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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261574, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384078

RESUMO

In current study, different feeding levels of Moringa oleifera formulated diet was compared to analyze the growth performance, feed conversion ratio, feed conversion efficiency and gut microbiology of Oreochromis niloticus. The study was comprised of four treatment groups including 4%, 8% and 12% Moringa oleifera and one control group which was devoid of Moringa leaves. The experimental trial was conducted at the Zoology laboratory of Pakistan Institute of Applied and Social Sciences, (PIASS) Kasur. The physicochemical parameters of water such as temperature, dissolve oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids and salinity in all aquaria were found non-significantly different from each other. In control condition T1, the average weight gain was 14.89±16.90a grams, while average length gain was 11.52±7.444a cm. However, the total viable count on Eosin methylene blue was 7.4×107, 5.8×107 on Tryptic soy agar and 5.8×107on Nutrient agar. In T2, the average weight gain was 16.22±16.09b grams and average length gain was 12.97±7.79b cm. The total viable count on Eosin methylene blue was 7×107, 5.5×107 on Tryptic soy agar and 5.8×107on Nutrient agar. In T3, the average weight gain was 37.88±27.43c grams, while the average length gain was recorded as 16.48±12.56c cm. However, the total viable count for treatment 3 was 6.4×10 on Eosin methylene blue, 4.8×107 on Tryptic soy agar and 5.2×107on Nutrient agar. In T4, the average weight gain was 44.22±31.67d grams, while the average length gain was 15.25±10.49d cm. The total viable count was 4.3×107on Eosin methylene blue, 3.1×107 on Tryptic soy agar and 3.8×107 on Nutrient agar. The effect of Moringa oleifera on the growth of Oreochromis niloticus was found to be significant and 12% Moringa extract showed maximum length and weight gain and minimum feed conversion ratio with the least microbial count in fish intestine.


No presente estudo, diferentes níveis de alimentação da dieta formulada com Moringa oleifera foram comparados para analisar o desempenho de crescimento, taxa de conversão alimentar, eficiência de conversão alimentar e microbiologia intestinal de Oreochromis niloticus. O estudo foi composto por quatro grupos de tratamento, incluindo 4%, 8% e 12% de Moringa oleifera e um grupo de controle sem folhas de Moringa. O ensaio experimental foi realizado no laboratório de Zoologia do Instituto de Ciências Aplicadas e Sociais do Paquistão (PIASS), Kasur. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água como temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, sólidos totais dissolvidos e salinidade em todos os aquários foram encontrados não significativamente diferentes entre si. Na condição controle T1, o ganho médio de peso foi de 14,89±16,90a gramas, enquanto o ganho médio de comprimento foi de 11,52±7,444a cm. No entanto, a contagem total viável em azul de metileno de eosina foi de 7,4×107, 5,8×107 em ágar de soja Tryptic e 5,8×107 em ágar Nutriente. Em T2, o ganho médio de peso foi de 16,22±16,09b gramas e o ganho médio de comprimento foi de 12,97±7,79b cm. A contagem total viável em azul de metileno de eosina foi 7×107, 5,5×107 em ágar de soja Tryptic e 5,8×107 em ágar Nutriente. Em T3, o ganho médio de peso foi de 37,88±27,43c gramas, enquanto o ganho médio de comprimento foi registrado como 16,48±12,56c cm. No entanto, a contagem total viável para o tratamento 3 foi de 6,4×10 em azul de metileno de eosina, 4,8×107 em ágar soja Tryptic e 5,2×107 em ágar Nutriente. Em T4, o ganho médio de peso foi de 44,22±31,67d gramas, enquanto o ganho médio de comprimento foi de 15,25±10,49d cm. A contagem total viável foi de 4,3×107 em Eosin metileno blue, 3,1×107 em Tryptic soy agar e 3,8×107 em Nutrient agar. O efeito da Moringa oleifera no crescimento de Oreochromis niloticus foi significativo e o extrato de Moringa a 12% apresentou ganho máximo de comprimento e peso e conversão alimentar mínima com a menor contagem microbiana no intestino dos peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Tilápia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tilápia/microbiologia , Moringa oleifera , Dieta
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e262533, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1403868

RESUMO

Fish is thought to be the most appropriate for indication of toxicity in water. So, purpose of present study was to determine the concentrations of few metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cd, Pb and Zn) in relation to the body size and condition factor in Scomberoides commersonnianus. A total of 73 samples of marine fish, S. commersonnianus with various sizes that ranged from 93.4-1180 g of body weight and total length 20.5-56.9cm were randomly collected from the Arabian Sea of Karachi Pakistan, for examination of elemental composition. The concentration of Calcium found maximum while Cadmium found minimum in S. commersonnianus. Concentrations of Zn showed highly significant (P<0.001) negative, while Na and Ca exhibited strong positive correlation with the fish size. Correlations of Pb, K and Mg were found least significant (P<0.05) with the wet weight and total length of S. commersonnianus. Whereas, Fe and Cd were remained insignificantly correlated (P>0.05) with the fish size. Condition factor showed highly significant correlation (P<0.001) with all studied metals except cadmium and lead which were found insignificantly correlated (P>0.05) with condition factor of S. commersonnianus.


O peixe é considerado o mais adequado para indicação de toxicidade na água. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar as concentrações de alguns metais (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cd, Pb e Zn) em relação ao tamanho corporal e fator de condição em Scomberoides commersonnianus. Foi coletado um total de 73 amostras de peixes marinhos, S. commersonnianus, com tamanhos que variaram de 93,4 a 1.180 g de peso corporal e comprimento total de 20,5 a 56,9 cm, aleatoriamente do Mar Arábico de Karachi, Paquistão, para exame de composição elementar. A concentração de Ca foi máxima, enquanto a de Cd foi mínima em S. commersonnianus. As concentrações de Zn mostraram-se altamente significativas negativas (P < 0,001), enquanto Na e Ca apresentaram forte correlação positiva com o tamanho dos peixes. As correlações de Pb, K e Mg foram menos significativas (P < 0,05) com o peso úmido e o comprimento total de S. commersonnianus. Já o Fe e o Cd permaneceram pouco correlacionados (P > 0,05) com o tamanho dos peixes. O fator de condição apresentou correlação altamente significativa (P < 0,001) com todos os metais estudados, exceto Cd e Pb, que foram encontrados correlacionados insignificantemente (P > 0,05) com o fator de condição de S. commersonnianus.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/fisiologia , Metais/toxicidade , Paquistão
4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 291: 122340, 2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702082

RESUMO

In this work, dual-template molecularly imprinted polymer surfaces imprinted on blue fluorescent Cr-based MOF (Cr-MOF) functionalized with yellow emissive carbon dots (Y-CDs) were prepared using l-ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) as templates for simultaneous selective recognition of AA and UA. The as-prepared nanocomposite probe (Y-CDs/Cr-MOF@MIP) contains two recognition site cavities and emits a dual well-resolved fluorescence spectra when excited at 390 nm; blue emission (λem 450 nm) is due to Cr-MOF, and yellow emission (λem 560 nm) is due to Y-CDs. The yellow fluorescence emission of Y-CDs was quenched upon the addition of ascorbic acid, while Cr-MOF's emission remained unaffected. In the same way, the blue fluorescence emission of the Cr-MOFs was quenched in the presence of uric acid, while the yellow emission remained constant. Both emissions were quenched in a sample containing both AA and UA. This can be exploited to design a dual-template biosensor to detect UA and AA simultaneously. The Y-CDs/Cr-MOF@MIP sensor displayed a dynamic linear response for AA in the range 25.0 µM - 425.0 µM with a detection limit of 1.30 µM, and for UA in the range 25.0 µM - 425.0 µM with a detection limit of 1.10 µM. The dual-target probe Y-CDs/Cr-MOF@MIP was highly selective and sensitive for the detection of UA and AA in human urine samples due to the selectivity of the two recognition sites.

6.
Int J Pharm ; : 122623, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681204

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic endocrine disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances in metabolic processes, such as those related to carbohydrates, fat, and protein. There are two main types of this disease: type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insulin therapy is pivotal to the management of diabetes. Over the last two decades, many routes of administration, including nasal, pulmonary, rectal, transdermal, buccal, and ocular, have been investigated. Nevertheless, subcutaneous parenteral administration is still the most common route for insulin therapy. To overcome poor bioavailability and the barriers to oral insulin absorption, novel approaches in the field of oral drug delivery and administration have been brought about by the coalescence of different branches of nanoscience and nanotechnology, such as nanomedicine, nano-biochemistry, and nano-pharmacy. Novel drug delivery systems, including nanoparticles, nano-platforms, and nanocarriers, have been suggested. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the various promising approaches that have been explored and evaluated for the safe and efficient oral and buccal administration of insulin.

7.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 35(3): 102529, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597487

RESUMO

Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate into mental health outcomes such as stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as sleep quality in suspected COVID-19 quarantined cases. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that used an online survey to target suspected COVID-19 cases in quarantine facilities. Data were collected on several aspects of participants' sociodemographic characteristics, sleep disturbance, and mental health status. Depression, anxiety, stress scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to measure both the psychological impact and mental health status. Results: Of the 362 people who took the survey, 234 (64.6%) were men, and 148 were between the ages of 26-35. Poor sleep was found to be prevalent in 65% of study participants. The rates of individuals reporting severe depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms were 14.6%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. According to the findings, there were significant gender differences in depression and anxiety (p = 0.001). When compared to the other age groups, participants aged 26-35 reported the highest level of stress (p = 0.001). Being male [OR = -1.23, 95% CI (-2.75-1.95) P = 0.050], single [OR = 0.98, CI (0.15-4.20), P = 0.001], and a healthcare worker [OR = -2.20, 95% CI (-2.59-1.82), P = 0.001] were all associated with poor sleep quality. Conclusion: Approximately-one-third of quarantine COVID-19 patients had poor sleep quality with mild-moderate depression. Both anxiety and stress scales were prevalent in nearly half of the studied samples.

8.
ACS Omega ; 8(1): 289-296, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643559

RESUMO

This study investigated how thermoelasticity impacts the uniformity of cluster stimulation and fracture initiation and growth in horizontal, multi-fractured laterals. Thermal cooling has previously been shown to lower the minimum principal stress and induce fracturing in conventional reservoirs. In the current study, cool fluid was injected prior to the primary stimulation to investigate whether the local minimum principal stress could be reduced. In the base case without pre-treatment, fractures were propagated in a non-uniform manner after the primary stimulation. This resulted in a few clusters being dominant, leaving the rest of the reservoir's hydrocarbon unstimulated. Thus, the pre-treatment period can be utilized to reduce in situ stress at the entry of the clusters. The simulation results showed that clusters with a pre-cooling period had more uniform fractures than did the base case. Utilizing thermally controlled fluid is a novel method for improving cluster uniformity and efficiency.

9.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765531

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.(AU)


Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes/microbiologia , Microbiota , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Brachyspira/isolamento & purificação
10.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-7, 2023. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765490

RESUMO

To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T¹ of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.(AU)


Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis e nível de metais pesados de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.(AU)


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Esterco/análise , Chumbo/administração & dosagem , Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Tratamento do Solo/métodos
11.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765486

RESUMO

A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world's most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.(AU)


Um grupo de defeitos sanguíneos hereditários é conhecido como talassemia e está entre as hemoglobinopatias mais prevalentes do mundo. As talassemias são de dois tipos, como talassemia alfa e beta. As causas desses defeitos são as mutações genéticas que levam a níveis baixos e/ou proteínas de globina com mau funcionamento, respectivamente. Em alguns casos, uma dessas proteínas pode estar completamente ausente. As cadeias de globina α e β formam uma dobra ou bolsa de globina para a fixação de heme (Fe ++) para transportar oxigênio. Os genes das proteínas alfa e beta globina estão presentes na forma de um cluster nos cromossomos 16 e 11, respectivamente. Diferentes genes de globina são usados em diferentes estágios do curso de vida. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal, as proteínas γ globina se associam à α globina e, posteriormente, são substituídas pela proteína β globina. Os desequilíbrios da cadeia de globina resultam em hemólise e impedem a eritropoiese. Indivíduos que apresentam sintomas leves incluem portadores de talassemia alfa ou as pessoas com traços de talassemia alfa ou beta. A talassemia alfa causa condições como anemia hemolítica ou hidropsia fetal fatal, dependendo da gravidade da doença. A beta talassemia principal resulta em anemia hemolítica, retardo de crescimento e aberrações esqueléticas na primeira infância. As crianças afetadas por esse distúrbio precisam de transfusões de sangue regulares ao longo da vida. Os pacientes que dependem de transfusão de sangue geralmente desenvolvem sobrecarga de ferro que causa outras complicações nos sistemas do corpo, como insuficiência renal ou hepática, portanto as talassemias agora são classificadas como uma síndrome. A única cura para as talassemias seria um transplante de medula óssea ou terapia genética sem atualmente uma taxa de sucesso significativa. Uma compreensão completa da base molecular dessa síndrome pode fornecer novos insights e ideias para seu tratamento, [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Talassemia/complicações , Talassemia/genética , Talassemia beta , Talassemia alfa
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Fezes
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Cádmio , Bovinos , Bioacumulação
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246062, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339355

RESUMO

Abstract A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world's most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.


Resumo Um grupo de defeitos sanguíneos hereditários é conhecido como talassemia e está entre as hemoglobinopatias mais prevalentes do mundo. As talassemias são de dois tipos, como talassemia alfa e beta. As causas desses defeitos são as mutações genéticas que levam a níveis baixos e/ou proteínas de globina com mau funcionamento, respectivamente. Em alguns casos, uma dessas proteínas pode estar completamente ausente. As cadeias de globina α e β formam uma dobra ou bolsa de globina para a fixação de heme (Fe ++) para transportar oxigênio. Os genes das proteínas alfa e beta globina estão presentes na forma de um cluster nos cromossomos 16 e 11, respectivamente. Diferentes genes de globina são usados ​​em diferentes estágios do curso de vida. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal, as proteínas γ globina se associam à α globina e, posteriormente, são substituídas pela proteína β globina. Os desequilíbrios da cadeia de globina resultam em hemólise e impedem a eritropoiese. Indivíduos que apresentam sintomas leves incluem portadores de talassemia alfa ou as pessoas com traços de talassemia alfa ou beta. A talassemia alfa causa condições como anemia hemolítica ou hidropsia fetal fatal, dependendo da gravidade da doença. A beta talassemia principal resulta em anemia hemolítica, retardo de crescimento e aberrações esqueléticas na primeira infância. As crianças afetadas por esse distúrbio precisam de transfusões de sangue regulares ao longo da vida. Os pacientes que dependem de transfusão de sangue geralmente desenvolvem sobrecarga de ferro que causa outras complicações nos sistemas do corpo, como insuficiência renal ou hepática, portanto as talassemias agora são classificadas como uma síndrome. A única cura para as talassemias seria um transplante de medula óssea ou terapia genética sem atualmente uma taxa de sucesso significativa. Uma compreensão completa da base molecular dessa síndrome pode fornecer novos insights e ideias para seu tratamento, já que os cientistas ainda não conseguiram encontrar uma cura permanente para essa doença mortal depois de mais de 87 anos desde que foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1925.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Talassemia/genética , Talassemia beta/genética , Hemoglobinas
15.
Talanta ; 254: 124178, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549132

RESUMO

Color tonality by intrinsic fluorescent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is highly desirable in bioanalytical applications due to its stability, low-cost and robustness with no need for functionalization and/or encapsulation of fluorophores. In the present work, ultra-small and higly fluorescent zinc-based MOFs (FMOF-5) were synthesized. The prepared FMOFs were around 5 nm in size, and gave strong blue emission at 440 nm when excited at 350 nm. Interestingly, tetracycline (TC) selectively tuned the blue emission of FMOF-5 to greenish-yellow emission (520 nm) with dramatic enhancement through aggregation induced emission (AIE). The fluorimetric analysis of TC was carried out through the ratiometric peak intensities of F520/F440, with detection limit (LOD) of 5 nM. To realize quantitative point-of-care based on color tonality, a smartphone integrated with the ratiometric visual platform was thereby design. Hence, TC was visually detected with LOD of 10 nM. The prepared FMOF-5-based probe showed high stability (3 months) and reusability (∼10 times). The developed visual-based platform presents great promise for practical point of care testing due to its low-cost, robustness, ruggedness, simple operation, and excellent selectivity and repeatability.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Zinco , Tetraciclina , Antibacterianos/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Limite de Detecção
16.
RSC Adv ; 12(52): 33559-33566, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36505680

RESUMO

A new, cost-effective and sensitive spectroscopic assay for the quantification of Colistin Sulfate (CS) and its prodrug colistimethate sodium (CMS) has been developed and validated. The validated technique depends on the condensation of the studied drug with 2,2-dihydroxyindan-1,3-dione (ninhydrin) and phenylacetaldehyde using Teorell and Stenhagen buffer (pH = 6) to yield a fluorescent product that is estimated at emission wavelength (λ em = 474 nm) after excitation wavelength (λ ex = 390 nm). The reaction's affecting factors were carefully studied and adjusted accurately. Over the following range (0.4-2.4 µg mL-1), the produced calibration plot looked rectilinear, and the estimated limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were 0.051 & 0.154 µg mL-1 respectively. The recommended approach was utilized to evaluate market products containing the investigated drug. Moreover, content uniformity testing was employed as a new procedure not found in the previously reported fluorimetric technique.

17.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 15: 2737-2743, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36545499

RESUMO

Background: Knowing normal values of scalp hair thickness and density is beneficial for diagnosing hair disorders, monitoring responses to therapy, performing hair transplants, and conducting relevant research. Such normal values have not yet been studied for Arabs. Objective: To assess the hair density and diameter of the Arab population at different scalp sites using phototrichogram. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed at King Saud University Medical City from December 2021 to August 2022. The study was conducted on Arab adults who were not suffering from any hair disorder. The study was conducted using a questionnaire and clinical examination by phototrichogram. Results: A total of 120 participants were enrolled in this study. The mean hair density was 147.1± 7.8 hairs/cm2, and the mean hair diameter was 87±4.9 µm. There were significant differences between hair density (P=0.0001) and diameter (P=0.0001) in different regions of the scalp. Females had higher hair density than males at occiput (P=0.038). Conclusion: Arab hair has a higher thickness and lower density than hair of other ethnicities. This needs to be considered when diagnosing and/or treating hair problems in Arabs.

18.
Cureus ; 14(12): e32758, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent worldwide. The goal of this research is to evaluate the knowledge of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, population about heart attack symptoms and risk factors. METHODOLOGY: A one-year cross-sectional study was carried out. The study was conducted on 385 individuals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the Acute Coronary Syndrome Response Index, with additional questions added, such as risk factors of heart attack and physical activity time. An anonymous self-administered online questionnaire was used to collect the data. RESULTS: We collected data from 440 participants, but only 385 were included in the analysis. Males represented 41.4% of the participants. In terms of participant knowledge of heart attack symptoms, we found that chest pain or pressure was the most common (80.5%), followed by shortness of breath (77%) and weakness and fatigue (72.0%). In addition, 90.2% and 90.7% of the participants knew that smoking and obesity were risk factors for heart attacks. Furthermore, 46% of participants said they "would not be at all certain" of identifying the symptoms and indicators of a heart attack in another person and 45.7% "in themselves." We found that males were more likely than females to have low knowledge (RR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.24:2.72, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is a lack of awareness of the heart attack warning signs and symptoms. We propose that future local campaigns focus on increasing awareness and recognition of heart attack symptoms.

19.
Cureus ; 14(11): e31338, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514633

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of psoriasis involves the interaction of several environmental and genetic factors. Predicting the disease risk cannot depend on individual genetic alleles. Consequently, some studies have evaluated the use of genetic risk scores that combine several psoriasis susceptibility loci to increase the accuracy of predicting/diagnosing the disease. This meta-analysis summarizes the evidence regarding using genetic risk scores (GRS) in the diagnosis or prediction of psoriasis. A search of MEDLINE/PubMed, the Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) database, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest was conducted in July 2022. The primary objective was to record the area under the curve (AUC) for GRS of psoriasis. Secondary objectives included characteristics of studies and patients. The risk of bias (ROB) was assessed using the PROBAST tool. Five studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria of this review. None of the studies described the clinical criteria (reference standard) that were employed to diagnose psoriasis. The AUCs of the 11 GRS models ranged from 0.6029-0.8583 (median: 0.75). Marked heterogeneity was detected (Cochran Q: 1250.051, p < 0.001, and I2 index: 99.2%). So, pooling of the results of the included studies was not performed. The ROB was high for all studies and clinical application was not described. Genetic risk scores are promising tools for the prediction of psoriasis with fair to good accuracy. However, further research is required to identify the most accurate combination of loci and to validate the scores in variable ethnicities.

20.
Cureus ; 14(12): e32376, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36523857

RESUMO

The incidence of gallstone spillage and gallbladder perforation has increased as a result of the rising use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The presence of gallstones in the abdomen may lead to adhesions, inflammation, infection, and obstruction of biliary ducts. Since different etiologies can occur with spillage of gallstones, variation in presentation is expected. We report a case of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy complication after four years of surgery. The patient's clinical presentation mimicked malignancy.

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