercetin equivalents, respectively), along with the antioxidant activity in the TAA (total antioxidant activity), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and DPPH-SA (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-scavenging activity) assays with 25.6, 56.68, and 19.76 mg/gm, respectively, as Trolox equivalents. The hydroalcoholic extract of the L. shawii also demonstrated the best chelating activity at 21.84 mg/gm EDTA equivalents. Among all the four halophytes, the hydroalcoholic extract of L. shawii exhibited the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF7 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values at 194.5 µg/mL and 464.9 µg/mL, respectively. The hydroalcoholic extract of A. articulata demonstrated better cytotoxic activity amongst all the tested plants' extracts against the human pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC1) with an IC50 value of 998.5 µg/mL. The L. shawii induced apoptosis in the MCF7 cell lines, and the percentage of the necrotic cells changed to 28.1% and 36.5% for the IC50 and double-IC50 values at 22.9% compared with the untreated groups. The hydroalcoholic extract of L. shawii showed substantial antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 with a MIC value of 12.5 mg/mL. By contrast, the A. articulata and Z. spinosa exhibited antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 with MIC values at 12.5 and 50 mg/mL, respectively. These findings suggested that the L. shawii is a potential halophyte with remarkable biological properties, attributed to its contents of phenolics and flavonoid classes of compounds in its extract.

20.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681057

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an ubiquitous and versatile pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases. In animals, this bacterium is one of the causative agents of bovine mastitis, responsible for huge economic losses in the dairy industry. Besides the development of antibiotic resistance, the intracellular survival of S. aureus within udder cells has rendered many antibiotics ineffective, leading to therapeutic failure. Our study therefore aims to investigate the in vitro bactericidal activity of ikarugamycin (IKA) against intracellular S. aureus using a bovine mammary epithelial cells (Mac-T cells) infection model and determine the cytotoxic effect. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to determine the antibacterial activity of IKA, and Mac-T cells were infected with S. aureus using gentamicin protection assay. IKA intracellular antibacterial activity assays were used to determine the bactericidal activity of IKA against intracellular S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of IKA against Mac-T cells was evaluated using the resazurin assay. We showed that, S. aureus is susceptible to IKA with a MIC value of 0.6 µg/mL. IKA at 4 × MIC and 8 × MIC have bactericidal activity by reducing 3 and 5 logs10 CFU/mL of S. aureus in the first six-hour of treatment respectively. In addition, IKA demonstrated intracellular killing activity by killing 90% of intracellular S. aureus at 5 µg/mL. This level is comparatively lower than 9.2 µg/mL determined as the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of IKA required to kill 50% of Mac-T cells, highlighting a lower concentration required for bactericidal effect compared to the cytotoxic effect. The study highlighted that importance of IKA as a potential antibiotic candidate to be explored for the in vivo efficacy in treating S. aureus mastitis.

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