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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246934, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285605

RESUMO

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; o filo Mollusca possui importante posição na teia alimentar e atua como bioindicador, praga e hospedeiro intermediário. Por serem resistentes, são chamadas baratas de malacologia. Os caramujos físidos foram coletados em diferentes corpos d'água de Faisalabad (Punjab) e identificados até as espécies por meio de marcadores morfológicos. A morfometria dos corpos de prova foi realizada com auxílio de paquímetro digital Vernier em milímetros (mm) por meio de medida linear dos caracteres da casca. A análise de regressão linear da razão AL / SW vs. AL e razão SL / SW vs. AL indicou que o crescimento alométrico existe apenas em Physa acuta quando comparado com P. gyrina e P. fontinalis. Este estudo levará a avaliar a situação das espécies de físido no Punjab Central. A análise do componente principal mostra que o componente 1 (comprimento da casca) e o componente 2 (largura da casca) são os componentes mais prolíficos e quase 80% da identificação. A distância entre P. acuta e P. fontinalis é 5,4699, P. acuta e P. gyrina é 7,6411, P. fontinalis e P. gyrina é 16,6080, mostrando que P. acuta se assemelha a P. fontinalis, e ambos os espécimes não se parecem com P. gyrina. P. acuta é uma espécie invasora e apresenta bioatividade, tornando-se uma candidata potente para substâncias bioativas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246984, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285632

RESUMO

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; pertencem ao filo Mollusca e, sendo bioindicadores, hospedeiros intermediários de parasitas e pragas, ocupam uma posição-chave no ecossistema. Existem três espécies do gênero Physa, ou seja, P. fontinalis, Physa acuta e P. gyrina em corpos d'água do Punjab Central e foram caracterizadas com base em marcadores moleculares. Alto nível de diversidade genética foi revelado por RAPD polimórfico, no entanto os marcadores SSR não foram amplificados. A análise multivariada revelou polimorfismo variando de 9,09% a 50% entre as três espécies de Physid. Um número total de 79 loci foi observado para as três espécies em estudo e 24 loci foram observados como polimórficos. Esses fragmentos RAPD podem ser desenvolvidos em marcadores codominantes (SCAR) por clonagem e podem ser posteriormente sequenciados para o desenvolvimento de marcadores específicos da espécie Physa para identificar as espécies introduzidas e nativas no Paquistão.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242334, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278515

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


RESUMO Fatores de micro-hábitat associados ao hábitat do veado (Muntiacus vaginalis) foram examinados e comparados entre as estações de verão e inverno. As características do hábitat e o hábitat preferido foram medidos, localizando sinais diretos e indiretos. Para quantificar a utilização do hábitat de cervos-latidos, cada local de estudo selecionado foi amostrado para a diversidade floral de 2015 a 2017. Quadrats foram implantados ao longo de linhas de transecto para determinar a distribuição sazonal., Veados-latidos não foram distribuídos uniformemente pelos tipos de vegetação na área de estudo; ocorreram com mais frequência na floresta de folhas largas do que na floresta de pinheiros Chir, em uma faixa de elevação de 550-850 m, em vegetação densa, em encostas íngremes. O hábitat mais preferido incluía árvores e arbustos com 30% e 69% de cobertura, respectivamente. O veado-latido evitou uma cobertura de árvores mais espessa, possivelmente porque impede o movimento e a fuga de predadores. Nenhuma diferença significativa (χ2 = 6,37; df = 3; p = 0,19) na cobertura vegetal sazonal foi registrada.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242636, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285595

RESUMO

Abstract Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Resumo Guindastes são a grande e atraente criatura da natureza com um pescoço longo, pernas e vida útil. Adultos de ambos os sexos são os mesmos com padrões de cores semelhantes. Guindastes Demoiselle passam a maior parte da vida em gramíneas secas. Também se encontram ao redor do córrego, rios, lagos rasos, pântanos naturais e depressões. Para avaliar o estado atual do uso do hábitat e as principais ameaças, um estudo foi realizado no distrito de Tehsil Domel, em Bannu. Foram utilizados o método transect e testes de qualidade da água (temperatura, pH, contaminação da bactéria E. coli). Para determinar as principais ameaçasfoi utilizado o método de questionário. Todos os dados foram analisados por meio da versão SPSS 21. Com base na distribuição, foram selecionados quatro locais de estudo e quatro amostras de água de cada local de estudo. A maioria dos locais estava moderada a altamente degradada, exceto no ponto de encontro dos rios Kashoo e Kurram, que teve baixa degradação com pastagem de gado e atividades humanas. Os testes de qualidade da água mostraram variação de pH de 7-9, temperatura 6,5-8,5 e contaminação de E. coli em todas as amostras. A pesquisa do questionário revelou que a caça, a degradação do hábitat e a poluição são as principais ameaças. Efetiva conservação e gestão a longo prazo na área de estudo são necessárias para se concentrar na proteção de um hábitat livre de distúrbios.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346960

RESUMO

Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Rios , Áreas Alagadas
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431912

RESUMO

Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Caramujos , Animais
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431913

RESUMO

Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Filogenia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
9.
Front Neurol ; 12: 624202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220664

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute Encephalitis is associated with a high risk of acute symptomatic seizures, status epilepticus, and remote symptomatic epilepsy. Ketogenic diet therapies (KDT) have been established as a feasible and safe adjunctive management of refractory- and super-refractory status epilepticus. However, the role of KDT in the chronic management of Post-encephalitic epilepsy (PE) and autoimmune-associated epilepsy (AE) is unknown. This study aims to investigate the use of KDT in patients with PE and AE. Methods: A retrospective single-center case series examining adult patients with PE and AE treated with the modified Atkins diet (MAD), a KDT commonly used by adults with drug-resistant epilepsy. Results: Ten patients with PE and AE who were treated with adjunctive MAD were included. Four patients had either confirmed or presumed viral encephalitis, five patients had seronegative AE, and one patient had GAD65 AE. The median latency between starting MAD and onset of encephalitis was 6 years (IQR: 1-10). The median duration of MAD was 10 months (IQR: 3.75-36). Three patients (30%) became seizure-free, one patient (10%) achieved 90% seizure freedom, and three patients (30%) achieved a 50-75% reduction in their baseline seizure frequency, while three patients (30%) had no significant benefit. Overall, seven patients (70%) achieved ≥50% seizure reduction. Conclusion: In addition to its established role in the treatment of RSE, KDT may be a safe and feasible option for the treatment of chronic PE and AE, particularly in those with prior history of SE. Prospective studies are warranted to explore the efficacy of KDT in management of patients with PE and AE.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133564

RESUMO

Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


Assuntos
Cervos , Cervo Muntjac , Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano
11.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 38(5): e20-e23, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009844

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Generalized periodic discharges with triphasic morphology were previously referred to as triphasic waves but have now been subsumed into the ACNS classification as generalized periodic discharges. Although triphasic waves and generalized spike-wave complexes may resemble each other and hence may be incorrectly identified in comatose critically ill patients, many authors believe that there are different entities, with definable morphologic and clinical differences attributable to each waveform. The occurrence of both patterns in the same patient is extremely rare with only a single prior case report. Here the authors report a patient with typical triphasic waves and generalized spike-wave complexes and highlight the morphologic and EEG differences between the two patterns. The occurrence of both waveforms in the same EEG recording supports the notion of different cerebral generators and pathways, further differentiating rather than merging these morphologies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Eletroencefalografia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819278

RESUMO

Myelin plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders but is difficult to characterize in vivo using standard analysis methods. Our goal was to develop a novel analytical framework for estimating myelin content using T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on a de- and re-myelination model of multiple sclerosis. We examined 18 mice with lysolecithin induced demyelination and spontaneous remyelination in the ventral white matter of thoracic spinal cord. Cohorts of 6 mice underwent 9.4T MRI at days 7 (peak demyelination), 14 (ongoing recovery), and 28 (near complete recovery), as well as histological analysis of myelin and the associated cellularity at corresponding timepoints. Our MRI framework took an unsupervised learning approach, including tissue segmentation using a Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF), and myelin and cellularity feature estimation based on the Mahalanobis distance. For comparison, we also investigated 2 regression-based supervised learning approaches, one using our GMRF results, and another using a freely available generalized additive model (GAM). Results showed that GMRF segmentation was 73.2% accurate, and our unsupervised learning method achieved a correlation coefficient of 0.67 (top quartile: 0.78) with histological myelin, similar to 0.70 (top quartile: 0.78) obtained using supervised analyses. Further, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of our unsupervised myelin feature (0.883, 95% CI: 0.874-0.891) was significantly better than any of the supervised models in detecting white matter myelin as compared to histology. Collectively, metric learning using standard MRI may prove to be a new alternative method for estimating myelin content, which ultimately can improve our disease monitoring ability in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Bainha de Mielina/fisiologia , Remielinização , Animais , Camundongos
13.
J Neurosci ; 41(15): 3366-3385, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712513

RESUMO

Excessive inflammation within the CNS is injurious, but an immune response is also required for regeneration. Macrophages and microglia adopt different properties depending on their microenvironment, and exposure to IL4 and IL13 has been used to elicit repair. Unexpectedly, while LPS-exposed macrophages and microglia killed neural cells in culture, the addition of LPS to IL4/IL13-treated macrophages and microglia profoundly elevated IL10, repair metabolites, heparin binding epidermal growth factor trophic factor, antioxidants, and matrix-remodeling proteases. In C57BL/6 female mice, the generation of M(LPS/IL4/IL13) macrophages required TLR4 and MyD88 signaling, downstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/mTOR and MAP kinases, and convergence on phospho-CREB, STAT6, and NFE2. Following mouse spinal cord demyelination, local LPS/IL4/IL13 deposition markedly increased lesional phagocytic macrophages/microglia, lactate and heparin binding epidermal growth factor, matrix remodeling, oligodendrogenesis, and remyelination. Our data show that a prominent reparative state of macrophages/microglia is generated by the unexpected integration of pro- and anti-inflammatory activation cues. The results have translational potential, as the LPS/IL4/IL13 mixture could be locally applied to a focal CNS injury to enhance neural regeneration and recovery.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The combination of LPS and regulatory IL4 and IL13 signaling in macrophages and microglia produces a previously unknown and particularly reparative phenotype devoid of pro-inflammatory neurotoxic features. The local administration of LPS/IL4/IL13 into spinal cord lesion elicits profound oligodendrogenesis and remyelination. The careful use of LPS and IL4/IL13 mixture could harness the known benefits of neuroinflammation to enable repair in neurologic insults.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regeneração da Medula Espinal , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação , Interleucina-13/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Subunidade p45 do Fator de Transcrição NF-E2/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
14.
Neurocrit Care ; 34(1): 201-208, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the acute and long-term outcomes for patients with lateralized rhythmic delta activity (LRDA) compared to patients with lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs). METHODS: A single-center retrospective study examining consecutive patients older than 10 years who had LRDA, LPDs, or both on continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) between 12/01/2015 and 12/31/2017. Outcomes included inpatient mortality, functional outcome at follow-up, inpatient electrographic seizures, and the presence of new epilepsy at follow-up. Patients were classified into 4 groups: LRDA-only (without LPDs), LPDs-only (without LRDA), LRDA/LPDs, and control (without LRDA or LPDs). RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (2.7%) were in the LRDA-only group, 76 (7%) patients were in the LPDs-only group, and 25 (2.3%) patients had both patterns (LRDA/LPDs group). 68 patients were identified as a control group. Only one patient (3%) in the LRDA-only group died during their hospitalization, compared to 21 patients (28%) in the LPDs-only group, 2 (8%) LRDA/LPDs group and 7 (10%) in the control group (p 0.003). Patients in the LPDs-only group had three times higher odds of adjusted mortality compared to the control group (p 0.05), while there was no difference in the mortality odds between the LRDA-only and control groups. Patients with LRDA-only had higher odds of good functional outcome at clinic follow-up (p 0.04). When compared to control, patients with both IIC patterns (LRDA/LPDs group) had 24.3 higher odds of acute electrographic seizures (p < 0.001), followed by patients in LPDs-only (OR 12.6, p < 0.001) and then LRDA-only (OR 9.4, p = 0.002). The odds of developing epilepsy following discharge were not increased in patients with either LRDA or LPDs (p = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LRDA had superior functional outcome compared to a higher mortality for patients with LPDs. Patients with both patterns had the highest odds of acute seizures, followed by those with only LPDs and then patients with only LRDA. There was no difference in the odds of developing new epilepsy compared to control with any IIC pattern. We hypothesize different underlying mechanisms of injury leading to the observed electrographic patterns.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Alta do Paciente , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/epidemiologia
15.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; 52(1): 61-65, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lateralized rhythmic delta activity (LRDA) is a rare pattern on the ictal-interictal continuum (IIC) encountered in critically ill patients. Its association with acute seizures is yet to be fully explored. Insular involvement is a common finding in patients with infectious and autoimmune encephalitis. The association between acute insular lesions and the ictal-interictal continuum, particularly LRDA, has not been explored before. METHODS: A case series of 4 patients with either herpetic or autoimmune encephalitis and prominent insular cortex involvement who had LRDA when monitored on continuous EEG is being presented. RESULTS: Two patients had herpetic encephalitis and 2 patients had autoimmune encephalitis. All patients had either clinical or electrographic seizures with 1 patient progressing into new-onset refractory status epilepticus. CONCLUSION: LRDA can be seen in patients with insular cortex acute inflammation. In this group of patients, LRDA may be associated with a higher risk of acute seizures. The presence of this otherwise not clearly epileptiform pattern should raise the clinical suspicion for the development of acute seizures. Patients with LRDA and ipsilateral insular lesions should be carefully monitored for the development of recurrent electrographic or electroclinical seizures and status epilepticus.


Assuntos
Ritmo Delta/fisiologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Estado Epiléptico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Ritmo Delta/imunologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Doença de Hashimoto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodicidade , Convulsões/imunologia , Estado Epiléptico/imunologia
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 588021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240276

RESUMO

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by multiple focal lesions, ongoing demyelination and, for most people, a lack of remyelination. MS lesions are enriched with monocyte-derived macrophages and brain-resident microglia that, together, are likely responsible for much of the immune-mediated neurotoxicity. However, microglia and macrophage also have documented neuroprotective and regenerative roles, suggesting a potential diversity in their functions. Linked with microglial functional diversity, they take on diverse phenotypes developmentally, regionally and across disease conditions. Advances in technologies such as single-cell RNA sequencing and mass cytometry of immune cells has led to dramatic developments in understanding the phenotypic changes of microglia and macrophages. This review highlights the origins of microglia, their heterogeneity throughout normal ageing and their contribution to pathology and repair, with a specific focus on autoimmunity and MS. As phenotype dictates function, the emerging heterogeneity of microglia and macrophage populations in MS offers new insights into the potential immune mechanisms that result in inflammation and regeneration.


Assuntos
Microglia/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Animais , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Remielinização
17.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anesthetic agents have been widely used in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus and the medical management of increased intracranial pressure whenever the goal is therapeutic burst suppression. Periodic patterns typically consisting of generalized periodic discharges (GPDs) following emergence from anesthesia have been described in several case reports. However, their clinical significance and in particular whether these patterns are epileptiform remains unclear. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective, observational study examining EEG patterns following emergence from pharmacologically induced burst suppression. Clinical and EEG data were collected. Patients who developed GPDs following anesthetic wean were compared with those who did not. RESULTS: Over 4.5 years, 14 patients developed GPDs related to anesthetic withdrawal. The GPDs had a frequency between 0.5 and 2.5 Hz. Generalized periodic discharges related to anesthetic withdrawal were transient, with a median duration of 40 hours (interquartile range, 24-48 hours). Notably, in all patients, the pattern was stimulus dependent. When compared with a control group of 19 consecutive patients who did not develop a generalized periodic pattern in the context of the anesthetic wean, there was no significant difference in the status epilepticus relapse between the two groups (29% vs. 44%; P = 0.63). Patients in the GPD group were more likely to be on pentobarbital (93% vs. 58%; P = 0.05) and were more likely to have concomitant systemic infection treated with antibiotics compared with the control group (86% vs. 42%; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Generalized periodic patterns are common following the wean of intravenous anesthetics (particularly pentobarbital) and likely represent a transitional encephalopathic state in a subset of patients. Their morphology is distinct and can be differentiated from the reemergence of status epilepticus (if the latter was the indication for anesthetic treatment). Failure to recognize this pattern may lead to prolonged unnecessary treatments if it is mistaken for the emergence of seizure activity. The presence of concomitant systemic infection and associated antibiotic treatment may be risk factors for the development of this pattern.

18.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086250

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Triphasic waves (TWs) have been associated with a host of medication toxicities, and cefepime has emerged recently as a frequently encountered offending agent. This investigation aims to evaluate cefepime-induced encephalopathy and to report the associated clinical, EEG expression with TWs, and the radiologic findings. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter observational study examining adult patients with cefepime-induced encephalopathy with generalized periodic discharges on either routine or continuous EEG between January 2014 and January 2020. Clinical, electrographic, and radiologic data were collected. Patients in whom cefepime was not the sole causative factor for their encephalopathy were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients with cefepime-induced encephalopathy marked by generalized periodic discharges with triphasic morphology were identified at both centers, whereas no patients were presenting with generalized periodic discharges without TWs. Patients had a median age of 63 years (interquartile range, 56-73). Fifty-six percent of the cohort (15 patients) were <65 years of age. Eighteen patients (67%) had either acute or chronic kidney impairment (either acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease or both), whereas 81% had preexisting white matter disease on brain imaging. Of these, 14 patients (51%) were classified as either moderate or severe. In the majority of the patients, TWs were either state-dependent or stimulus-sensitive, and in one third of them presented only as stimulus-induced pattern. All patients improved with discontinuation of cefepime. CONCLUSIONS: Cefepime toxicity should be considered in the differential diagnosis in encephalopathic patients with TWs. The presence of preexisting white matter disease in these patients should heighten the degree of suspicion, especially in younger patients and patients without renal dysfunction.

19.
J Neurosci ; 40(44): 8587-8600, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060175

RESUMO

Age is a critical risk factor for many neurologic conditions, including progressive multiple sclerosis. Yet the mechanisms underlying the relationship are unknown. Using lysolecithin-induced demyelinating injury to the mouse spinal cord, we characterized the acute lesion and investigated the mechanisms of increased myelin and axon damage with age. We report exacerbated myelin and axon loss in middle-aged (8-10 months of age) compared with young (6 weeks of age) female C57BL/6 mice by 1-3 d of lesion evolution in the white matter. Transcriptomic analysis linked elevated injury to increased expression of Cybb, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase gp91phox. Immunohistochemistry in male and female Cx3cr1 CreER/+ :Rosa26 tdTom/+ mice for gp91phox revealed that the upregulation in middle-aged animals occurred primarily in microglia and not infiltrated monocyte-derived macrophages. Activated NADPH oxidase generates reactive oxygen species and elevated oxidative damage was corroborated by higher malondialdehyde immunoreactivity in lesions from middle-aged compared with young mice. From a previously conducted screen for generic drugs with antioxidant properties, we selected the antihypertensive CNS-penetrant medication indapamide for investigation. We report that indapamide reduced superoxide derived from microglia cultures and that treatment of middle-aged mice with indapamide was associated with a decrease in age-exacerbated lipid peroxidation, demyelination and axon loss. In summary, age-exacerbated acute injury following lysolecithin administration is mediated in part by microglia NADPH oxidase activation, and this is alleviated by the CNS-penetrant antioxidant, indapamide.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Age is associated with an increased risk for the development of several neurologic conditions including progressive multiple sclerosis, which is represented by substantial microglia activation. We demonstrate that in the lysolecithin demyelination model in young and middle-aged mice, the latter group developed greater acute axonal and myelin loss attributed to elevated oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase in lineage-traced microglia. We thus used a CNS-penetrant generic medication used in hypertension, indapamide, as we found it to have antioxidant properties in a previous drug screen. Following lysolecithin demyelination in middle-aged mice, indapamide treatment was associated with decreased oxidative stress and axon/myelin loss. We propose indapamide as a potential adjunctive therapy in aging-associated neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and progressive multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Axônios/patologia , Indapamida/farmacologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Desmielinizantes/genética , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Medicamentos Genéricos , Feminino , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NADPH Oxidase 2/biossíntese , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 37(5): 411-421, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890063

RESUMO

The use of continuous EEG monitoring has expanded in the last decade, allowing the recognition not only of nonconvulsive seizures but also of the relatively high prevalence of periodic and rhythmic EEG patterns. Periodic discharges are a fairly common EEG pattern and often present a therapeutic challenge when encountered. We will consider five associations of these periodic discharges: ictal, acute seizures, epileptogenic, injurious, and epiphenomenal. We present the challenges and unanswered questions pertaining to periodic discharges, along with several next steps and future directions to help enhance our understanding of periodic discharges. We also present an algorithmic approach to management centered on clinicoelectrographic and clinicoradiologic data.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/terapia , Humanos , Prevalência , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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